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Îçlo

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GeneralEdit

Îçlo
Islogian
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Head-Inital
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



InformationEdit

Îçlo is a member of the Romance language family, spoken primarily in modern day Turkey. The language is notable for its high level of influence from Arabic.

Phonology & OrthographyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k ɡ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ χ
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant j w
Trill r
Lateral app. l ɫ ʎ

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Close-mid e ø o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ œ
Open a ɑ

AlphabetEdit

Letter IPA Value Letter Pronunciation
Aa

[ä]- Unstressed

[ɑ]- Stressed

/ɑ/
Bb [b] /be/
Cc

[k]- Before Aa/Oo/Uu

[t͡ʃ]- Before Ee/Ii/Yy

[q]- Before [ɑ]

/t͡ʃe/
Çç

[t̪͡s̪]

[t͡sˤ]- Before [ɑ]

/t͡sɨ/
Dd

[d̪]

[dˤ]- Before [ɑ]

/de/
Ḑḑ

[z̪]

[zˤ]- Before [ɑ]

/ze/
Ee

[ɛ]- Unstressed

[e]- Stressed

/e/
Ff [f] /ɛf/
Gg

[ɡ]- Before Aa/Oo/Uu

[d͡ʒ]- Before Ee/Ii/Yy

[ɢ]- Before [ɑ]

/d͡ʒe/
Hh

[∅]

[.]- Between vowels

/aʃ/
Ii

[i]

[j]- Unstressed before vowel

/i/
Jj [ʒ] /ʒe/
Kk

[k]- Before Aa/Oo/Uu

[q]- Before [ɑ]

/ka/
Ll [l̪] /ɛl/
Łł [ɫ̪] /ɛɫ/
Mm [m] /ɛm/
Nn [n̪] /ɛn/
Oo [o] /o/
Pp [p] /pe/
Qq

[k]

[q]- Before [ɑ]

/kɨ/
Rr [r] /ɛr/
Ss

[s̪]

[z̪]- Singular between vowels or before a voiced consonant

[sˤ]- Before [ɑ]

/ɛs/
Şş [ʃ] /ɛʃ/
Tt

[t̪]

[tˤ]- Before [ɑ]

/te/
Ţţ

[t̪͡s̪]

[t͡sˤ]- Before [ɑ]

/t͡se/
Uu

[u]

[w]- Unstressed before a vowel

/u/
Vv [v] /vɨ/
Ww [w]- Loanwords

[v]- German, Dutch, and Polish loanwords

/ˈduplovɨ/
Xx [ks̪] /iks/
Yy [i]

[j]- Unstressed before a vowel

/ˈipsilon/
Zz

[d̪͡z̪]

[d͡zˤ]- Before [ɑ]

/d͡zɛd/

Accented LettersEdit

Accented vowels are not considered to be seperate letters of the alphabet

Letter IPA Value Purpose
Àà [ɑ] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ɑ]
Áá [ä] Denotes stressed [ä]
Ââ [ɨ] Denotes [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Aa
Ȃȃ [ɨ] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Aa
Ăă [ə] Denotes [ə] that was originially spelled as Aa
Ǎǎ [ə] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ə] that was originially spelled as Aa
Èè [ɛ] Denotes stressed [ɛ]
Éé [e] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [e]
Êê [ɨ] Denotes [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Ee
Ȇȇ [ɨ] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Ee
Ĕĕ [ə] Denotes [ə] that was originially spelled as Ee
Ěě [ə] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ə] that was originially spelled as Ee
Ìì [i] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [i]
Íí [i] Denotes [i] between vowels
Îî [ɨ] Denotes [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Ii
Ȋȋ [ɨ] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Ii
Ĭĭ [ə] Denotes [ə] that was originially spelled as Ii
Ǐǐ [ə] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ə] that was originially spelled as Ii
Òò [o] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [o]
Ôô [ɨ] Denotes [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Oo
Ȏȏ [ɨ] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Oo
Ùù [u] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [u]
Ûû [ɨ] Denotes [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Uu
Ȗȗ [ɨ] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ɨ] that was originially spelled as Uu
Ůů [u] Denotes situations in which [wo] turns into [u]
Ýý [i] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [i] in a small number of mostly scientific Latin and Greek words

