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Ükäntel
Ükäntel
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Head-final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal n ɲ ŋ
Stop t͡s t͡ʃ k
Fricative θ s ʃ h
Approximant j w
Rhotic ɾ~r
  • Dental consonants are laminal, with /θ/ being interdental in most environments.
  • Alveolar consonants are apical.
  • Palatal consonants are laminal.

AllophonyEdit

  • Obstruents are voiced intervocalically, following a nasal, and are unvoiced otherwise.
  • The nasal consonants /n ɲ ŋ/ are only contrastive when before a vowel and are otherwise subject to extreme neutralization, with all three being realized as [n] word-finally and being subject to significant assimilation when in a cluster, being realized as:
    • [n̪] before or after a dental consonant, the sequence /nl̪/ is [l̪:];
    • [n] before or after an alveolar, the sequence /nɾ/ is [r], the sequence /ɾn/ is [n:];
    • [ɲ] before or after a palatal consonant; the sequence /nj/ becomes [ɲ];
    • [ŋ] before or after a velar consonant or /h/.
  • Short /r/ is tapped while geminate /r/ is trilled.
  • When affricates are geminate, the stop component is lengthened.
  • The distinction between affricates and fricatives is neutralized in certain environments
    • Affricates are realized as fricatives before a plosive or nasal consonant, as well as /t͡s/ (but not /t͡ʃ/) before /ɾ/
    • Fricatives are realized as affricates following a nasal consonant 
  • Dental consonants and alveolar consonants most often assimilate in place to each other regressively.
    • Regressive POA assimilation occurs when both consonants of a cluster come from the set of consonants /n t̪ s l̪ ɾ/, or in the case of /nθ/, and except /l̪ɾ ɾl̪ nɾ ɾn/.
    • The clusters /l̪ɾ ɾl̪/ are realized as [r l̪:].
    • The clusters /nɾ ɾn/ are realized as [r n:]
    • The cluster /θn/ is realized as [θn̪].
    • /t͡s/ forces a preceding or following dental consonant to become alveolar, notably with /θ/ becoming [s].
    • /θ/ does not assimilate except to /t͡s/ and forces a following alveolar consonant to be laminal in articulation with /ɾ/ remaining apical. It may be important to note that /sθ θs/ remain the same.
  • Plain alveolar consonants will become palatal consonants (i.e. /n t͡s s ɾ/ > [ɲ t͡ʃ ʃ j]) before a palatal consonant, while the alveolar sibilants also become palatal (i.e. /t͡s s/ > [t͡ʃ ʃ]) following the palatal sibilants.
  • /nj t͡sj sj ɾj/ are [ɲ t͡ʃ ʃ j].
  • /h/ is subject to significant allophony and assimilation:
    • /h/ is realized as:
      • [h] at the beginning of a word, following a back vowel and before a voiceless consonant other than /k/, and following another consonant;
      • [ɦ] intervocalically and in between a vowel and a sonorant consonant;
      • [ç] word-finally after a front vowel and following a front vowel and before a voiceless consonant other than /k/;
      • [x] word-finally after a back vowel and always before /k/;
      • [x:] when geminate regardless of vocalic environment.
    • /h/ will assimilate to a fricative that precedes it, resulting in a geminate fricative, i.e. /sh/ is realized as [s:]. This does not happen following an affricate.

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i y u
Mid e ø ɤ o
Open-mid æ
Open ɑ

AllophonyEdit

  • /i y u/ are realized as [ɪ ʏ ʊ] before sonorant consonants.
  • /e ɤ/ are lowered to [ɛ ʌ] following a syllable containing an instance of the same vowel and always if word-final.

PhonotacticsEdit

Ukantel syllables minimally consist of only a vowel and maximally are CVC. The syllable structure can thus be transcribed as (C)V(C). Outside of nasal neutralization, any consonant can appear word-initially or word-finally, or as the coda or onset of syllables not at word boundaries. Consonant clusters thus are not allowed to be longer than two segments; anaptyxis is employed to avoid this. Certain clusters are subject to assimilation, which is detailed in the above consonant allophony section.

The syllable structure is obeyed in roots and at the word level, however, affixes are not bound to syllabic structure and can take any form, even that of a single consonant or a string of two consonants and thus lacking a nucleus. 

