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Ánagin

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Ánagin
Ha Ánagwan
Type
Fusional and Semi-Agglutinative
Alignment
Ergative–Accusative (Tripartite)
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Masculine, Feminine, Neuter, Animate*


(*for animals and plants only)

Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Ánagin (also Anagin, without the stress-marking acute accent; and called Ha Ánagwan in the language itself) is the language spoken on the island of  Tánagwer, on the planet of Condora. Aside from the island of Tánagwer, standard Ánagin, as well as variant dialects of Ánagin, is spoken on nearby islands such as Orása, Ésan and Batárn, and many more.

Ánagin in other languagesEdit

Ánagin ha Ánagwan
Arabic الاناجينيا (al-anaginya)
Danish anagin
Dutch (het) Anagijns, (het) Anagijn
English Ánagin, Anagin
Finnish anagina
French anagin
German Anageinisch
Greek αναγίνικα (anagínika)
Hebrew אנגית (anagit)
Italian anagino
Norwegian anaginsk
Polish anacińa
Russian анагынь (anagýn’)
Serbo-Croatian анагински (anaginski)
Spanish anagín
Swedish anagin
Turkish Anagince
Vni ǎnaġnuať

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Voice Voiceless Voiced Voiced Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiced
Nasal n ɲ
Plosive

p͡s

b (d̪) t d

k

g
ɡʷ
q
Fricative Sibilant s ʃ ʒ
Non-sibilant v x

ɣ

(ʁ)

ɦ
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ
Approximant ʋ j
Trill (ʀ)
Flap or tap ɾ


Consonant digraphsEdit

There are a few digraphs that consist of consonants in Ánagin. One, [ps] or [p͡s], actually is not a digraph - since it is a separate letter in the Tneddaf alphabet (called Tēdáva in Ánagin) used by Ánagin and several other languages. It is only sometimes considered a 'digraph' because it is transliterated as two letters: the digraph ps is generally used, though some linguists prefer to alternatively use or even ψ (from the Greek letter psi). However, these uses can be considered rather uncommon.

The same can be said about [ɡʷ], [kʷ], [d͡z] and [t͡s], in a way, because they are represented by digraphs in Ánagin's orthography too. However, they are one letter in the Tneddaf alphabet, and they are clear affricates.

The real consonant digraphs in Ánagin are ny, gh, hr and rs. They are pronounced respectively as [ɲ], [ɣ], [ɾ] or [ʁ] or [hɾ], and [ʒ] (some linguists have argued that rs is pronounced more like [ʑ], but this view is not generally accepted). It should be kept in mind, however, that the presence of these three digraphs is relatively rare. Furthermore, there is the digraph cs that can only be found in a very small amount of words used only on the islands of Hátsobnekh, Dzátsanē and Bwáwen. It is similar to a long c [t͡ʃ], thus: [t͡ʃː]. The standard Ánagin equivalents of these words are written with c, ts or s.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low æ a ɑ

Above are the vowels present in Ánagin. Noted should be that /i/ and /æ/ are relatively rare vowels.

When it comes to dialects, there are some deviations from the standard pronounciation of the vowels. On the islands west of Vónadar, Úskata and Trēábo, /e/ is pronounced [eɪ], /æ/ is pronounced [e], and /ɑ/ becomes [ɛ]. On Batárn, /i/ is often realised as [u] and a few other regional dialects have [ɨː] or [ʏ] (the latter being significantly less common and only found on the Kvatanáka plateau of the northeast of Tánagwer) for /i/.

Aspiration and palatalisationEdit

In Ánagin, certain vowels can be either aspirated or palatalised. The vowels u and o (see the orthography section below) can be aspirated. This usually occurs at the beginning of a word; medial aspiration is seldom. Aspiration is indicated as Ŭ and ŭ, and Ŏ and ŏ. Traditionally, a breve is used, but alternatively, the use of a caron (also known as háček, inverted circumflex or wedge) is permitted too. As for aspiration, one can easily notice the similarity with Ancient Greek. The breve is similar to the rough breathing mark (dasía in Ancient Greek, or spiritus asper in Latin) used in the ancient language of our world. An important note is that an Ánagin word can start with hu- or ho- too. This is almost similar to ŏ and ŭ; this is a clear example of redundancy in the Ánagin language. A few linguists have argued that hu and ho are pronounced [ɦu], and [ɦo] or [ɦɔ], whereas ŭ and ŏ would be [hu], and [ho] or [hɔ], respectively. However, speakers of Ánagin do not notice, nor acknowledge this difference. For them, there is no difference between [ɦ] and [h], hence they are allophones. Besides, an aspirated vowel can be the vowel to be stressed in a word. In this case, no acute accent is put on any vowel in the word; one should gather from the absence of the acute accent marking the stress, that the aspirated vowel with a breve on top is stressed.