Letter CombinationsEdit

Combination IPA Value Purpose
[äj]
[äj] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [äj]
Ci [t͡ʃ] Denotes [t͡ʃ] before Aa/Oo/Uu
[t͡ʃi] Denotes [t͡ʃi] before Aa/Oo/Uu
[t͡ʃ] Denotes [t͡ʃ] at the end of a word or before a consonant
Ch [χ] In addition to denoting [χ] in most situations, it denotes /k/ before Ee/Ii/Yy which becomes realized as /χ/. Often used in gramatical forms to continue pronunciation.
Eu [ɛw]
Gi [d͡ʒ] Denotes [d͡ʒ] before Aa/Oo/Uu
[d͡ʒi] Denotes [d͡ʒi] before Aa/Oo/Uu
[d͡ʒ] Denotes [d͡ʒ] at the end of a word or before a consonant
Ggn [ɡn̪]
Gh [χ] Denotes /ɡ/ before Ee/Ii/Yy which becomes realized as /χ/. Often used in gramatical forms to continue pronunciation.
Ghl [ɡl̪] Denotes [ɡl̪] before Ee/Ii/Yy
Gl

[ɡl̪]- Before Aa/Oo/Uu

[ʎ]- Before Ee/Ii/Yy

Gli [ʎ] Denotes [ʎ] before Aa/Oo/Uu
Glí [ʎi] Denotes [ʎi] before Aa/Oo/Uu
Glĩ [ʎ] Denotes [ʎ] at the end of a word or before a consonant
Gn [ɲ]
Ng

[ŋ]- Before Aa/Oo/Uu

[ŋd͡ʒ]- Before Ee/Ii/Yy

Ngh [ŋ] Denotes /ŋ/ before Ee/Ii/Yy. Often used in gramatical forms to continue pronunciation.
Oi [oj]
Œœ [œ] Denotes stressed [œ]
Œi [œj]
Œì [œj] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [œj]
Œu

[œ]- Unstressed

[ø]- Stressed

Œù [ø] Denotes non-penultimately stressed [ø]
Ph [f] Only used in loanwords
Qu [kw]
Sc

[s̪k]- Before Aa/Oo/Uu

[ʃ]- Before Ee/Ii/Yy

[q]- Before [ɑ]

Sci [ʃ] Denotes [ʃ] before Aa/Oo/Uu
Scí [ʃi] Denotes [ʃi] before Aa/Oo/Uu
Sch [s̪χ] Denotes /sk/ before Ee/Ii/Yy which becomes realized as /sχ/. Often used in gramatical forms to continue pronunciation.
Th

[t̪]

[tˤ]- Before [ɑ]

Only used in loanwords

Stressed vowels are long [ː] in open syllables except in the vast majority of single syllable words

Ss is elongated [ː] after a stressed vowel, which becomes short if long

When two consonants that are/would be pronounced the same occur next to each other, only one is pronounced

When two of the same vowel (or an acute/grave accented vowel followed by a non-accented vowel) occur next to each other, only one is pronounced

GrammarEdit

ArticlesEdit

Articles agree with the gender and number of the noun that follows them. All nouns are presumed to be indefinite unless preceded by a definite article. Articles do not agree with case.

Singular Singular Before

Vowel or Hh

Dual Plural
Al- [äl̪] Al- [äl̪] Le   [l̪e]
La- [l̪ä] L'- [l̪]

Al is pronounced [äɫ̪] before Dd/Ḑḑ/Ll/Łł/Nn/Rr/Ss/Şş/Tt/Ţţ/Zz

Prepositional Articles Edit

Prepositional articles are contractions of certain prepositions with the article proceeding them. The prepositions which can contract and their contractions are shown below.

A [ä]- At/to Singular Singular Before

Vowel Or Hh

Dual Plural
Àl Àl Alle
Alla Ál [äːl̪]
De- Of/from Singular Singular Before

Vowel or Hh

Dual Plural
Dèl Dèl Delle
Della Del
Su- On/above Singular Singular Before

Vowel or Hh

Dual Plural
Sul Sul Sûlle
Sulla Sûl

Îca- At (the) home (of)/

To (the) home (of)

Singular Singular Before

Vowel or Hh

Dual Plural
Îcàl Îcàl Îchelle
Îcalla Îcál

A, De, and Su become Ad d̪], D', and Sur before a vowel or Hh when not contracted

Nouns Edit

Dualizing and Pluralizing Edit

Most nouns can be dualized or pluralized. As pronunciation is meant to left intact, forms with stems ending in c/g/gl may have Hh or Ii added or removed in certain forms to continue pronunciation. Diacritics that affect only stressed are removed when they occur on the final syllable of a word, are redundant when making the plural forms, or in all situations when making the dual forms. Recent borrowings from other languages recieve the same dual and plural forms as the ones present in the borrowed language.

