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Āj

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Āj
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 1
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator The Kaufman

Āj is the language formerly spoken north of the Köz tribes (although unrelated to any of the Köz languages) which is the ancestor of a vast majority of the languages spoken west of the Dividing Range of the Old World.

Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

Āj had a moderately-sized inventory of 24 consonants and a rather large one of 15 vowels (8 short and 7 long)

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m <m> n <n> ɲ <ň> ŋ <ŋ>
Plosive p b <p b> t d <t d> k g <k g>
Fricative f v <f v> s z <s z> ʃ ʒ <š ž> x ɣ <x ɣ>
Approximant j <j> w <w>
Trill r <r> ʀ <ʀ>
Lateral app. l <l>

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i y <i y>
i: y: <ī ȳ>
u <u>
u: <ū>
Mid e ø <e ø>
e: ø: <ē ø̄>
ə <ə> o <o>
o: <ō>
Low a <a>
a: <ā>

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

The grammar of Āj is fusional and (in verbs) agglutinating and has few irregularities.

NounsEdit

Āj nouns distinguish 8 cases, 3 numbers and definiteness in singular.

Most nouns have a second (accusative) stem, used for applying certain case endings.

Consonant stemsEdit

The consonant stems in Āj are mostly of common gender (with very few exceptions) and are the primary declension class.

An example consonant-stem noun is mōn, mōni "friend"

Singular Definite Dual Plural
Nominative mōn mōni-š mōn-ad mōni-g
Accusative mōni mōni-št mōn-at mōn-ai
Genitive mōni-t mōn-ī mōn-id mōn-t
Dative mōni-s mōni-ši mōn-i mōn-as
Instrumental mōni-m mōni-ns mōn-īm mōni-vi
Vocative mōn-ə mōni-šə mōni-d mōni-g
Ablative mōni-lle mōni-llī mōni-llid mōni-llig
Locative mōni-wa mōni-wā mōn-ud mōni-wag

ā-stemsEdit

These stems constitute another major declension class. As evident from their name, they always end in <ā>.

An example ā-stem is ədābā, ədābo "coin"

Singular Definite Dual Plural
Nominative ədābā ədābo-m ədābā-d ədābā-g
Accusative ədābo ədābo-nt ədābā-t ədābā-n
Genitive ədābo-t ədābo-s ədābo-nd ədābo-t
Dative ədābā-s ədābā-ši ədābā-l ədābā-ns
Instrumental ədābo-m ədābo-ns ədābo-lm ədābā-v
Vocative ədābō ədābōm ədābōd ədābōg
Ablative ədābo-llə ədābo-llī ədābo-llid ədābo-llig
Locative ədābowa ədābo-wā ədābo-wad ədābo-wag

VerbsEdit

The verbs have 2 classes, classified by endings: regular (-ād, -ūd, -ø̄d, -īd) and -əd. The ending in -īd verbs is always stressed, and -əd has a different conjugation. The only difference in the inflection of the regular class is the root vowel. Short vowels (except <ə>) and <ē ō> don't occur before the -d ending. Most irregularities in verbs are in their stem forms.

Āj non-defective verbs inflect for (undecided), 3 persons, 3 numbers (singular, dual, plural) and an obviative (4th person).

Below is an example of the example regular verb, āɣūd "to build", conjugated in the indicative mood. Pretty self-explanatory.

Singular Dual Plural
1st person āɣū-s āɣū-dis āɣū-n
2nd person āɣū-t āɣū-dit āɣū-nt
3rd person āɣū āɣū-d āɣū-g
4th person āɣū-vi

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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