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Átarin

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Átarin
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders four
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 18%
Statistics
Nouns 75%
Verbs 20%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Kheon

Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Átarin has twenty-six consonant sounds.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z  ʒ x ɣ h
Affricate
Approximant j w
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l ʎ
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Átarin has eight vowel sounds.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close
Close-mid e o
Mid
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-open
Open a

Following diphthongs may appear:Edit

  • The short ones are oa,ja, ae, oe, jeaiɛi, ao, joeu, ou and ey
  • The long ones are âeôeâo and ou.

Stress PatternsEdit

Átarin has a pitch accent. Every accentuated syllable is spoken more loudly and a fifth higher. But there is an exception. If the last syllable of a sentence accentuated, it can be accentuated in various pitches. If the sentence is an interrogative clause, the syllable is pronounced normally. If it is a statement, the syllable is spoken a fifth deeper. And if it is an exclamation, the syllable is spoken with the same pitch as the rest of the word. Diacritical signs may be on the accentuated syllable but not necessarily. If you use diacritical signs, the high pitch contour is marked by an acute on a monophthong or a circumflex on a diphthong and the deep one pitch contour is marked by a grave on a monophthong or a breve on a diphthong. The normal pitch contour may be marked by a dot on the vowel of the  accentuated syllable.


An Átarin syllable may be "heavy" or "light."

A syllable is light if:


  • It contains short vowels including short diphthongs

A syllable is heavy if:

  • It contains a long vowel.
  • It contains a long diphthong.
  • It ends with a consonant. This is not in place at the end of a word.

For syllable boundaries in the middle of a word, a good rule of thumb is that if a vowel is followed by two consonants, the first consonant is at the end of a syllable and thus the syllable is heavy. For this purpose:

  • Digraphs, such as dhghlj or th count as a single consonant.
  • A plosive followed by a liquid or nasal counts as a single consonant.
  • A geminant counts as two consonants.

Following rules take place for the accentuation:

  • If the ultima is heavy, the accent falls on the ultima.
  • If the last two syllables are light, the accent falls on the antepenult or the penult, if this is the first syllable of the word.
  • If the Ultima is light and the Penult heavy, the accent falls on the penult.

There is mostly only one accent per word, but  in certain cases there may be two accents per word for emphasis or differentiation of words:

  • There can not be any accent in the syllable directly before another accent. 
  • There can only be an accent on a diphthong, if there already is an accentuated diphtong in the word.


PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

I will put a macron on the vowels to express long vowels. But I am using the trema for e and y, because you can not put a macron on them.

Letter a b d dh e f g gh i j k l
Sound a b d ð e / ɛ f g ɣ i / j  ʒ k l
Letter lj m n ñ ń o p r rr s t th
Sound ʎ m n ɲ ŋ o / ɔ p ɾ r s t θ 
Letter u v w x y z
Sound u v w x y z

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns have four numbers:

  • Singular (for one object)
  • Dual (for two objects)
  • Plural (for many objects)
  • Collective (for all objects.

and four genders:

  • dominant (usually animate objects or actions)
  • passive (things without any action and other nouns)
  • stative (principals that last forever or remaining objects of the real world)
  • flexive (changing principals, objects and thoughts as well as other nouns)

and nine cases:

  • Nominative (The nominative case is the case of the subject.)
  • Vocative (The vocative is used for appellation.)
  • Accusative (The accusative is the case of the direct object.)
  • Genitiv (The genitive marks possesion or purpose. It is mostly used, when we take the prepositions of, for or to.)
  • Dative (The dativ is the case of the indirect object.)
  • Ablative (The ablative is used to express motion away from something. It also marks anteriority.)
  • Allative (The allative is used to express motion to something. It also marks posteriority.)
  • Locative (The locative marks the location of something. It is also used to epress simultaneity.)
  • Instrumental (The instrumental is used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or companien of the subject.)
-as / -ias Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative as / ias zō/izō āzi / īzi āzā/iāzā
Vocative (z)a / iza / / /
Accusative ë / ië zō/izō

