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Žamauwyeyh Yatan

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Name: Žamauwyeyh Yatan

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: I don't even know what that means.

Head Direction: Or this.

Number of genders: One.

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No Yes No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Žamauwyeyh Yatan follows an SOV pattern. It is still heavily under construction and if the page could be cleared up (just visually for now, make it easier to look at), that would be much appreciated. Also, for words that have not yet been created, suggestions are requested.

SettingEdit

After watching Avatar, I decided to try to make my first constructed language. Žamauwyeyh Yatan was born! I used French as a loose grammatical base, and as I learn more about languages I will add to it. Due to the fact that I decided to give it a few loan words to make it seem more "real", if it had a country to be spoken in it would be somewhere near France, ideally in a little island in the Mediterranean Sea, called Žamauwya.

PhonologyEdit

Pheonetically, it is very similar to Adwan, with no "b" and a Welsh double-l sound.

I originally had different letters in the alphabet, but I changed them so that it is easier to differentiate between them. Diacritic marks(if acute accent or accent grave, pronounciations do not change) do exist, so it is necessary to know them.


a=ah

e=ee

i=eye

o=oh

u=ooh


č=voiceless postalveolar affricate

ð/đ=th

ф=voiceless labiodental fricative

j=y if there is no "y" already in the word, but if there is, then j

ŋ=voiced velar nasal

g=hard "g"

ğ=soft "g"

ī=ai

ł=voiceless alveolar lateral fricative

š=voicelessvpostalveolar fricative

y=always a consonant

ž="s" as in "treasure" or "Asia"

ʔ=glottal stop

Alphabet pronunciations (Tejekatwa i še Akal)

a, á, à, č, e, é, è, d, ð, ф, v, j, ŋ, g, ğ, h, i, í, ì, ī , k, l, ł, m, n, o, ó, ò, ö, p, q, r, s, š, t, u, ú, ù, ǘ, w, y, ž, ʔ, ’, ’ ’, ’ ’ ’.

ak al at četa ek el et deka đota фota veka jeka ŋota geka ğeta heka ik il it īn keta leka łota meka neka ok ol ot eön peka qeta reka seka šeta teka uk ul ut eǘl weka yeka žeta koʔono ukono takono tukono

PhonotacticsEdit

Žamauwyeyh Yatan does not consider "sh", "ch", "th", "ng", "hl", or "ai" to be consonant clusters or separate sounds, with a single letter for each of these sounds.

Basic GrammarEdit

DictionaryEdit

It: nu__ it’s: ni__ and: pé__ of: i, or iy if the next letter is a consonant__ to: hi, or h’ for the same reason as above (reason A)__ if: mu, or muk for reason A__ a/an: u, or ut for reason A__ the: še, or šey for reason A__ that (thing, not like, <>): to__ this: ti__ who: kéna / ména /mén__ what: méla/ mél__ where: lika/mika/ mék__ how: kotan__ why: téča / méča / méč__ when: qyet__ because: čqé (ch-k-ay, chkay), potégka if formal or old Jamauwyi___with: menu or: tsu___but: šu___that (like <> in French): la___for: pa__ ever: kéyté___like, similar to: poka, po, or pok for reason A___so: tsa on: su___more: mau, mauw for reason A__ also: kéra___at: ko, can be used like “au” in French___a bit: kri, in small amounts___a lot: kra, in large amounts__ which: ki___other: lùta, diacritical mark for differentiation from “lutī”__ no: ké, or key/ke’lt for reason A___kingdom: tođa___next: perčo___beautiful: perša__ thing: liy___by: ro___from: hé ___each: ré Dog: čos___cat: tasé__ game: šam___dishes: vasli (not plural in NJ)___world: kaču__ verb: pešta___stupid: keto__ group: teišé___day: фo___night: tal___child: yatu___disaster: loki__ just: kor___big: ja, like “ya”, but “ja” only if there is no other “y”-like sound in the same word__ language: yeyh___nothing: keliyt___please: ğérau__ nice: jéru___pain: deču___mean: kotar__ power: pe’a___happy: kayà___sad: čayà


Example textEdit

Lo ke pudešačémé kra= He would hit me with the palm of his hand a lot; literally: He me hit-withPalm-3rdPersonSingular-pastTense-conditional in-large-amounts.