Two other Ánagin vowels can be palatalised. As shown in the orthography section, palatalisation is written as Ä and ä, and Ë and ë. The pronounciation of these palatalised vowels is [ʲa] or [ʲɑ], and [ʲɛ]. In fact, the vowels are not always palatalised. For instance, in the case of a word starting nä-, the n is actually palatalised, so it is pronounced [nʲa]-. When a word starts with what is called a palatalised vowel, this implies that a word starting with ë, for example, is pronounced [ʲɛ] or simply [jɛ].

Orthography or romanisationEdit

The orthography used to transliterate Ánagin to any Western language is given in the table below. Please be aware that the standard pronounciation is shown in this table. A few dialects sometimes deviate from this.

Ánagin orthography
Romanisation IPA pronounciation
Upper case Lower case
A a [ä ~ a], [aː] or [ɑ]
B b [b]
C c [t͡ʃ] or [ʃ]1
D d [d] or [d̪]2
E e [ɛ] or [ɛː]3
Ē ē [eː]4
G g [g]
H h [ɦ]
K k [k]
N n [n]
O o [o], [oː], [ɔ] or [ɔː]
Q q [q]
R r [ɾ] or [ʀ]4
S s [s]
T t [t]
U u [u] or [uː]
V v [v]
W w [ʋ]
Y y [j]
Ý ý [i]
Dz dz [d͡z]
Gw gw [ɡʷ]
Kw kw [kʷ]
Kh kh [x]
Ts ts [t͡s]
Ps ps [p͡s]

Notes on the orthographyEdit

1 Traditionally, c was always pronounced [t͡ʃ]. When citing classical texts, Ánagin speakers still always use [t͡ʃ]. However, over time, [t͡ʃ] has shifted to [ʃ] in all cases except word initially.

2 The letter d may be dental in a couple of cases. [d] usually becomes [d̪] before a short a [ɑ] and a short e [ɛ]. However, most Ánagin speakers do not notice the difference themselves. Therefore, it is not considered a mistake at all when a non-native speaker does not use a dental d.

3 The vowels e and ē are separate letters in Ánagin, unlike many European languages on Earth. When stressed, e and ē both become é, and é is always pronounced [e]. When unstressed, e represents [ɛ] or [ɛː] and ē represents [eː].

4 At the end of a word, r can be pronounced either [ɾ] or [ʀ]. In all other cases, [ɾ] is usual.

Aspiration and palatalisationEdit

The features of aspiration and palatalisation in Ánagin have already been discussed. An aspirated vowel, either u or o, recieves a breve for aspiration: ŭ and ŏ. A diaeresis is used for palatalisation: ä and ë. See this section for more information.

AllophonyEdit

As described in previous sections, Ánagin contains some allophonic differences with some phonemes. Below is a list of phonemes that have different allophones.

  • c   >   [t͡ʃ] or [ʃ]
c is pronounced [t͡ʃ] at the beginning of a word and [ʃ] in all other cases. However, there are a few exeptions to this rule. The pronounciation of these words is to be learned by heart.
  • d   >   [d] or [d̪]
d is realised as [d̪] at the beginning of a word if it is followed by a short a [ɑ] or a short e [ɛ], and pronounced [d] otherwise.
  • r   >   [ɾ] or [ʀ]
Word finally, r can be pronounced either [ɾ] or [ʀ]. In all other cases, [ɾ] is the usual pronounciation.
  • ý   >   [y] or [i]
At the beginning of a word, ý is not pronounced [y], but [i].

StressEdit

Stress on a syllable in an Ánagin word is highly irregular, though sometimes predictable. Because of the former, stress is marked with a diacritic in both Ánagin itself and its orthography. An acute accent is used in the standardised orthography: the first syllable of the word Ánagwan, meaning the Ánagin language, for instance, is stressed. When a vowel already has a diacritic other than the stress-marking accute accent, the stress will not be indicated. This rule does not apply to ē, since this sound does have a diacritic in the orthography of Ánagin, but not in its actual alphabet. Thus, when stressed, ē will become é and it will continue to be pronounced [e]. The letter e becomes é too, when it occurs in a stressed syllable; in this case, the pronounciation changed from [ɛ] to [e].

AlphabetEdit

Ánagin uses the ancient Tneddaf alphabet and a cursive variation of it. The classical alphabet is used for very formal occasions, such as in the constitution, and for inscriptions. The cursive form is used in normal situations, from school to a shopping list and from a newspaper to a scientific magazine.

Below, both alphabets are shown, the classical alphabet in the second and the cursive alphabet in the third column. In the first column, the orthography of the letter is given.