Hiatus is preferred with strings of vowels, although a weak glide co-occurs when the first vowel in a sequence is /i/ or /u/ (with [j] or [w] appearing respectively).

StressEdit

Stress is non-phonemic and falls on the first syllable of a word. Stressed vowels are pronounced significantly longer than unstressed vowels, approximately 50% to 60% longer. Vowels are not regularly reduced when unstressed, although some phonological processes occur only with unstressed vowels. 

OrthographyEdit

Ukantel is written using a modified variant of the Latin alphabet. There are no digraphs in the language, instead a diacritical system exists, making use of the cedilla to mark (historically) palatalized alveolar consonants and the diaeresis to mark additional vowel sounds. 

AlphabetEdit

Aa Ää Cc Çç Ee Ëë Hh Ii Yy Kk Ll Nn
/ɑ/ /æ/ /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ/ /e/ /ɤ/ /h/ /i/ /j/ /k/ /l̪/ /n/
Ņņ Gg Oo Öö Rr Ss Şş Tt Dd Uu Üü Ww
/ɲ/ /ŋ/ /o/ /ø/ /ɾ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t̪/ /θ/ /u/ /y/ /w/

Making note of the placements of y, g, and d, Ukantel alphabetical ordering is observably different than the average Latin alphabet. These deviations exist because it was decided that letters with similar pronunciations should be near each other in the alphabet, based off the idea that accented letters were to follow their unaccented base forms. 

Letter namesEdit

The vowel letters are named after the vowels themselves. Consonant letters are named are named after the consonant plus e, with an exception in h (named ha).

a, ä, ce, çe, e, ë, ha, i, ye, ke, le, ne, ņe, ge, o, ö, re, se, şe, te, de, u, ü, we

Orthographic notesEdit

  • Nasal consonants are written according to their pronunciation when prevocalic and unclustered, otherwise <n> is utilized, even in clusters where the nasal pronunciation may be lost.
    • When words beginning in <ņ g> are used in compounds so that <ņ g> no longer is word-initial or intervocalic, their spelling is changed to <n> to reflect the neutralization of nasals elsewhere.
    • A number of roots with final <n> have irregular forms that result in <ņ g> when followed by a vowel-initial suffix; these alternations are indicated in writing.
  • <y> is omitted following palatal consonants <ņ ç ş>.

MorphophonologyEdit

Vowel HarmonyEdit

With a few exceptions, native Ukantel roots contain either only front vowels /y e ø æ i/ or only back vowels /u ɤ o ɑ/. /i/ does not have a back variant and patterns largely as a front vowel. In back vowel words /i/ is transparent, i.e. it does not change the harmony to front. Roots that contain only /i/ take front vowel suffixes. Generally, archiphonemes are used in grammatical writings, being transcribed /U E O A/ and representing pairs /y~u e~ɤ ø~o æ~ɑ/. There is no harmonization according to roundedness and thus all Ukantel grammatical suffixes have two variants, although suffixes containing only /i/ have only a single variant. It is also worth noting here that some suffixes consist only of one or two consonants, with vowels being inserted epenthetically if necessary according to harmony. 

In native Ukantel roots, vowel harmony is rarely violated outside of a few roots, such as ayäceć, the Ukantel word for alphabet. Vowel harmony is not applied when compounding if roots contain differing sets of vowels. Loanwords, especially newer loans, do not necessarily adhere to vowel harmony. 

AnaptyxisEdit

Anaptyxis, or epenthesis of a vowel, is necessary with certain grammatical suffixes as the stringing together of certain morphemes would violate the Ukantel syllable structure. A (C)V(C) syllable structure is obeyed at the word level, meaning consonant clusters can only be two segments long and must appear intervocalically, and that all syllables must have a vocalic nucleus. Some suffixes have already two forms outside of epenthesis in order to avoid consonant or vowel strings, such as the dative case suffix, which appears as -t following a vowel and as -Ot following a consonant. Consonant strings longer than two may appear due to suffixing, and an epenthetic vowel -E is inserted to avoid that. The epenthetic vowel follows a string of two consonants that would otherwise appear before another consonant unless it would appear within the suffix itself.

Non-verbal MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are manditorily inflected for number and case and optionally for possession. The below table outlines the detail of the nominal structure.