The book:

Chapter 1Edit

Pronunciations of foreign diacritic symbols and fricatives are shown in Chapter 4.

In the New Jamauwyi language, there is only one verb type and no genders. This verb type is called an “~ī” verb. There are as many pronouns in New Jamauwyi (NJ for short) as in English. These are:


Kan=I Tri=You

Lo=He Ži=She

Šo=One Takan, ta’an, or taan (or čan)=We


Čo=They


There are also the separate forms of pronouns (I’m not sure what they’re called):


Ke=Me

Tre=You, like <<toi>> in French

Le=Him Že=Her

Take, ta’e, or tae (or ča’e)= Us Či or če=Them



For we, us, and they, the most common variations are Takan, ta’an, take, ta’e, and či. Now, for pronunciations. “Kan” is like a cross between can and con, can if you would need to say it quickly. Tri is like tree, ši is like she, and šo is like show. Takan is like kan with “tah” at the beginning, ta’an is like dragging out the “a” sound intan, but it sounds either like “taaaaaahn” or “ta-” “-an”, where you break it up with a slight “uh” noise by shutting of air halfway through. Taan is just “taaaaaahn”. Čo is like show, but with a “ch-” sound at the beginning instead of a “sh-” sound.


The other pronouns are harder, but follow a general rule of pronunciation, as they are pronounced much like Japanese syllable characters— but that probably doesn’t help, so… Ke=kay, tre=tray, le=lay, she=shey, take=tah-kay, and ta’e is the same kind of thing as ta’an, but more like ta’ey. Tae is like “tah-ey”.


Now that that’s over, we can do verbs.


“~ī” or “ai” verbs

Kan ~ Tri

Lo/Ši/Šo ~a (sometimes just an apostrophe works, unpronounced; instead of “a”)

Takan ~o

Čo ~i That is a fairly simple verb pattern— and in NJ, the only one, too.


There is one irregular verb, ł'en, or “to have”. We’ll get to that later.


Inalī, to help. Lohatī, to wonder. Šamī, to win. Farī, to do. Latī, to dance. Tošī, to be able to. Kehī, to mourn. Kalī, to be. Talī, to need to or to have to, like “devoir”. Kamī, to fare, to be, to be feeling. Koratī, or kortī, to play. Lehimantī, to preserve. Lilitī, to darken. Petī (derived from Petlitī, which used to mean, “to want”), to want. Patī, to like.


Pokatī, to bully. Pentī, to eat. Nikirī (or Nikī), to kill. Liritī or lirī, to run. Dečī, to hurt. Žitelhī, to adore, to worship. Mikiroličī, to conjugate. Tahī, to go, used like “aller”. Soфahri'ł'itikī, to eclipse or overcome. Kočī, to look. Mekī, to learn. Surī, to survive. Kulī, to place or to put. Pelī, to like. Lerī, to walk. Tanī, to worry. Merī, to “should”. Perī, to say or to speak. Žanī, to sing. Le'ŋ'ī, to name or to call. Tešī, to teach. Lešī, to learn. Solī, to know. Dankī, to thank. Kitī, to die. Tihī, to come. Žamī, to have one thing exist on the same plane as another, to exist.


Ražī, to rage. Jalī, to give. Jolī, to take. Dešī, to hit. Lerušī, to forgive. Lukī, to sin. Soфī, to save. Tandī, to guide or to lead. Košī, to tempt. Palarī (also “Palérī), to deliver. Jor-kī, to glorify. Tokanī, to exercise. Ležī, to wish. Kéyī, to tell the truth. Takī, to hunt. Ketī, to finish. Kimī, to conflagrate. Mesī, to finish. Halī, to choose.