[image coming soon]

PhonotacticsEdit

Phonological constraintsEdit

Consonant clustersEdit

Consonant clusters are combinations of consonants that can occur in words in a certain language. In Ánagin, quite a few clusters are permissible. However, one should bear in mind that they are not used very often. Many words only consist of single consonants and vowels.

In the next table, one can see which consonant clusters (consisting of two consonants) are possible in Ánagin. When there is no consonant cluster in a cell, a combination is not possible. When the cell is marked light red, the cluster is permissible at the end of a word only. Light green indicates that it is possible only at the end of an uninflected word and steel blue indicates that the cluster is possible in medial positions. Violet stands for the possibility of both medial and initial, whereas aquamarine is for medial and final. Lastly, yellow shows that the cluster is possible in all cases; whether initial, final or medial.

A small key for the table is given too:

initial medial final
light red X
light green X
steel blue X
violet X X
aquamarine X X
yellow X X X


(Note that the letter left of a row is the first of the cluster and the letter above a column is the second. Also, consonant digraphs, that in fact are consant clusters with another pronounciation than expected, are not shown. Instead, DH is shown, abbreviating 'digraph'.)

B C D G H K N Q R S T V W Y Dz Gw Kw Kh Ts Ps
B bn br bw by
C DH cy
D dd dn dr dv
G DH gn gr gs gv gy
H DH
K kb kd kk kn kr ks kt kv ky
N nb nd nk nn nq nr ns nt nv nw DH
Q qb qd qn qs qt
R rk rn rr DH rts
S sg sk sr ss st sw
T tn tr tt tw ty tkh
V vn vr
W
Y
Dz dzw dzy
Gw
Kw
Kh khr
Ts tsr tsw
Ps

Syllable structureEdit

The usual syllable structure for Ánagin (C)(C)V(C)(C). A C indicates a consonant, a V a vowel. When a C is put between brackets, (C), this means a possible consonant. The maximum of consecutive consonants in a word is two consonants. Therefore, a word with the strcuture CCVCCCCVCC, for instance, can never exist. Note that consonants such as 'ts' and 'kh' are represented by two consonants in the orthography of Ánagin, but they are considered to be one consonant. Hence, a word with 'tsr-' can actually exist, while one will normally never see three consonants in a row in an Ánagin word.

A few examples of Ánagin words illustrating the syllable structure are given below.

Ésan: e-san      =      VCVC: V-CVC
Tánagwer: ta-na-gwer      =      CVCVCVC: CV-CV-CVC
Dnátrasen: dna-tra-sen      =      CCVCCVCVC: CCV-CCV-CVC
Ŏtamáka: ho-ta-ma-ka      =      CVCVCVCV: CV-CV-CV-CV

GrammarEdit

OverviewEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes No No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes No
Adverb No No No No Yes No Yes No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No Yes No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

NumberEdit

Nouns can occur in three grammatical numbers, all three explained in the following paragraphs. The singular and plural forms are used most. However, the plural is not always used when speakers of European languages would expect it to be there. The dual and the paucal are both not used very often. For instance, the paucal is used to express the meaning of 'a few' or 'several'. So, for 'a few books', the paucal is to be used. However, words that literally mean 'a couple or' or 'a few' can be used too. In that case, the normal singular is used.

SingularEdit

The singular form of a noun in the intransitive case is the standard form given in a dictionary. Typically, it is the uninflected form without any suffix, prefix or whatsoever.

PluralEdit

The plural form is used for plural words, more than two. However, when an attributive numeral, such as four or eighty-nine, is placed after a noun, the noun is not put in the plural form, but in the singular form.

DualEdit

Dual nouns, so a pair, are indicated by the dual number. When the numeral for two is written right after a certain noun, the dual form is used nonetheless.

PaucalEdit

The puacal form is the number used for an indefinite, plural noun. Usually, this is translated to English as 'several', 'a couple of' or 'a few'. Generally, when the paucal form is used, one can assume that it is used to indicate an amount of eight or less.

GendersEdit

Ánagin nouns are known to have one of four genders. Nouns can be either masculine, feminine, neuter or animate. Learners of Ánagin have to learn the gender of a certain noun by heart, unfortunately, but there are a few rules concerning gender. When these are kept in mind, it is significantly easier to remember what gender a certain noun has.

  • Plants and animals are always animate.
  • People are always masculine by default, except for cases such as 'woman', 'wife' etc.
  • Words that end in a vowel are almost always feminine.
  • Words that end in consonant clusters are almost always masculine.
  • Words that end in -kh, -khr or -n are usually neuter and exceptionally masculine.
  • Words starting with dz- or ps- are mostly feminine.