Group 1: Masculine and ending with a consonant

Singular Dual Plural
Manzil Manzilani Manzili
House 2 Houses Houses

Group 2: Masculine and ending with -o/-u/-e

Singular Dual Plural
Iarbù Iarbuni Iarbi
Gerbil 2 Gerbils Gerbils

Group 3: Masculine and ending with -a/-i

Singular Dual Plural
Sácră Sacrăni Sácre
Hawk 2 Hawks Hawks

Group 4: Feminine and ending with a consonant

Singular Dual Plural
Sadicat Sadicat Sadicate
Friend 2 Friends♀ Friends♀

Group 5: Feminine and ending with -e

Singular Dual Plural
Nocte Noctet Nocti
Night 2 Nights Nights

Group 6: Feminine and ending with -a/-i/-o/-u

Singular Dual Plural
Căpra Căprat Căpre
Goat 2 Goats Goats


Cases Edit

There are 3 cases in Îçlo: nominative, objective, and genitive. The nominative object defines the subject of a sentence, and is also used for the indirect objects of a noun after any preposition besides a. The nominative is also used in the verbs where the "object" matches the subject and also as the direct object in a small amount of verbs. These 2 kinds of verbs are called "nominative verbs". The objective is used for the direct object in most verbs as well as the indirect object after the preposition a. The genitive is used after all uses of the prepostion de except when acting as a partitive article. It also occurs when describing something belonging to something when the something possessed is not mentioned. In this usage, the preposition de is dropped. The case endings are applied after the dualizing/pluralizing. As with dualizing and pluralizing, pronunciation is meant to be left intact so forms with stems ending in c/g/gl may have Hh or Ii added or removed to continue pronunciation, however, unlike them accent marks are always kept. The only exceptions are the masculine plural genitive and the feminine plural objective where they are always deleted, as well as any situation in which the accent mark is redundant. No noun is irregular only in case. Proper nouns (all capitalized nouns) do not have different forms depending on the case. Recent borrowings from other languages are not declined.

Group 1: Masculine with a form ending with -an

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative An Anani Ani
Objective An Ananin Anin
Genitive Anin Ananini Anini
Meaning Year 2 Years Years

Group 2: Masculine with a form ending with -nini

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Nino Ninoni Nini
Objective Ninon Ninonin Ninin
Genitive Ninoni Ninonini Nini
Meaning Baby 2 Babies Babies

Group 3: Masculine and ending in a consonant without a form ending with -an/-nini

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Atùm Atumani Atumi
Objective Atuman Atumanin Atumin
Genitive Atumin Atumanini Atumini
Meaning Dugong 2 Dugongs Dugongs

Group 4: Masculine and ending with  -o/-u/-e

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Caîne Caîneni Caîni
Objective Caînen Caînenin Caînin
Genitive Caîneni Caînenini Caînini
Meaning Dog 2 Dogs Dogs

Group 5: Masculine and ending with -a/-i

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Problema Problemani Probleme
Objective Probleman Problemanin Problemen
Genitive Problemani Problemanini Problemeni
Meaning Problem 2 Problems Problems

Group 6: Feminine and ending with a consonant

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Sahat Sahat Sahate
Objective Sahatan Sahataîtan Sahatetan
Genitive Sahatit Sahataît Sahatet
Meaning Hour 2 Hours Hours

Group 7: Feminine and ending with -e

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Vûlpe Vûlpet Vûlpi
Objective Vûlpetan Vûlpetan Vûlpitan
Genitive Vûlpet Vûlpetit Vûlpit
Meaning Fox 2 Foxes Foxes

Group 8: Feminine and ending with -a/-i/-o/-u

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Bagcia Bagciat Bagce
Objective Bagciatan Bagciatan Bagcetan
Genitive Bagciat Bagciatit Bagcet
Meaning Garden 2 Gardens Gardens