Jekatī', to pronounce. Kemī, to brighten, to illuminate. Pirī, to turn. Metokī, to continue. Kelī, to jump. Meranī, to assassinate. Mesī, to pass. Pitī, to shoot. Tsakī, to poison. Kočenī, to build. Lotī, to change. Temī, to start, to begin. Jotī, to hack, to chop. Kotī, to pierce, to stab. Jutī, to slice, sometimes to chop. Jatī, to drink. Tomī, to grow. Katī, to time. Mukolī, to direct. And, obviously as this has already been covered, ł'en (or “ł'enī”), to have.


Should I link Jalī and Palarī?


At Tanī, I have 31 verbs (including ł'en).


“I help him” is not “Kan inal le” (“inal” is the “kan” conjugation for the verb “inalī”), a direct English translation. For a lot of sentences, French sentence structure is used. “I help him” becomes “I him help”, like French, and in NJ it is, “Kan le inal”. You’ve learned your first sentence!


What would “ They hurt me” be? Well, first of all we invert the sentence, so it becomes, “They me hurt” (“Ils me blessent” in French), and we need to remember that when we conjugate, we are conjugating primary pronouns, like they, he, or I. So, “they” becomes “Čo”, “me” becomes “ke”, and “hurt” is conjugated for “čo”, to become “deči”. So, “They hurt me” in New Jamauwyeyh is, “Čo ke deči”.


What about, “They are going to look at you?” This becomes, “They are going you to look at”— broken up, it is, “They-are going-you- to look (at)”. Čo tahi tre kočī. Hard, isn’t it? Oh well, keep positive and keep studying and you’ll surely get it! :)



Quick Pronunciation Guide


j: y, je= yey, or hard “j” as in “jewel”, or ž. If there is another “y” sound in the same word, then it is “j” or “ž”. If not, then it is “y”.

u:oo

i:ee

a: ah

o: oh

e: ey

Chapter 2Edit

Already on chapter 2?! Before you start this one, it would be a good idea to make sure you have at least fully understood chapter 1 to move on and not get lost. A bit of memorization would help, as soon I will guide you a little bit less to wean you into this new alien language.


“What now?” you ask yourself. Small, tier one connection words and nouns. Little, grade 4 curriculum. How do say, “and”? What is the word for “dog”? These kinds of questions will be answered here. These are Tier One words, allowing you to make a sentence that is a bit more complicated. Together, the Tier One small words and the Tier One nouns, obviously along with the Tier Zero knowledge, will allow simple conversations.


Good luck, you’ll need it.


How do you say...

It: nu

it’s: ni

and:

of: i, or iy if the next letter is a consonant

to: hi, or h’ for the same reason as above (reason A)

if: mu, or muk for reason A

a/an: u, or ut for reason A

the: še, or šey for reason A

that (thing, not like, <<que>>): to

this: tiy

who: kéna / ména /mén

what: méla/ mél

where: lika/mika/ mék

how: kotan

why: téča / méča / méč

when: qyet

because: čqé (ch-k-ay, chkay), potégka if formal or old Jamauwyi

with: menu

without: čenu, čun''

or: tsu

but: šu

that (like <<que>> in French): la

for: pa

ever: kéyté

like, similar to: poka, po

so: tsa

on: su

more: mau, mauw for reason A

also: kéra

at: ko, can be used like “au” in French

a bit: kri, in small amounts

a lot: kra, in large amounts

which: ki

other: lùta, diacritical mark for differentiation from “lutī

no: ké, or key/ke’lt for reason A

kingdom: tođa

next: perčo

beautiful: perša

thing: liy

by: ro

from:

each:

again: tse'

there: ma(h)

here: mi(y)


Going insane yet? I hope not… Those were just the Tier One (T1) small words! Now for the nouns, although there are fewer of these words. Adjectives are included in the “noun” department.


Dog: čos

cat: tasé

game: šam

dishes: vasli (not plural in NJ)

world: kaču

verb: pešta

stupid: keto

group: teišé

day: фo

night: tal

child: yatu

disaster: loki

just: kor

big: ja, like “ya”, but “ja” only if there is no other “y”-like sound in the same word language: yeyh

nothing: keliyt

please: ğérau

nice: jéru

pain: deču

mean: kotar

power: pe’a

happy: kayà

sad: čayà

Hopefully that was easier!