Stem Number Possession Case

StemEdit

The stem includes nominal roots and any possible derivational suffixes attached thereto and is essentially the barest form of a noun found in regular speech, as well as being the dictionary citation form. The bare stem is identical to that of the nominative singular, and not always to the nominal root. 

NumberEdit

Ukantel distinguishes between singular and plural. The singular is unmarked and the plural is formed with the suffix -k (or -Ek if necessary).

There are homophones where a singular noun may appear to be plural in form (or in fact the plural form of a separate noun) due to ending in -k.

PossessionEdit

Possession is indicated by a suffix in Ukantel. The head in a genitive phrase is marked with a possessive suffix, agreeing with the possessor in person and number, which is sometimes called a construct state due to the influence of Semitic linguistics. Concerning the two-variant singular possessive suffixes, the first appears following vowels and the second following consonants. 

Possessor Suffix
1S -ş, -iş
2S -n, -Un
3S -w, -Aw
1P -şAl
2P -nAl
3P -wAl

CaseEdit

Ukantel nouns decline for 8 cases, the suffixes of which are listed in the table below; the nominative is unmarked.

Case Suffix
Nominative
Accusative -E, -yE
Dative -Ot, -t
Genitive -n
Instrumental -dA
Comitative -tE
Temporal -hU
Durative -lUk

The nominative case is used to mark the subject of a sentence, more specifically, the agent of a transitive verb and the patient (also called the experiencer) of an intransitive verb.

The accusative case is used to mark the patient (also called the object) of a transitive verb. When making a transitive verb causative, both the causee (the subject of the non-causal clause) and the original object appear in the accusative case, with the causee appearing second. -E is used following stems or a preceding morpheme that end in a consonant and -yE following those ending in a vowel.

The dative case is used to mark the recipient of an object, the object of verbs implying transfer or perception, or the beneficiary of an action. -Ot is used following stems or a preceding morpheme that ends in a consonant and -t following those ending in a vowel.

The genitive case is used to mark the possessor of another noun, a noun which modifies another noun, description, geographic origin, relation, and composition. 

The instrumental case is used to mark the means by which an action is done or the instrument used to accomplish the action, whether physical or abstract. It also marks the logical agent of a passive clause. 

The comitative case is used to mark with whose company an action is done (i.e. accompaniment with the agent), adornment or posession with the copular verb tehe

The temporal case is used to mark when an action is done and can be applied to numbers to mean at ___ o'clock, or to noun phrases to mean on _____

The durative case is used to specify the length of an action or during what the action took place, meaning effectively for x ____ (where x is a numeral) or during _____ or throughout ______.

PronounsEdit

Personal pronounsEdit

As in most languages, personal pronouns in Ukantel are somewhat irregular. The temporal and durative forms of the personal pronouns exist but are not used in colloquial speech, and thus are not listed in the table below. They are formed by suffixing the case endings to the nominative stem. Ukantel is a pro-drop language, meaning subject pronouns are omitted unless for emphasis. Similarly, genitive pronouns are usually omitted in a possessor-possessed structure unless for emphasis.

Case 1S 2S 3S 1P 2P 3P
Nominative şi un a şili nal wal
Accusative şeh unya awa şileh ollë walë
Dative şöt unut awot şilöt ollot walot
Genitive şin unën an şilen ollën walën
Instrumental işdä unda awda şeldä nalda walda
Comitative işte untë atë şelte naltë waltë

The third-person singular pronouns are only used for human referents, whereas the demonstrative pronouns are used for any other third-person referents. This distinction is not realized with other third-person indicators (i.e. the possessive suffix or verbal agreement), as they are used to refer to all third-person referents. Compare the following two sentences:

Ege yën!
DEM.DIST-ACC eat-2S
Eat it/that!
Awa yën!
3S-ACC eat-2S
Eat him/her!

The accusative case pronouns are used as reflexive pronouns. The dative pronouns are used similarly for verbs that require a dative object.

Şeh aşuhtoldëş.
1S.ACC stand-CAUS-NEG-PFV-1S
I didn't stand up.

The genitive pronouns can be used either attributively, although they are usually omitted in this usage unless for emphasis, or predicatively. 