Irregular Nouns Edit

List of Irregular Nouns

Compound Nouns Edit

Compound nouns consist of two words (with one of them usually being a noun) combining together to form a new, unique noun. There are 3 different kinds of compound nouns: those where the 2 words attach to one another, those where the 2 words are separated by a hyphen, and those where the 2 words are separated by a preposition. Each kind of compound noun has its own unique rules for dualizing/pluralizing and cases. Adverbs and verbs never change due to dualization/pluralization or case in compound nouns. Adjectives change for dualizing/pluralization but not for case. Adjectives agree in gender with the noun they are compounded with. Compound nouns receive the gender of the second noun if they aren't separated by anything, or the first one if they are. Irregular nouns are dualized/pluralized and declined the same as they normally would be when they occur in compound nouns in situations where that would occur. If the final half of the compound noun is a proper noun, the noun is indeclinable and has no dual/plural forms. However, if the first half is a proper noun and the second half isn't, the noun can still be declined and dualyzed/pluralized. Below are examples for each kind of compound noun with the examples only using words that are combinations of 2 nouns.

Group 1: Not separated

Gender: ♂ Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Mârajdar Mârajdarani Mârajdari
Objective Mârajdaran Mârajdaranin Mârajdarin
Genitive Mârajdarin Mârajdaranini Mârajdarini
Meaning Sea Serpent 2 Sea Serpents Sea Serpents

The two nouns are treated as one with the plural and case endings only being added to the latter.

Group 2: Separated by hyphen

Gender:  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Âve-Secretário Âveni-Secretarioni Âvi-Secretarii
Objective Âve-Secretárion Âveni-Secretarionin Âvi-Secretariin
Genitive Âve-Secretárioni Âveni-Secretarionini Âvi-Secretariini
Meaning Secretary Bird 2 Secretary Birds Secretary Birds

The two nouns are treated as separate with regards to dualizing/pluralizing, but when declined only the second one receives the endings. Both words follow their original stress patterns. When the first noun is capitalized, the second is too.

Group 3: Separated by preposition

Gender: ♂ Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Nassar Delle Mortini Nassarani Delle Mortini Nassari Delle Mortini
Objective Nassaran Delle Mortini Nassaranin Delle Mortini Nassarin Delle Mortini
Genitive Nassarin Delle Mortini Nassaranini Delle Mortini Nassarini Delle Mortini
Meaning Vulture 2 Vultures Vultures

The two nouns are treated as separate with the first noun acting as normal and with the second noun never changing for dualizing/pluralizing and always remaining in the case that its preposition brings on (the genitive in this example). As this example demonstrates, the second noun can be in the plural when used in the singular form for the compound noun. This will never occur in the 2 other kinds of compound nouns.

Nominative Verbs Edit

The following verbs take the nominative. Although some do not truly have an object, others do.

• Esre- To be

• Avere- To have

• Ponere- To consider (as/to be) (can take 2 nominative objects)

• Ponerse- To consider oneself (as/to be)

• Sentire- To feel/smell (only when meaning to feel)

Adjectives Edit

Irregular Adjectives Edit

List of Irregular Adjectives

PronounsEdit

Subject Pronouns Edit

Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Io Noi
Second Person Tu Voi
Third Person♂ Îl Essi [ˈɛs̪ːi]
Third Person Ella [ˈɛːl̪ä] Esse [ˈɛs̪ːɛ]
Generic Ci

The third person♀ plural is only used for nouns that consist entirely of objects of feminine gender. The third person plural pronouns are also used as the formal equivalents of Tu. They still conjugate according to third person plural in these situations. Except for the 3rd person singular, subject pronouns are usually dropped, with the conjugations giving the required information. Sentences that need an indefinite subject (what would usually be it in English) simply use the third person conjugation. Whenever the meaning of "one" is wanted, ci must be used with the verb. It can never be dropped. Pronouns can be re-added for emphasis. The 3rd person singular pronouns are dropped when the pronoun has already been referred to or used before in the conversation or by the speaker without confusion. As the subjunctive tense singular conjugations are all the same, they are usually preceded by their corresponding subject pronouns. There are 2 exceptions to this: the first is when the subjunctive is in a subordinate clause (the majority of its uses) and refers to the same subject as the main clause, the second is after the expression "oro che" (which means please and always is followed by the subjunctive). After this expression the subject is always assumed to be tu when conjugated with one of the singular forms.