Exercises (Tri tošé kočī hi še “T1 small words” mu tri petlité)


Chapter One

Change the following sentences from English to Jamauwyi, or vice-versa. Also, there is an answer key below, so don’t scroll beyond lo taha ke pokatī.


I eclipse them.


Čo ke žitelhi!


You want to look at me.


Lo taha ke pokatī!



Chapter 3Edit

Random things

~čé is past tense, not ~tché.


~mé adds “would” before verb


~té is future tense


~sé adds “should” before verb


~ré adds “could” before verb


~lé adds “shall” before verb


te~ makes word plural


Kamé?” is a quick way of saying, “how are you?


Iła=now (še) ła=(the) present

iłé=later (še) łé=(the) future

iło=earlier (še) ło=(the) past

-u is like “-é” in French, sometimes creates a noun. Also, “wa” is like “é”.

~kè(y) adds “-ly” before word

~-kī adds “-ify” to the end of the word (makes it into a verb), but if the previous word ends in a “k”, then it becomes “-ikī”

~wa makes the verb a noun, in place of “ī~wo makes the word an adjective, replaces “wa” in verb-derived nouns

~we makes the word into a person who acts the verb, like nikirwe meaning “killer”

~wi makes the word end in “able”, like “nikirwi” meaning “killable”~wu=~ation/~ication

~at=~est, most ~ (should there also be a separate word for “most”?)


Kan' mé mu kan ré šu kan toš čal tsa kan lé čal.' I would if I could but I can’t so I shan’t.


Kamé?

How do you fare at this instant?


Téča? Čqé! Why? Because!


Ki tošto, ti meša, li yatu, si pešta!

My friend, your mother, his child, her verb!


Ki beno, фo pé kamé? My son, hello and how are you?


Ki čos pelé kulī li muké su še kaču! My dog likes to put his mark on the world!


Qyet tal-kan lerī še čos?I'ł'a? Kan pet čal to farī! (Kan pet to farī čal)? When do I have to walk the dog? Now? I don’t want to do that!


Kan to pet čal! I don’t want that!


Nu’kala kor la… Kan pet čal nu farī.

It’s just that… I don’t want to (do that).


Toš-kan to 'ł'enī?

Can I have that?


Kalo-ta’an ma méha?

Are we there yet?


Kan'' te liy pet! (originally: Kan pet to li)

I want that thing!



Tané čal.

Nevermind.


Kotan toša-nu kalī la ki beno kala mau je la ke?(originally

How can it be that my son is taller than me?



Téča kala-ne la ki beno kala la ke mau je?(originally: Téča kala-nu la ki beno kala mau je la ke?

Why is it that my son is taller than me?




Téča yišè ki beno kala la ke mauw je?(originally: Téča kala ki beno mauw je la ke?)


Why is my son taller than me?



Tri yišè Žamauwyeyh Yatan mekésé kotan perī! ''Tri ko-ne kaléme kol! (originally: Tri meré mekī kotan perī še Žamauwyeyh Yatan! Tri kaléme kol ko nu!)


You should learn how to speak Young Jamauwyi! You would be good at it!




Kan' ne ''ł'en! (originally: Kan nu 'ł'en!)


I have it!




Še tenuméta (Numbers)

One: u

Two: ta

Three: tu

Four: фu

Five: фa

Six: ra

Seven: ru

Eight: ma

Nine: ne

Ten: ku, occasionally uno or te’u

Zero: no

Eleven: kuno

Twelve: kuta

Twenty: teta

One-hundred: umi

Two-hundred: tami

Two-thousand: tamo

Thirty-thousand: tetumo

Four-hundred-thousand: фumimo

Five-million: фame

Seven-million-three-hundred-and-sixty-four-thousand-five-hundred-and-seventy-two: Rume-tumi’teraфumo-фami’teruta 7,364,572


In numbers, “te-” usually means “times ten”, and “-mi” usually means “hundred”. “-mo” is usually “thousand” and “-me” is usually “million”. Dashes go where commas would in Arabic numerals, and apostrophes separate separate numbers, and usually go where “and” would go.


