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Ællirsk

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Ællirsk is a northern dialect of Old Norse, spoken by the Scandinavian immigrants which in the year 976 accidentally discovered the portal to the parallel world of Farandosÿa. While on an expedition to settle new lands in the far North of Norway, the Viking ship Djarva stranded on an unknown islet east from Jan Mayen, where they set foot on land. On the top of the island was a strange mirror-like machine, which the crew started to observe closely. The captain of the ship, Sveinn inn Svarti, ordered the men to be cautious with the strange object, but one of his men named Haraldr inn Heimski, driven by curiosity, pushed on the teleportation button and space-warped all of the men and women to the wonderful world of Farandosÿa. According to the oral tradition that has since endured, the first words said in Ællirsk would have been:

"Ek tér segjavdi, Haraldur Heimskur, eigi á knapp ad trykkja!"

which translates roughly as:

"I had told thee not to push on the button, Harald thou idiot!"

Phonology Edit

The alphabet is as follows:

Vowels Consonants
a
á
æ
b
d
e
é
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
ó
p
r
s
t
u
ú
v
y

The phonological system differs from Old Norse in the following characteristics:

  • The phoneme /þ/ has become /t/.
  • The phoneme /ð/ has become /d/.
  • The intersyllabic grapheme <f>, pronounced as /v/, is written <v>.
  • The u-Umlaut-rule which in Old Norse transforms an /a/ into /ǫ/ before an /u/ is facultative. Thus: halum or hølum. The i-Umlaut-rule is also facultative. Thus: konir or kønir.
  • Ællirsk has undergone the Icelandic accent redistribution and follows the modern Icelandic accent rules.
  • A final /t/ which has been transformed to /ð/ in modern Icelandic has become /d/.

The vowel system with the corresponding graphemic notation is:

Front

Unrounded

Grapheme Front

Rounded

Grapheme Back

Unrounded

Grapheme Back

Rounded

Grapheme
High i, i: i y, y: y, u u, u: ú
High-Middle e, e: e ø, ø: ø
Low-Middle ɛ, ɛ: æ o, o: o
Low a, a: a

Other sounds & combinations:

Pronunciation Grapheme
au á
øw au
ai ai
ei ei
ei ey
je é
ow ó
tl ll

The consonant system:

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p, b t, d k, g
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative f, v s x h
Trill r
Approximant l j

Graphematics Edit

One usually writes Ællirsk in the Latin alphabet, but one can also carve runes in an adapted version of the Elder Futhark. The corresponding runes are:

Rune Letter Rune Letter Rune Letter Rune Letter Rune Letter Rune Letter Rune Letter
f u, ú a, á r k g v
h n i j p s t
b e, é m l ᚾᚷ ng o, ó d
ᚨᛖ æ ᛟᛖ ø

Thus, Ællirsk is written ᚨᛖᛚᛚᛁᚱᛋᚲ.

Substantives Edit

There are 3 genders: masculine, feminine, neuter. The weak declension has disappeared, so that all nouns are inflect according to the same strong pattern.

The following table shows the inflection of the substantives:

Masculine

Singular

Masculine

Plural

Feminine

Singular

Feminine

Plural

Neuter

Singular

Neuter

Plural

Nominative - ur - ar - a - ir - -
Accusative - - an - u - an - -
Dative - i - um - u - um - i - um
Genitive - s - a - ar - a - s - a

This can be illustrated with these three examples (stavur, letter; kona, woman; horn, horn):

Masculine

Singular

Masculine

Plural

Feminine

Singular

Feminine

Plural

Neuter

Singular

Neuter

Plural

Nominative stavur stavar kona konir/kønir horn horn
Accusative stav stavan konu konan horn horn
Dative stavi/stævi stavum konu konum horni hornum
Genitive stavs stava konar kona horns horna

Adjectives Edit

The adjectives are declined exactly as the nouns. The weak declension has also disappeared, thus all adjectives are grammatically strong. The ending of the adjective is always identical to that of the noun it goes along with.

Thus e.g.: stórar halar ("tall men"); djarvu konu ("(to) an audacious woman"); heimska barna ("of stupid children").