Direct Object Pronouns Edit

Singular Singular Before

Vowel Or Hh

Dual/Plural Dual/Plural Before

Vowel Or Hh

First Person Ni N' Na
Second Person Te T' Ve V'
Third Person Al [äl̪] Hom
Third Person La [l̪ä] L' Homa

Indirect Object Pronouns Edit

Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Neo
Second Person Veo
Third Person Lui Loro
Third Person Lei Lora

Object Pronoun Location Edit

Object pronouns are placed before a verb except when it is used in the imperative and the infinitive. Except in the aforementioned tenses, when both pronouns are used the indirect comes before the direct and the pronouns then combine to form one word. In these situations Ni, Mî, and Tî become Ne, Me, and Te, and forms N’, L’, T’, and V’ are never used. In the imperative only the direct object pronouns are attached to the end of the verb. In these situations Al becomes L after a vowel, and Hom and Homa become Om and Oma after a consonant. Indirect object pronouns go after the verb as a separate word. When both a direct and indirect pronoun are used, the direct is attached to the end of the imperative, as normal, and the indirect follows as a separate word. When the imperative is negated, the pronouns are placed like they would in any other tense. In the infinitive, the final e of the verb is dropped and both kinds of object pronouns are added to the end of the infinitive, with the indirect coming before the direct. In these situations Hom and Homa become Om and Oma and Al becomes L after a vowel.

Reflexive Pronouns Edit

Singular Singular Before

Vowel Or Hh

Dual/Plural Dual/Plural Before

Vowel Or Hh

First Person M'
Second Person T' V'
Third Person S' S'

Like direct object pronouns, reflexive pronouns typically precede the verb but are attached to the end of it in both the infinitive and the the imperative. They are placed before both object pronouns and can combine with them to form new pronouns. In both the infinitive and when combined with another pronoun (but not in the imperative unless combining), the Îî in all pronoun forms (except for Nî outside of the infinitive) becomes an Ee.

Disjunctive Pronouns Edit

Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Miu [mɛw] Noi
Second Person Tiu [ɛw] Voi
Third Person Lui Loro
Third Person Ella [ˈɛːl̪ä] Lora

The disjunctive pronouns are used whenever the pronouns are used in any other situation such as when standing alone or when after any preposition. Ella has the additional form [äː], which is used when following a nominative verb.

Verbs Edit

As a Romance language, Îçlo conjugates verbs to a number of tenses and moods. There are three verb endings: -are, -ere, and -ire. Below are the conjugation patterns for regular verbs.

PresentEdit

-are

Orare- To Pray Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Oro Oriam
Second Person Ori Orat
Third Person Ora Orano

-ere

Cadere- To Fall Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Cado Cadem
Second Person Cadi Cadet
Third Person Cade Cadono

-ire

Servire- To Serve Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Servio Servim
Second Person Servi Servit
Third Person Servĭ Servono

PreteriteEdit

-are

HabitareTo Live/Reside Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Habitâ Habitamă
Second Person Habitaşti Habitáşt
Third Person Habitò Habitauno

-ere

Credere- To Believe/Think Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Credei Credemă
Second Person Credeşti Credèşt
Third Person Credé Credeuno

-ire

Finire- To Finish Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Finii Finimă
Second Person Finişti Finìşt
Third Person Finì Finiono

ImperfectEdit

-are

ParlareTo Speak/Talk Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Parlavo Parlavam
Second Person Parlavi Parlavat
Third Person Parlava Parlavano

-ere

Decidere- To Decide Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Decidevo Decidevam
Second Person Decidevi Decidevat
Third Person Decideva Decidevano

-ire

Dormire- To Sleep Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Dormivo Dormivam
Second Person Dormivi Dormivat
Third Person Dormiva Dormivano

FutureEdit

-are

Dansare- To Dance Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Dans Dansrém
Second Person Dansraȋ Dansrét
Third Person Dans Dansrano

Verbs with a stem ending in Ii/Ll/Łł/Rr/Uu/Ww add an Ăă before the endings

-ere

Correre- To Run Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Corrĕ Corrĕrém
Second Person Corrĕraȋ Corrĕrét
Third Person Corrĕ Corrĕrano

Verbs with a stem ending in Ii/Ll/Rr/Uu add an Ĕĕ before the endings

-ire

Seguire- To Follow Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Seguĕ Seguĕrém
Second Person Seguĕraȋ Seguĕrét
Third Person Seguĕ Seguĕrano

Verbs with a stem ending in Ii/Ll/Rr/Uu add an Ĕĕ before the endings

ConditionalEdit

-are

Trovare- To Find/Think Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Trovre Trovrem
Second Person Trovreşti Trovreşt
Third Person Trovreve Trovrebo