āzī / īzī

azā/iazā
Genitive ë / ië zo/izo āze / īze azāi/iazāi
Dative ër / iër ro/iro ārze / īrze azār/iazār
Ablative āt / iat to/ito aste / iste azāt/iazāt
Allative āme / īme mo/ito azma / izma azmā/iazmā
Locative ān / ian no/ino azne / izne azān/iazān
Instrumental ās / ias so/iso asse / isse azās/iazās
-a / -ia Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative a / ia aū/iō aī / ī ā/iā
Vocative a / ia / / /
Accusative ë / ië aū/iō aī / ī ā/iā
Genitive ë / ië au/io āie / īe āi/iāi
Dative ër / iër ro/iro āire / īre aiār/ëār
Ablative āt / iat to/ito āite / īte aiāt/ëāt
Allative āme / īme mo/imo āima / īma aimā/iamā
Locative ān / ian no/ino āine / īne aiān/ëān
Instrumental ās / ias so/iso āisse / īsse aiās/ëās
-ar / -iar / -lar Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative ar / iar / lar rō/riō/lō raī/rī/larī arā/iarā/larā
Vocative ra / ira / rra / / /
Accusative rë / irë / rrë rō/riō/lō raī/rī/larī arā/iarā/larā
Genitive rë / irë / rrë ro/rio/rro rāie/rīe/līre arāi/iarāi/larāi
Dative rë / irë / rrë ro/iro/rro rāie/rīe/līre arāi/iarāi/larāi
Ablative rāt / irat / rrāt to/ito/to rāite/rīte/rrīte arāt/iarāt/larāt
Allative arme / irme / larme mo/imo/mo rāima/rīma/rrīma armā/iarmā/larmā
Locative rān / iran / rrān no/ino/no rāine/rīne/rrīne arān/iarān/larān
Instrumental rās/ iras / rrās so/iso/so rāisse/rīsse/rrīsse arās/iarās/larās
-e Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative e ÿ
Vocative e / / /
Accusative ī ÿ
Genitive ë eu ëie eiā
Dative ër ru ëire eiār
Ablative ët tu ëite eiāt
Allative ëma mu ëima eimā
Locative ën nu ëine eiān
Instrumental ës su ëise eiās
-er Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative er rÿ erā
Vocative re / / /
Accusative rÿ erā
Genitive reu rīe eirā
Dative ru rīe eirā
Ablative rët tu rīte eirāt
Allative rëma mu rīma eirmā
Locative rën nu rīne eirān
Instrumental rës su rīsse eiās
-en Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative en nÿ ëni enā
Vocative en / / /
Accusative en nÿ ëni enā
Genitive

neu

ëne einā
Dative nër ru nere einār
Ablative nët tu ente eināt
Allative nëma mu emma eimmā
Locative nën nu enna einnā
Instrumental nës su nesse einās
-os / -ios Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative os / ios zÿ/zei ōzi ozā/iozā
Vocative (z)o / izo / / /
Accusative ë / ië zÿ/zeī ōzī ozā/iozā
Genitive ë / ië zou/zio ōze ozāi/iozāi
Dative ër / iër ru/iru orze ozār/iozār
Ablative ët / iët tu/itu oste ozāt/iozāt
Allative ëma / īma mu/imu ōzma ozmā/iozmā
Locative ën / iën nu/inu ōzne ozān/iozān
Instrumental ës / iës su/isu osse ozās/iozās
-on / -ion Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative on / ion nÿ/neī ōni/ōnei onā/ionā
Vocative on / ion / / /
Accusative on / ion nÿ/neī ōni/ōnei onā/ionā
Genitive në / inë nou/niu ōne/ōnī onāi/ionāi
Dative nër / inër ru/iru nore/nëre onār/ionār
Ablative nët / inët tu/itu onte/inte onāt/ionāt
Allative nëma / īmma mu/imu omma/nima ommā/iommā
Locative nën / inën nu/inu onna/nina onnā/ionnā
Instrumental nës / inës su/isu nosse/nissa onās/ionās
-ī / -ai / -ei Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative ī / ai / ei aī/eī/oī ī / aī / eī iā/eā/eā
Vocative ī / ai / ei / / /
Accusative ī / aī / eī aī/eī/oī ī / aī / eī iā/eā/eā
Genitive ië  eu/eu/ou īre / iëre / iëre iāi/eāi/eāi
Dative iër eru īre / iëre / iëre iār/eār/eār
Ablative īt / ët / ët etu īta / ëta / ëta iāt/eāt/eāt
Allative īma / ëma / ëma emu īma / ëma / ëma imā/emā/emā
Locative iën enu iën iān/eān/eān
Instrumental iës esu iës iās/eās/eās
-ir / -lir Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative ir raī/laī (i)rī irā/lirā
Vocative ir / / /
Accusative raī/laī (i)rī irā/lirā
Genitive rië reu/leu rië irāi/lirāi
Dative rië eru rië irāi/lirāi
Ablative rīt etu īrte irāt/lirāt
Allative rīma emu īrma irmā/lirmā
Locative riën enu īrna irān/lirān
Instrumental riës esu īrza irās/lirās
-ys Singular Dual Plural Collective
Nominative ys (y)zi yzā
Vocative (z)y / / /
Accusative ÿ (y)zi yzā
Genitive i ī yzāi
Dative o yr ōi yzār
Ablative ot yt ōty yzāt
Allative mo ym ōmy yzmā
Locative on yn ōny yzān
Instrumental os ys ossy yzās