DefinitenessEdit

Like English, there is a marked difference between 'a horse' and 'the horse' in Ánagin. If a noun is indefinite, the article "ga" is put after the noun - except when the noun is plural, dual or paucal; in that case, "gar" is used. When it comes to definite nouns, Ánagin is a little more complex. When the definite noun is accompanied by an adjective, the adjective is modified to indicate that the noun is definite: the suffix -(w)u is placed after the adjective, -wu when it ends with a vowel, -u when it ends with a consonant. If there is no adjective that goes with the noun, one of the articles shown in the table below are used, before the noun.

Case  / Gender  Singular Plural/Dual/Paucal
Masculine Feminine Neuter Animate Masculine/Feminine Neuter/Animate
Intransitive/Ergative ágrý gáwu katáwu katábu qéa
Accusative gágrý gáwu katawán katabún
Genitive gágrýs gáwuc katawúc katabúc
Dative ágrý gáwu katáhu katáhu héke kté
Ablative/Locative ágru gráwu kúhawu káhawu tákë tákä


GroupsEdit

There are twelve groups of nouns that are distinguished. These groups are declined according to the tables in this section.

The first five groups are the most important and most frequently occuring ones. Then, there are seven more groups that are in fact rather seldom.

  1. nouns ending in -a or  (usually feminine)
  2. nouns ending in -n (usually neuter, sometimes masculine)
  3. nouns ending in a consonant, other than -n, -c and -kh(r)
  4. neuter nouns that do not end in -n
  5. nouns ending in a vowel other than -a
  6. animate nouns ending in a consonant
  7. animate nouns ending in a vowel
  8. nouns ending in -c
  9. nouns starting with ts-, c-, s-, sk-, sg-, cy-, tsr- or tkh- and ending in -s, -c or -dz
  10. nouns ending in -kh or -khr (usually neuter, sometimes masculine)
  11. nouns ending in -ar or -ár
  12. nouns ending in a consonant and starting with a consonant cluster that starts with k-g- or b-


The example words for these groups - used when Ánagin is taught to small children as well as students and non-native adults, and also used on this page from now on - are listed below (with their meaning and gender).

  1. káta (path, road - f.)
  2. úksan (house - n.)
  3. tanók (star - m.)
  4. ótokos (table - n.)
  5. éragu (country, land, state, nation - m.)
  6. ŭtas (dog - a.)
  7. yókha (pine tree, conifer - a.)
  8. ékanac (goal, aim, purpose, target - f.)
  9. skadobástas (navy, - m.)
  10. anárakh (amount, quantity, number - f.)
  11. tasárnar (building - n.)
  12. gvabonak (helmet - n.)


CasesEdit

IntransitiveEdit

He had been sleeping for six hours.
The teacher is talking about mathematics.


ErgativeEdit

She gave her father two presents.


AccusativeEdit

The boy saw a huge forest.


Accusative instrumental-comitativeEdit
With a pen, I wrote that letter. (Or: 'Using a pen, ...')
He drove home by car. (Or: '... by means of a car.')
I went hiking in the mountains with my friend. Or: '... accompanied by my friend.')


GenitiveEdit

That is my brother's house.

DativeEdit

The emperor sent him a message.
Dative comparativeEdit
That building was as huge as an elephant.
Less than a week ago, his cousin visited us.
He is taller than a tree.
Those are the most beautiful paintings I have ever seen.


AblativeEdit

From school I walked home.
He took it off the table.

LocativeEdit

I live in a small town.
At dawn, we left for the beach.


Declension tablesEdit

PronounsEdit

AdjectivesEdit

AdverbsEdit

NumeralsEdit

VerbsEdit

In the Ánagin language, verbs are often the most important part of speech of a sentence. One inflected verb may be equal to an entire sentence in English, for instance "I saw him". However, often when emphasis is needed or in the spoken language used for everyday situations, speakers of Ánagin may also use three words for the same sentence.

Verbs can be classified and put into nine groups that have the same characteristics and inflection. Verbs are inflected according to number, tense, voice, mood, and aspect. A debated issue when it comes to verbs in Ánagin, is grammatical person distinction. A verb is not inflected according to the person who does it, like in many European languages (for example I walk vs. he walks in English). In Ánagin, both verb forms would be the same; singular. However, there are two ways of saying 'he walks' in Ánagin. One can say walk-SG he-INTR, or one can use a prefix that means "he", thus he-walk-SG.

GroupsEdit

NumberEdit

TenseEdit

VoiceEdit

Active voiceEdit
Middle voice (deponent verbs)Edit

have/posses, die, break,

Passive voiceEdit
Reflexive voiceEdit
Causative or resultative voiceEdit
Double passive voice (passive of deponent verbs)Edit

MoodEdit

Indicative Subjunctive Conditional

Imperative

Necessitative mood

AspectEdit

Habitual

Interrogative

NegationEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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