Verbs with a stem ending in Ii/Ll/Łł/Rr/Uu/Ww add an Ăă before the endings

-ere

Battere- To Beat Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Battre Battrem
Second Person Battreşti Battreşt
Third Person Battreve Battrebo

Verbs with a stem ending in Ii/Ll/Rr/Uu add an Ĕĕ before the endings

-ire

Construire- To Build Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Construĕre Construĕrem
Second Person Construĕreşti Construĕreşt
Third Person Construĕreve Construĕrebo

Verbs with a stem ending in Ii/Ll/Rr/Uu add an Ĕĕ before the endings

Imperative Edit

-are

ParareTo Cover/Shield Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Pariam
Second Person *Parà Pariat
Third Person Parino

*Becomes Para when negated

-ere

Rĕpetere- To Repeat Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Rĕpetiam
Second Person *Rĕpetè Rĕpetiat
Third Person Rĕpetano

*Becomes Rĕpete when negated

-ire

Definire- To Define Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Definiam
Second Person *Definǐ Definiat
Third Person Definano

*Becomes Definĭ when negated

Subjunctive Edit

-are

Avare- To Love Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Avi Aviam
Second Person Avi Aviat
Third Person Avi Avino

-ere

Temere- To Fear Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Tema Temiam
Second Person Tema Temiat
Third Person Tema Temano

-ire

Sentire- To Feel/Smell Singular Dual/Plural
First Person Senta Sentiam
Second Person Senta Sentiat
Third Person Senta Sentano

Compound Tenses, Past Participles And Present ParticiplesEdit

Certain tenses combine a conjugated auxiliary verb, with a past participle. These tenses are called compound tenses. Most verbs use Avere (To have) but a small number use Esre (To be). Some verbs use Esre in certain situations but not in others. All reflexive verbs use it too. Verbs that use Esre must agree have their past participle agree in gender. In addition to past participles, there are present participles. Present participles are equivalent to the English –ing and have 3 functions: to modify a noun, to describe an action related to and occurring simultaneously with a main verb (a gerund), and to explain why or how something happens (usually translated with by). The first use simply uses the present participle, while the other two are preceded by the preposition, a. They cannot be used to form progressive tenses like in English but they can function as adjectives.

Past Participle Present Participle
-are -eo -agno
-ere -uo -egno
-ire -io -egno
Tense Formation
Present Perfect Auxiliary verb in present + past participle
Pluperfect Auxiliary verb in past + past participle
Future Perfect Auxiliary verb in future + past participle
Conditional Perfect Auxiliary verb in conditional + past participle
Past Subjunctive Auxiliary verb in subjunctive + past participle

SyntaxEdit

Dialectical DifferencesEdit

There are 2 dialects in Îçlo: an eastern and a western. The western dialect is considered to be the standard of the language but the eastern forms are accepted too. The main differences between the 2 dialects are shown below.

Phonological Edit

Western Eastern Spelling Occurrence of pronunciation change
[∅] [ʔ] Often Hh Between 2 non-diphthongized vowels
[m] [◌̃] Mm After a vowel when word final or before a consonant
[n] [◌̃] Nn After a vowel when word final or before a consonant besides Cc/Kk/Gg
[n] [ŋ] Nn Before Cc/Kk
[o] [ɔ] Oo Unstressed or in a closed syllable
[r] [ɾ] Rr Everywhere
[r] [ɾ̪] Rr Before Dd/Nn/Ss/Tt/Ţţ/Zz
[v] [b͡v] Vv Everywhere
[χ] [ç] Ch Before Ee/Ii/Yy
[χ] [ʁ] Gh Everywhere
[χ] [ʝ] Gh Before Ee/Ii/Yy
[ː] [∅] Everywhere except in single syllable words where it is used to distinguish would be homophones

VocabularyEdit

Periodic Table

Animals

Plants & Fungi

Colors

Countries, Languages, & Nationalities

Months, Days, & Seasons

Numbers

Phrases

Example Text Edit

The Lord's Prayer (Al Noş Patre)- Edit

Noş Patre chi è ĭn la Janna,

Tù nôme sia consacreo.

Tù regno venga.

Tua volontà sia facto,

Sulla Tèrra còme ĭn la Janna.

Dà neo â noş paion quotidiano.

E perdonà neo noşi débitin,

Còme noi perdoniam noşi debitorin.

E non na guida ĭn tentaţion,

Mai liberàna dèl małin,

Pèrcĩ al tù è al regno, al potere e la gloria.

Persempre.

Amén.

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