Article Edit

In Átarin there is only a definite article. You can decline it in case, number and gender.

The dominant article is tos.

The passive article is ti.

The stative article is ten.

The flexive article tar.

If you use an article, you have to connect it with an apostrophe to the noun sometimes.

You have to connect two vowels, a consonant in front of a vowel and a vowel preceding a consonant.

You don't have to connect to consonants following each other, but you can also do it.

If you connect an article ending with a voiceless consonant, you consonant has to become voiced.

Examples are:

tos (the) + enys (brother) becomes toz'enys (the brother). (tos becomes toz)

Pronouns Edit

Personal Pronouns Edit

singular dual plural
1.p nÿze jÿzo zīry
2.p informal adho jadho jāty
2.p formal rāte rāot rāti
3.p masculine tōros jorto tōri
3.p feminin tōra jorta tōri
3.p inanimate tōren jorte tōry

VerbsEdit

Personal EndingsEdit

singular dual plural
1.p -na / -an -zo -zi
2.p -ta / -at -dho (/ot) -ti / -it
3.p -ra / -ar -wo -ri / -ir

You usually take the first of two personal endings, if possible. 

PresentEdit

Regular verbs are conjugated in the present tense by putting the ending right after the stem.

Verbs ending on a vowel will be conjugated as follows:

Final Vowel -a- -e- -i- -o. -u-
Infinitive airādhan irëdhan lantīdhan balōdhon anetūdhan
Meaning to like to hear to win, to defeat  to look to mistrust

Stem

aira ire lanti balo anetu
1. p. singular airan iren lantin balon anetun
2. p. singular airat iret lantit balot anetut
3. p. singular airar irer lantir balor anetur
1. p. dual airāzo irëzo lantīzo balōzo anetūzo
2. p. dual airaot ireot lantīt balōt anetōt
3. p. dual airao ireo lantio balwo anetwo
1. p. plural airīs irīs lantīs balīs anetīs
2. p. plural airīt irīt lantīt balīt anetīt
3. p. plural airīr irīr lantīr balīr anetīr

You have to take the second personal ending by vowel stem verbs in present tense, if possible.

Verbs ending on a vowel will be conjugated as follows:

Final Consonant l r voiceless stop nasal

voiced stop

voiced

fricative

ñ

h

lj

Infinitive antaladhan daeradhan apadhan ādimadhan ptegadhan aefadhan eñadhan jemihadhan aljadhan
Meaning to die painfully to see to end to bake to teach to snow to be relatives to be friends with
Stem antal daer ap ādim pteg aef jemih alj
1. p. singular antalna daerna apna ādimna ptegna (/pteńna) aefna enna jemina alina
2. p. singular antalta daerta apta ādimta ptekta aefta enta jemita alta
3. p. singular antarra daerra apra ādirra ptegra eafra eñar jemira alir
1. p. dual antalzo daerzo apso ādimzo ptegzo aefso eños jemiso alizo
2. p. dual antaldho daerdho apot ādimto ptekto aefto ento jemito alto
3. p. dual antalwo daerwo apwo ādimwo ptekgwo aefo eño jemiwo aljo
1. p. plural antalzi daerzi apsi ādimzi ptegzi aefsi enis jemisi alis
2. p. plural antalti daerti apti ādimti ptekti aefti enti jemiti alti
3. p. plural antarri daerri apri ādirri ptegri aefri ena<ir jemiri alir

