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Name: 'Iperiana

Type: Fusional semi-agglutinative romance language

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: Three

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Classification and DialectsEdit

'Iperiana (which in English is Hyperian) is a Romance language heavily influenced by Ancient Greek, German, Ukrainian, Italian, French, and Spanish. These many influences were exerted on the Hyperian language over the course of history. Firstly, one must know that Hyperian is a fictional language spoken in the heel of the boot of Italy. After the collapse of the Byzantine Empire, when Italy was divided into multiple states, Hyperium (in Italian: Hiperio) emerged in the heel of Italy as a rather prominent city-state. She had agreements with the Kievan Rus', which accounts for the Ukrainian influence. Eventually, Naples conquered her and in 1510, France conquered her, and several years later, she fell into Spanish hands, thus accounting for the Spanish influence on her. In and after the Napoleonic wars, she was greatly influenced by the French language. Naples and Austria eventually developed some very strong relations, which accounts for German influence on the Hyperian language. Italian influence has been exerted on Hyperian ever since Italian unification, and Ukrainian influence, which resulted from Soviet oppression of Ukrainians.



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n; nj ng
Plosive b, p t, d; tj, dj k, g
Fricative f, v th, dh s, z; sj, zj sh, zh kh, gh h
Affricate pf, bv ts, dz tsh, dzh
Approximant w l, lj l, j
Trill r
Lateral flap


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High ï (pronounced i) ü (pronounced y) u

i (pronounced


ë, ö (pronounced, e ø respectively)

Low-mid e, ä (pronounced ɛ) ω (pronounced like ɔ)
Low a

Diphthongs Edit

There are many diphthongs possible, such as aɪ̯, aʊ̯, ɔʏ̯, eɪ̯, eʊ̯, iʊ, ɪ̯ʊ̯, oɪ̯, oʊ, uɪ̯, and uʊ, spellt Ei,  ͂A, Eu,  ͂E,  ͂ï, ˚ï, ˚I,  ͂I, ˚O,  ͂O, ˚U,  ͂U.

Stress Edit

All double consonants denote stress on the preceding vowel. A single consonant denotes stress on the succeeding vowel.

Elongation of vowels can be done in two ways:

  1. The vowel may be doubled. This is generally done in nominal words.
  2. The use of a long vowel (which is done by use of accents in the latinized alphabet; the other two have separate letters for long vowels). This is generally done in verbal words.

Phonotactics Edit

The phonotactics of Hyperian are all regular and follow several basic rules. Before these rules are introduced, a few terms must be introduced:

  1. Pure consonants are consonants that are not aspirated (ʻ). They also do not have double consonants or stopped consonants.
  2. Aspirated consonants are consonants that have the symbol ʻ above them. These include sh, tch, zh, dzh, gh, etc.
  3. Stopped consonants are consonants that start with a stopped consonant (t, d, p, v, etc.). Stopped consonants may be classified as hard or soft stopped consonants:
    1. Hard stopped consonants start with alveolar consonants (ts, dz).
    2. Soft stopped consonants start with bilabial consonants (bv, pf).
  4. Compound consonants are consonant letters that consist of two different consonant sounds such as sts, zdz, fpf, shtch, zhdzh, etc.

The rules of Hyperian phonotactics: Edit

Words that commence with consonants:

  1. Pure consonants can be followed by any vowels.
  2. Aspirated consonants must be succeeded by a, o, or u.
  3. Hard stopped consonants and compound consonants must be followed by an e, i, or ï.
  4. Soft stopped consonants can be followed by any vowel.

Words that commence with vowels:

  1. Vowels must be succeeded by a pure consonant.
  2. Umlauts must be followed by voiced consonants or soft stopped consonants.
  3. Diphthongs must be followed by pure and stopped consonants.

Word endings:

  1. Words may end in any vowel.
  2. Words may end only with m, n, r, s, or t.

Writing SystemEdit

'Iperiana has three alphabets. All three are used, but the ancient alphabet is still highly popular to-day. The three alphabets are from least to most popular: the Latinized alphabet; the Cyrillicized alphabet; and the Ancient alphabet.