Personal pronouns Edit

1 ps. sg. 2 ps. sg. 3 ps. sg. masc. 3 ps. sg. fem. Reflexive 3 ps. sg. neut. 1 ps. pl. 2 ps. pl. 3 ps. pl.
Nominative Ek Hann Hún / Tad Vid Er Dei
Accusative Mik Tik Hann Hún Sik Tad Oss Ykkur Dei
Dative Mér Tér Hánum Hennar Sér Tví Oss Ykkur Deim
Genitive Mín Tín Hans Hennar Sín Tess Vár Ykkar Deira

Verbs Edit

The verb inflection is highly simplified compared to Old Norse. Synthetic perfect and plusquamperfect tenses have appeared, the first from the merging of the infinitive + hefi ("[I] have") (e.g. elska hefi --> elskavi), the latter from the merging of the infinitive + havdi ("[he] had") (e.g. elska havdi --> elskavdi). This way the perfect infinitive has also appeared (e.g. ad elska hava --> ad elskava). Regular verbs are declined following this pattern (e.g. at elska, "to love"), with the first two rows for the active and the two last for the passive form:

Present Infinitive Perfect Infinitive Participle Present Simple Past Simple Perfect Plusquamperfect Future Future Plusquamperfect
Ad

elska

Ad

elskava

Elskandi Ek/tú/hann/er/dei

elskar

vid elskum

Ek/tú/hann/vid/er/dei

elskadi

Ek/tú/hann/vid/er/dei

elskavi

Ek/tú/hann/vid/er/dei

elskavdi

Ek/tú/hann/er/dei

skal elska

vid skulum elska

Ek/tú/hann/vid/er/dei

skal elskava

Present Infinitive

Perfect Infinitive Participle Present Simple Past Simple Perfect Plusquamperfect Future Future

Plusquamperfect

Ad elskast Ad elskavast Elskad Ek/tú/hann/er/dei

elskast

vid elskumst

Ek/tú/hann/vid/er/dei

elskadist

Ek/tú/hann/vid/er/dei

elskavist

Ek/tú/hann/vid/er/dei

elskavdist

Ek/tú/hann/er/dei

skal elskast

vid skulum elskast

Ek/tú/hann/vid/er/dei

skal elskavast

This table shows the conjugation of regular verbs in -ar. The other group regular verbs ends in -ir, and corresponds to the Nynorsk -er group. The only difference with the -ar group consists in the Present Simple (Ek tenkir, ek tenkist).

Prepositions Edit

Prepositions do not differ from Old Norse. Still, some are simplified (e.g. med always takes dative, while it could in some cases take accusative in ON).

Prepositions with Acc. Prepositions with Acc./Dat. Prepositions with Dat. Prepositions with Gen.
fyrir ("for") at ("at") av ("of") til ("to, until")
um ("around, about") yfir ("over, above") frá ("from")
vid ("beside, near") í ("in") med ("with")
upp á ("on, upon")
ór ("out of")

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs are obtained by adding -t to an adjective in its neuter form. Thus, djarv --> djarvt.

Determiners Edit

The definite determiners have disappeared. Thus, the Old Norse definite forms such as "stafrinn" are rendered as "stavur", just as "stafr" does. One can still use the determiners hinn and the undeclined tad in front of a substantive to mean "this ...", e.g.: hinnur halur, hinnu konu, tad barn.

Syntax Edit

Ællirsk is an SOV language, yet relatively flexible (just as Latin). For practical reasons, a long or complex object can be placed after the verb. There is Inversion/V2-rule. Thus:

Vorfeld Subject Object Verb Nachfeld
Ek tér elskar.
Ek tér segjavdi eigi á knapp ad trykkja!
eigi á knapp ad trykkja!
Ek trúr ad tú stórur heimskur er.
ad stórur heimskur er.
Alla veit ek betri.
Kvad tú um módru minu segjavi?
Ek til Farandi Eyjar gangar.

Word list Edit

Word Translation
Ællir The Ællirian women
Ællaheim The Ællirian settlement on Farandosÿa
Farandis Eyja Farandosÿa

The Ællirian national anthem is called "Vakna vína Ælla".

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