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Üge

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Üge
da Üge
Type
isolating
Alignment
nominative
Head direction
initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Under the Power of the Eternal Tengri. Under the Majesty of the Eternal Khan. Arghun Our word.

Üge is a Mongolian-German creole spoken in the Northern German Plain. Its name derives from Classical Mongolian "üge" (word; speech). The language came about as a creolisation of a pidgin used in communication between the Mongol upper class and Saxon lower class in the former northern Holy Roman Empire.

PhonologyEdit

The phonology of Üge is a simplified version of Low German with considerable Mongol influences. The language has eight monophthongs and two diphthongs, without a vowel length distinction. It also has sixteen consonant phonemes which don't contrast in length.

Front Central Back
High i (i) y (ü) ə (ë) u (u)
Mid e (e) ø (ö) o (o)
Low a (a)
Diphthongs ai (ei) au (au)
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plosive p (p) b (b) t (t) d (d) k (k ck) g (g)
Fricative f (v f) s (s) ʃ (sch) x (ch/h)
Nasal m (m) n (n) ŋ(g) (ng)
Approximants v (w) r (r) l (l) j (j)

The fricative /f/ is written <v> word-initially, and <f> otherwise. The plosive /k/ likewise follows a similar distribution: it is initially <k> and otherwise <ck>.

Vowel AssimilationEdit

Umlaut is very productive in Üge; all nouns form their plural by way of either plain affixation or affixation combined with umlaut; this umlaut maps {ë a au o u} → {e e ei ö ü}, meaning that nouns with front vowels do not have umlauted plurals. There also exists a progressive vowel harmony process that maps {a au o u} ↔ {e ei ö ü} based on vowel frontness of the vowel in the root; here, <ë> counts as a neutral vowel.

These assimilatory processes were either introduced or reinforced by Mongolian influence.

GrammarEdit

Üge grammar is very isolating, with most of the inflectional system of German stripped away and replaced with analytic constructions.

NounsEdit

Üge nouns have a rudimentary declension system: they decline for two numbers and two cases: the singular and plural, and nominative and genitive respectively. All nouns receive a plural suffix <-(ë)n> and additionally undergo umlaut whenever possible, as well as receive different articles. Case is indicated either through a genitive suffix <-(ë)s> in indefinite nouns, or by article in definite nouns. Indefinite nouns get no article.

Declensions of three example nouns, <di hun> (dog, wolf), <da üge> (word, speech, language) and <at schil> (year):

Declension
di hun da üge at schil
nom.sg.def di hun da üge at schil
gen.sg.def es hun ar üge es schil
nom.pl.def di hünën di ügen di schilën
gen.pl.def ar hünën ar ügen ar schilën
hun üge schil
nom.sg.idef hun üge schil
gen.sg.idef huns üges schilës
nom.pl.idef hünën ügen schilën
gen.pl.idef hünëns ügens schilëns

Many nouns that end in a CëC syllable undergo syncope, so that they form plurals that end in CCën. Clusters produced by syncope are usually subject to further simplification and reduction.

AdjectivesEdit

Üge adjectives are morphologically simple: their citation form is the singular indefinite, and both definiteness and plurality are marked with <-ë> where applicable. Adjectives ending in vowels, as well as in suffixes such as <-ick>, <-fël> and <-isch>, do not take this suffix and are thus indeclinable. Adjectives don't decline according to case. Declensions of two example adjectives, <mach> (evil) and <mendick> (healthy, sane):

SG.IDEF SG.DEF PL.IDEF PL.DEF
mach mach machë
mendick mendick

PronounsEdit

Üge has a simplified pronoun system, with pronouns coming from native German words:

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Sg. Nom. ma du (mf)
 dat(n)  
Gen. mën dën des
Pl. Nom. wën di
Gen. un in dar

VerbsEdit

Üge verb morphology is rudimentary: verbs distinguish only number in inflection; all temporal and modal information is encoded analytically. The infinitive is always identical to the plural. There exist four irregular verbs: <sin> (copula), <kön> (be able to, know), <schölën> (must) and <don> (do, work, give). The infinitive and plural are usually marked with -ën; the singular is thus only the bare stem. Conjugation patterns of the four irregular verbs, as well as a sample regular verb <nemën> (add, augment, take):

Singular Plural
nemën nem nemën
sin is sin
kön kan kön
schölën schal schölën
don de don

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

Üge/Lexicon

Example textEdit

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