The Latinized alphabet is, interestingly enough, the least popular largely due to the fact that one has to be very familiar with all the accents and that some letters are so similar that they can hardly be distinguished. The Latinized alphabet comes in two forms: the simple and the complex. The simple is shown below and needs no explanation due to its simplicity. The complex one is based on the notion that all sounds are in some way similar. Therefore, a lot fewer letters are really needed and inflections in sound are made by means of accents. This alphabet states for example that b, p, and m are related. The pure sound is p, with b being a harder version of the p and m being a smoother variation of the same letter.

The Cyrillicized alphabet is more popular because it lacks these aspects. However, it also becomes hard to read because all its letters consist of at least one vertical line. The ancient alphabet is still the easiest to read because there are few similarities between letters.















German a-Umlaut


Hard Th

long, rounded e


gn, ñ















uvular r


Ukrainian и


German ch

palatal l

Ukrainian l

German o-Umlaut

long o


















soft th


long u

German u-Umlaut
















soft j (precedes a vowel)

Ukrainian soft sign

Final j (succeeds a vowel)

final w

 final a replacing the r (typical in Austrian German)





Because the author is largely unfamiliar with IPA, he has transcribed the letters according to similar sounds.

The Complex Latinized Alphabet:

Basic sounds

Letter Sound Letter Sound
A The same as in most

Indo-European languages



Accent Change Accent Change Accent Change
ˋ hard ̈ almost closed ˜ soft of a soft sound
ˊ mild ˆ hard of a hard sound ˉ long
˙  half-closed ˇ mild of a mild sound

Examples (consonants)

Change Change Change Change
ˋP B Ń L ˉˇN Z
M ˆN D ˋK G
Ǹ T ˇN S Ng


Due to inaccuracies in the program, that which should be written on top of a root letter (a letter from which others are derived, such as z and 'z) is written to the left.

Hyperian grammar has many aspects to it, but the structure is quite logical and simple. Nouns are declined according to eight cases, three genders, and three numbers; and adjectives agree with nouns in case, number, and gender. Verbs are conjugated according to seven moods, nine tenses and two voices. Adverbs are not conjugated, nor are they declined; but rather, affixes are added to them. Pronouns are seldom used because Hyperian is a highly inflected language.


There are, as previously mentioned, eight cases: the nominative (the subject), the genitive (the posessive), the dative (the indirect object), the accusative (the direct object), the vocative (the indentificating declension used when calling a subject directly), and the ablative (the case using prepositions that do not denote location). There are two locative cases: the first one answers the question "where?", while the second answers the question "from where?".

Nouns are also declined by number, of which there are three: the singular (one noun), the dual (two nouns of different gender), and the plural (more than two nouns).

In addition to number, nouns are declined by gender, of which there is also three: the masculine, the feminine and the neuter. The three declensions are arranged according to gender.

1st Declension - the Masculine Declension

1st Declension
Animate Inanimate Emotional
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -us -os -oi -x -cï
Genitive -u̇ -urum -orum -cë -cerum
Dative -un -u -on -o -cen -ce
Accusative -um -os -om -ȏs -cem -ces
Vocative -˘u -ko -̑o -c˘e -cï
Ablative -o -ïs -u -ȏn -cïs
Locative I -arus -arui
Locative II -anus -anï
2nd Declension 3rd Declension
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -a -e -um -a
Genitive -arum -irum
Dative -an -u̇ -i
Accusative -am -as -um -a
Vocative -a -e -um -a
Ablative -˘a -˘al -im -ibus
Locative I -ara -are -arum -ara
Locative II -ana -ane -anum -ana

Each noun can either be animate or inanimate. The emotional is a subsection of the inanimate.

Animate Inanimate
Masculine masculine animals,

water, ghosts, ghouls, etc.

books, pencils, pens, etc.,

clothes, food, drink

Feminine country, city, province, etc.,

feminine animals, trees,

means of transport, houses

Neuter genus, animal species

angels, demons and the soul

Elements, inanimate object

Noun cases Edit

Nominative Edit

The nominative is the subject of a word or sentence.