Irregular verbs:Edit

Infinitive sedhan gevadhan
Meaning to be, to exist to bring
Stem

se

gev
1. p. singular son gëna
2. p. singular iste gefta
3. p. singular sër gëra
1. p. dual gëzo
2. p. dual sot gefto
3. p. dual gëvo
1. p. plural zīs gëzi
2. p. plural zōti gefti
3. p. plural zīri gëri

AoristEdit

Regular verbs are conjugated in the aorist like in the present tense, but you have to put an -a after the stem.

Verbs ending on a vowel will be conjugated as follows:

Final Vowel -a- -e- -i- -o. -u-
Infinitive airādhan irëdhan lantīdhan balô /
Meaning to like to hear to win, to defeat  to look to mistrust

Stem

aira ire lanti balo anetu
1. p. singular

airāna

ireāna

lantiāna 

balōna anetūna
2. p. singular

airāta

ireāta lantiāta balōta anetūta
3. p. singular airār (/airāra)

ireār

(ireāra)

lantiār (/lantiāra) balōra anetūra
1. p. dual airāzo ireāzo lantiāzo  balwāzo anetwāzo
2. p. dual airādho ireādho lantiādho balōt anetōt
3. p. dual airāo irāo lantiā balōwo anetōwo
1. p. plural airāzi ireāzi lantiazi balwāzi anetwāzi
2. p. plural airāti ireāti lantiati balwāti anetwāti
3. p. plural airāri ireāri lantiāri balwāri anetwari

Sometimes vocal stem verbs are conjugated only with the personal ending after the stem and without the -a-infix.

Final Consonant l r voiceless stopp nasal

voiced stopp

voiced

fricative

ñ h lj
Infinitive antaladhan daeradhan apadhan ādimadhan ptegadhan aefadhan eñadhan jemihadhan aljadhan
Meaning to die painfully to see to end to bake to teach to snow to be relatives to be friends with
Stem antal daer ap ādim pteg aef jemih alj
1. p. singular antalana daerana apana ādimana ptegana

aefana

eñana jemian aljana
2. p. singular antalata daerata apata ādimata ptegata aefata eñata jemiata aljata
3. p. singular antalara daerar(a) apara ādimara ptegara aefara eñara jemiara aljara
1. p. dual antalazo daerazo apazo ādimazo ptegazo aefazo añazo jemiazo aljazo
2. p. dual antaladho daeradho apadho ādimadho ptegadho aefadho eñadho jemiadho aljadho
3. p. dual antalao daerao apao ādimao ptegao aefao eñao jemiao aljao
1. p. plural antalazi daerazi apazi ādimazi ptegazi aefazi eñazi jemiazi aljazi
2. p. plural antalati daerati apati ādimati ptegati aefati eñati jemiati aljati
3. p. plural antalari daerari apari ādimari ptegari aefari eñari jemiari aljari

Irregular verbs:

Infinitive sedhan gevadhan
Meaning to be, to exist to bring
Stem

se

gev
1. p. singular sān giana
2. p. singular sāte giata
3. p. singular sār giara
1. p. dual āzo giazo
2. p. dual sāto giato
3. p. dual sāo gëo
1. p. plural sāzi giazi
2. p. plural sāti giati
3. p. plural sāri giari

ImperfectEdit

PerfectEdit

PluperfectEdit

Past HabitualEdit

Futur IEdit

Futur IIEdit

Adjectives Edit

Comparative and Superlative

Adverbs

SyntaxEdit

The basic syntax is SOV:

Toz'enys aiferë dairra. - The brother sees a snowflake.

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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