Demonstrative pronounsEdit

Ukantel makes a two-way proximity distinction in its demonstratives. Attributively or predicatively they do not decline and simply precede the noun as adjectives, while as pronouns, they decline as nouns. The proximal demonstrative is regular while the distal demonstrative bears irregular forms with its stem eg- which appears as en- in isolation and when followed by a consonant.

Stem
Proximal hal
Distal eg

Interrogative pronounsEdit

Interrogative words and phrases are formed regularly from a few interrogative roots either on their own, declined across cases, or with modifiers or particles. 

Root
What? ka
Who? löt
Which? eylä
How many?

Ka 'what' is the most common interrogative root used in forming interrogative compounds.

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Other pronouns and adverbsEdit

ModifiersEdit

Modifiers in Ukantel can be separated into three categories:

  1. Numerals
  2. Determiners
  3. Adwords
    1. Adjectives
    2. Adverbs

Adwords are further divided into 'adjectives' and 'adverbs' on the basis that there exist certain adwords that cannot be used in conjunction with nouns, and certain adwords that logically cannot be used to modify a verb, although the two syntactic functions are largely treated as one in the same. In most instances, adwords can modify either nouns or verbs with no restriction or change in form.

Numerals and determiners are distinct from adwords because they cannot modify verbs alone, with numerals furthermore being distinct from quantifiers because they take a larger amount of derivational affixes, detailed under the 'numerals' section. Determiners are a type of pronoun that can be used to modify.

Any modifier precedes that which it modifies. Modifiers do not agree with nouns they modify on basis of number or case and simply precede their head. Most modifiers can be used nominally, in which case they are declined as and behave syntactically as a noun, usually with the semantic meaning of someone or something possessing whichever quality (sat öylete 'with the tall man' sattë 'with the tall one, person').

AdwordsEdit

Adwords have synthetic comparative and superlative forms that can be used attributively and predicatively, and that are obligatory in structures indicating a basis of comparison. Duplicating an adjective indicates excess. The bare form of an adjective, and the citation form, is its positive form. A few examples of these forms are given below the table. 

Degree Suffix
Positive
Comparative
Superlative -rAh
Excessive duplication
En şëlu acu ewäs uyuc teiniş.
DIST.DEM woman as polite sure be-PST-1S
I was surely as polite as that woman.
Hi ëņal haşëk şi acu untë te.
so many friend-PL 1S.NOM as 2S.COM be
You have as many friends as me.
Sat öyle satëçë astuin.
tall man tall-COMP-ACC see-PST
The tall man saw a taller man. 
Senire şukirë acu aslaç te.
talking fighting than easy-COMP be
Talking is easier than fighting.
Ëņalëç süälek şi acu ëriştë te.
much-COMP horse-PL 1SG.NOM than father-1SG-COM be
My father has more horses than me.
Hayrah harë kicäwöt üle etülin.
young-SUP girl face-3S-DAT on fall-PST
The youngest girl fell on her face.
Cöliş salën hayrah te.
sister-1S three-GEN young-SUP be
My sister is the youngest of three.
En häce hül hül tein.
DEM.DIST dog skinny skinny be-PST
That dog was too skinny.

Verbal morphologyEdit

Verbs in Ukantel are morphologically regular, bearing no suppletive forms. They take a multitude of suffixes to indicate finite grammatical information and suffixes that construct non-finite forms. 

Finite Verbal MorphologyEdit

Finite verbs serve as the main verb of a clause. Suffixes attach to finite verbs in a fixed order, illustrated in the table below.

Stem Voice Polarity Tense Aspect Mood Person

StemEdit

The stem of a verb in Ukantel is the bare form of the verb and is a bound morpheme. 

VoiceEdit

The active voice in Ukantel is unmarked. More than one voice suffix may be applied to the verb, however, doubly causative verbs are not possible morphologically and instead use a periphrastic construction. The semantics of the voice suffixes are not always in line with their defined meanings and have unpredictable meanings with certain verb roots.  

Voice Suffix
Active
Passive -hU
Reciprocal -s
Causative -tO

PolarityEdit

Negation is indicated with the suffix -l

TenseEdit

Morphologically, Ukantel distinguishes three tenses, of which the present tense is unmarked. Compound tenses are expressed periphrastically.