Genitive Edit

The genitive describes possession. He is not limited, however, to possession. The other genitive uses in Hyperian include the objective genitive, the subjective genitive, the genitive of description, and the partitive genitive.

Rules for the declension endingsEdit

  1. All nominative singular endings have an s-ending in the masculine, and a in the feminine and um in the neuter.

  2. Their plurals all include an i in the masculine and end in an e in the feminine and in an a in the neuter (this feature is from Ancient Greek).

  3. The genitive singular endings in the masculine are elongated and accented root-ending vowels, while in the feminine and neuter, they have a diaeresis.

  4. Their plurals consist of the root vowel followed by -rum.

  5. All dative singular endings consist of the root vowel and an n.

  6. Their plurals consist of only the root vowel except for the neuter, where the root vowel is elongated.

  7. All accusative singular endings consist of the root vowel and an m except for the neuter, where it is the same as the nominative.

  8. Their plurals all end in the root vowel and an s except for the masculine o-declension, where it is ois, and the neuter, where it is the same as the nominative.

  9. All vocative singular endings consist of the root vowel and a breve except for the neuter, where it is the same as the nominative.

  10. Vocative plural endings are the same as the nominative plurals.

  11. Locative singular

    The singular endings for the first declension all end with u.


1. Conjugation Active
Indicative Present Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfective
1. Person amao amamo amave amavemo amavo amavamo amaverao amaveramo amaberao amaberamo
2. Person amai amate amavest amavete amavai amavate amaverai amaverate amaberai amaberate
3. Person amat amanno amavet amavenno amavat amavanno amaverat amaveranno amaberat amaberanno
Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfective
1. Person amabe amabemo amabim amabimo amaberim amaberimo amaverim amaverimo
2. Person amabest amabete ama'bȋ' amabite amaber'ȋ' amaberite amaverȋ amaverite
3. Person amabet amabenno amabit amabinno amaberit amaberinno amaverit amaverinno
Imperative Present Past Future Subjunctive Optative
1. Person ama amam amava amavam amaba amabam e before each ending ameao i before each ending amiao
2. Person amat̓ amavat̓ amabat̓
Volitive Potential Infinitive Present Perfect Future
o prior to each ending amoao u prior to each ending amuao amare amavisse
1. Conjugation Passive
Indicative Present Past Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfective
1. amëo amëmo amëve amëvemo amëvo amëvamo amëverao amëveramo amëberao amëberamo
2. amëi amëte amëvest amëvete amëvai amëvate amëverai amëverate amëberai amëberate
3. amët amënno amëvet amëvenno amëvat amëvanno amëverat amëveranno amëberat amëberanno
Future Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfective
1. amëbe amëbemo amëbim amëbimo amëberim amëberimo amëverim amëverimo
2. amëbest amëbete amëbȋ amëbite amëberȋ amëberite amëverȋ amëverite
3. amëbet amëbenno amëbit amëbinno amëberit amëberinno amëverit amëverinno
Imperative Present Past Future Subjunctive Optative Volitive Potential
1. amë amëm amëva amëvam amëba amëbam ame˘ëo ami˘ëo amo˘ëo amu˘ëo
2. amët̓ amëvat̓ amëbat̓
Infinitive Present Past Future
amër amë͂sse


Word Creation Edit

Words may be created at will, and yet this word will be understood by everyone. This is because Hyperian words are large compound words consisting largely of abbreviations for common words.

In addition to this feature, Hyperian has specific rules pertaining to making a verb a noun, or an adjective a verb, etc. To describe these rules easily, the ending changes are depicted in the table below:

Adjective Adverb Noun Verb
Adjective us/os/x, a, um ë a appropriate verb ending
Adverb orië ë s appropriate verb ending
Noun ï before all noun endings ë us/os/x, a, um appropriate verb ending
Verb orius/orios/orix, oria, orium orë ora are, ere, ire, ore, ure, ere, sse/re


Example textEdit

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