Tense Suffix
Past -in
Present
Future -yUr

AspectEdit

Ukantel distinguishes between two aspects morphologically. Other aspectual meanings are conveyed using auxiliary verbs. 

Aspect Suffix
Imperfect
Perfective -d

MoodEdit

Mode Suffix
Declarative
Admonitive -At
Permissive -Eg
Abilitative -çO
Potential -wEr
Desiderative -şE
Imperative-Hortative -∅

The admonitive mode is generally used to indicate warnings and translates as "should", "must", "have to".

Hal öylet yukuratiş.
DEM.PROX man-DAT listen-ADM-1S
I should listen to this man.

The permissive mode indicates that the action is allowed.

Sänke etültölegiş.
tree-PL-ACC fall-CAUS-NEG-PRM-1S
I am not allowed to fell trees.

The abilitative mode indicates that the action is able to be performed.

Ükäntele sençöş.
Ukantel-ACC speak-ABIL-1S
I can speak Ukantel.

The potential mode indicates that the action is likely.

En häce unya sokdëwër.
that dog 2S.ACC bite-PRF-POT
That dog could have bitten you.

The desiderative mode indicates that the action is wanted.

Körhü unkat astuşëş.
night-TMP sky-DAT see-DES-1S
I want to see the sky at night.

The imperative-hortative mood (usually referred to solely as the imperative and likewise glossed as IMP) expresses command, request, suggestion, exhortation, and urging. The imperative cannot take tense or aspect suffixes. It can only be preceded by voice suffixes or the negative suffix, and followed by person suffixes, including -w, -Aw to indicate a 3rd person imperative. First and third person imperatives are cross-linguistically referred to as the hortative or jussive moods respectively, and those terms are akin to their semantic meanings in Ukantel. 

First person imperatives have a hortative sense, whether singular or plural, suggesting that either the speaker or the speaker and addressee(s) perform the action. Second person imperatives have a general sense of command or request. Third person imperatives have a jussive sense, suggesting that a third party perform the action or be permitted to perform the action. Translations of first-person singular imperatives are often awkward when translated to English. Examples are given below.

Because it is not overtly marked, all imperatives sans 3rd person forms are phonologically identical to present imperfect forms of the verb.

Halë şöt sanun.
DEM.PROX-ACC 1S.DAT give-2S
Give this to me.
Şöt yukurun.
1S.DAT listen-2P
Listen to me (spoken to multiple people)
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PersonEdit

Person Suffix
1S -ş, -iş
2S -n, -Un
3S -w, -Aw
1P -şAl
2P -nAl
3P -wAl

Non-finite Verbal MorphologyEdit

Non-finite verb forms in Ukantel are numerous and common in the language. This includes the infinitive, gerunds, and participles. and converbs. 

InfinitiveEdit

The infinitive form of a verb ends in -hE. The infinitive is the citation form of a verb. Some verb stems may appear to end in a vowel from their citation form due to an anaptyctic -E because the stem ends in a consonant cluster or geminate consonant; no distinction is made between these and actual -E-final stems. The infinitive in Ukantel is found in constructions where one finite verb is syntactically dependent on another and not a constituent thereof. Infinitives cannot take their own arguments, nor can they take personal suffixes. The infinitive suffix essentially terminates the verb-form.

GerundEdit

The gerund in Ukantel is the nominal form of a verb that is not entirely deverbal, meaning it can take the same morphological suffixes and arguments that a finite verb would. Gerunds can take personal suffixes and case suffixes as well. Entirely deverbal nouns are listed under derivational morphology. The gerund is marked with -irE

Urunkawot yukurirë unut çinyür.
parent-PL-2S-DAT listen-GER 2S.DAT help-FUT
Listening to your parents will help you.

ParticiplesEdit

Participles in Ukantel function as verbal adjectives, meaning they serve to modify a noun. They use the same endings as normal finite verbs, with the addition of an ending for a present tense participle, but nothing marking imperfective aspect, both of which are unmarked in finite verb forms, and do not take personal affixes. Third-person singular verb forms are often indistinct from a similarly-constructed participle because of this. To show nominative arguments in a participial phrase, nominative-case pronouns are used. In this manner, as they are not restricted in what tenses, aspects, modalities, etc, they can appear in, participles often take the place of relative clauses. The present tense ending, which is only used in participial constructions, is -sE.

As participles, verbs govern the same cases as they would if used finitely, meaning some participles make take dative objects. 

Öttese öyle ayëşda senä tin.
sit-PRS.PTCP man mom-1S-COM talk-CONV be-PST
The sitting man was talking with my mom. 
Oştasë röne etülined.
burn-PRS.PTCP building fall-PST-PFV
The burning building fell.
Nohawot är sanëtë ertäyse şi astuinëd häce sakaşot är heşä te.
mouth-3S-DAT in meat-ACC hold-PRS 1S.NOM see-PST.PFV dog back-1S-DAT in run-CONV be
The dog that I saw holding meat in its mouth is running after me.

A construction meaning "when" is constructed using a participle before the temporal case of örüs "time".

Şi latinë esälätöin örüshü kininätün.
1S.NOM bowl-2S-ACC be.full-CAUS-PST time-TEMP ask-PST-ADM-2S
You should have asked when I filled your bowl.

ConverbsEdit

Converbs are verb forms that are dependent on another verb through some form of conjunction. Converbial suffixes terminate the verb form in a similar fashion to the infinitive suffix; converbs therefore cannot take personal endings nor can they take case endings. Because of this, converbial clauses are usually constructed in Ukantel as having the same syntactic subject as the main clause, which is indicated by placement of the nominative argument in the dependent clause, by personal agreement on the verb, or both especially in cases of emphasis. However, converbs can have their own syntactic constituents separate from that of the main clause; subordinating converbs, as well, can have a differing subject from that of the main clause (the first three suffixes listed below [-A, -OcE, -nU] do not belong in this category and must have the same subject as the main clause). If the subjects differ, the subject of the dependent clause is indicated using the genitive case.

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It will be done soon.

-A describes a repeated action contemporaneous with that of the main verb. This is also used to construct the progressive aspect in conjunction with the verb tehe.

Etülä en şëlu önin.
fall-CONV DEM.DIST woman walk-PST
That woman stumbled (i.e. walked falling).
Yenehü ölöcä teyüriş.
ten-TEMP leave-CONV be-FUT-1S
I will be leaving at 10.

-OcE describes a single instance of or a sustained action slightly prior to or contemporaneous with that of the main verb. This often corresponds to the English "by doing" or "with doing."

Eş köylük häcewe eytäyöce awot çinindeçöşäl.
one night-DUR dog-3S-ACC take-CONV 3S.DAT help-PST-PFV-ABIL-1P
We were able to help him by taking his dog for a night.

-nU describes an action that happens entirely before that of the main verb and often has the connotation that the main verb follows this action. It translates into English using "and then" or "after." Duplicating the converb itself indicates continuity and dissatisfaction along with the main verb negated.

Awa aşuhtonu ölöcin.
3S.ACC stand-CAUS-CONV leave-PST
He stood up and left.
Yënu wisëwë yëtoyur.
eat-CONV child-3S-ACC eat-CAUS-FUT
After eating he will feed his child.
Yukurnu yukurnu senirewäle nesliniş
listen-CONV listen-CONV talk-GER-3P-ACC hear-NEG-PST-1S
I kept listening but I did not hear their conversation.

-tE marks a clause as the condition under which the main action happens. It translates into English using "when", "if", or "in case." 

Häcen yëhutoltë unya sokyurwër.
dog-2S eat-PASS-CAUS-NEG-CONV 2S.ACC bite-FUT-POT
If your dog is not fed, it may bite you.
Hököt ugutë sukunë aņuntoyurun.
sun-DAT look-CONV eye-PL-2S-ACC hurt-CAUS-FUT-2S
If you look at the sun, you will hurt your eyes.

-silA marks a clause as concessive, meaning that the action of the main verb happens in spite of it. It is usually translated into English as "although."

Ugusila sänköt sed ayëşë astulinçoş.
look-CONV tree-PL-DAT among mother-1S-ACC see-NEG-PST-ABIL-1S
Although I looked, I could not see my mother among the trees.

Word FormationEdit

As a heavily inflected language, Ukantel regularly utilizes compounding and derivation to express concepts where a lexical gap exists.

CompoundingEdit

DerivationEdit

Derivation in Ukantel, wholly considered, is productive and utilized often in the language. There are a large array of suffixes that either redefine stems in terms of another word class, or further specify stems in their own. Derivation is largely regular, although a few irregularities exist, especially among verbalized forms. 

VerbalizationEdit

Verbalization is no longer productive in modern Ukantel, as verbs are a closed class. However, many methods of verbalization are fossilized, and as a result derived forms are rarely opaque. While forms are often similar in meaning, the meaning of a derived form may not be obvious. In this section, verbs are listed with the infinitive suffix. 

A small amount of verbs exist through zero-derivation, all of which are intransitive, and many of which have a translative sense:

sathë to grow, from sat 'tall'
tënhë to age, from tën 'old'
ökkehe to dry (intr.), from ök dry
hëdhë to bleed, from hëd 'blood'
oştahë to burn, from oşta 'fire'

ParticlesEdit

Particles in Ukantel are function words that must be associated with another word or phrase to impart their meaning. 

PostpositionsEdit

Ukantel has postpositions, which all force their complements into a specific case. They are a closed class and are listed below in a table by the case they govern. 

Postposition Meaning Case
acu as, than, like Nominative
är at, in Dative
üle on (horizontal) Dative
şän on (vertical) Dative
in (s.t hollow) Dative
sed in, among Dative
wik outside Dative
üçü near, next to Dative
ossat against Dative
üsör because of Genitive
tege except Genitive
liş to, towards Genitive
höre from Genitive
kittö through, via Genitive
hudut until, as far as Genitive

SyntaxEdit

NumeralsEdit

Cardinal numeralsEdit

Ukantel has a decimal numeral system. There are distinct numeral roots for each unit digit (1-10), and for powers of ten, namely kosa "hundred (100)", hüttö "thousand (1,000)", and yalit "ten thousand (10,000)". In forming powers of ten higher than ten thousand, compounds of these roots and yalit are used, namely kine yalit "hundred thousand (100,000)", kosa yalit "million (1,000,000)", hüttö yalit "ten million (10,000,000)", and yalit yalit "hundred million (100,000,000)". These bases denoting powers of ten and compounds thereof are not numerals in themselves, being true nouns instead, and thus may not stand on their own when acting numerically. The word "nothing" is used in place of zero. Other numerals are formed using decimal structural principles. Teens, twenties, thirties, etc are formed using the tens word (10, 20, 30, etc) followed by a unit digit, written as a single word. Tens, except for 10 itself, are formed semi-regularly from unit digits using the suffix -tUk. When forming tens with this suffix, some of the unit digits may drop or elide their final vowel.

The formation of larger numerals is somewhat irregular from a semantic point of view. Up to 10,000, numerals are formed similarly to English: cf. 2,304 two thousand three hundred four and öt hüttö salë kosa şac or 5,649 five thousand six hundred fourty nine and saç hüttö ege kosa aynutukäd .However, ten-thousands (i.e. 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, etc) themselves are formed using 10,000 eylit. For example, 10,000 is eş yalit (lit. one ten-thousand) and 20,000 is öt yalit instead of kine kosa and öttük kosa respectively. However, thousands in between are formed as in English, meaning 21,000 is öttükeş hüttö. This is true for other bases denoting powers of ten as well. 

A succinct amount of numeral forms are found in the table below.

Numerals
0 20 öttük
1 21 öttükeş
2 öt 22 öttüköt
3 salë 23 öttüksalë
4 aynu 24 öttükaynu
5 şac 30 saltuk
6 ege 40 aynutuk
7 awço 50 şactuk
8 ņeli 60 entük
9 äd 70 awçotuk
10 kine 80 ņeltük
11 kineeş 90 ädtük
12 kineöt 100 eş kosa
13 kinesalë 200 öt kosa
14 kineaynu 1,000 eş hüttö
15 kineşac 30,000 salë yalit
16 kineege 55,000 şactuk şac hüttö
17 kineawço 140,000 kineaynu yalit
18 kineņeli 7,000,000 awço kosa yalit
19 kineäd 80,000,000 ņeli hüttö yalit
10,741,056 eş hüttö yalit awço kosa aynutukeş hüttö şactuk ege
236,800,599 öt kosa saltukege kosa yalit ņeltük yalit şac kosa ädtükäd

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