Fifty-one: teфau

Forty-eight: teфuma

Thirteen: kutu

Seventeen: kuru

666: rami’terara

333: tumi’tetutu


102,030,201: umi’tame-tetumo-tami’u

555,555,555: фami’teфaфame-фami’teфaфamo-фami’teфaфa

1,234,567,890: umome-tami’tetuфume-фami’terarumo-mami’tene


(adding “i" before the number name, or “iy” for “one”, makes it like 1st , 2nd, etc.)




Yišè= “of the”, generally meaning the next word is the object, not the subject, and adding “y” before “i še” to make sentences easier.

Chapter 4Edit

Tri yišè Žamauwyeyh Yatan łené meku (learned) kotan perī kra. Še tepešta, še tenumero, kra pé kra, méha pé méha. Ła, nu’kala še…


(originally: Tri łené mekīčé (learned) kotan perī kra i še Yatan Žamauwyeyh. Še tepešta, še tenumero, kra pé kra, méha pé méha. Ła, nu’kala še…)



“Missing” letters or sounds in the alphabet, which will be shown later: b, x.


Other words

Kaðo: difficult

Kaða: easy

Žanu: song

Yawuju: country

Yawu: city

Yawahu: continent

Yawa: province

Yawuja: nation

(originally “Kéya”) Kéywo: true

(originally “Kéyù”) Kéywa: truth

Si(y)èl': sky, with “y” it generally means, “heaven”.

Réфo, usually фokè: daily

Ném' Leŋwa: name

Laŋ:' noun

Tér: earth, land

Pèyn: bread

Loki: disaster

Luku: sin

Ča, ču: as, he was as good as his friend

Ča: on the same level of ____ness

Ču: like, “He jumped as a dog would jump”


Tor: for, “For thine is the kingdom…”

Da: in (physically)

Dako: into

Jor: glory

kituležu=will, death-wish

Sè: saint

Mèž: god

èra:

č’èra:

kéyté=ever

Teŋ:(plural and singular) witch

Haleǘ: faith

Lirwe: runner

Hałeǘ: angel


==Chapter 5 ==



Tri kala ko še lésu numéta фa? Koфorana (Congratulations)! Še lésu numéta фa kala kaðo kra, tsa koфorana méha!


Kye Kye Kulé

Čé Čé Kulé


Kye Kye Kofisa

Čé Čé Koфisa


Kofisa Langa

Kofisa Laŋga


Langa Chi Langa

Laŋga Či Laŋga


To kalače u žanu Aфrikyeyh, “Kye Kye Kulé”, u žanu ki kala kéra u šam iy Aфrikyī (of the African peoples) iy Aфrikya (Africa, the land itself)


That was an African song, “Kye Kye Kulé”, a song that is also a game of the Africans of Africa.




Jaya (big land, “ja-yah) kalačé še iyu yawu i še Žamauwyī.


Še yawuju mé iłé leŋa Iyuya (First land). I'še'ʔ'iyuteyīya (Land of the first peoples, literally of-the-first-plural-person/race/group/ethnicity-land) kalačé še iyu yawa i še Žamauwyī. Jamauwya kalačé še iyu yawuja i še Žamauwyī.




Normally, Jamauwyi follows an “SOV” pattern, and a noun-adjective subject rule. When using the people, language, or land words, we invert the second rule mentioned. Therefore, “Yakéto” (stupid land) is technically incorrect, and should become “Kétoya”.




Kal’-nu la…


Is it that, does/do, <<est-ce que?




Nebla


Cloud




“Te-” is plural prefix for words in English where the equivalent is “-s”, but for things that usually end in “-ae” and are of Greek or Latin origin, “É-” is added, or “Éy-” if the next letter is a consonant. This also happens for any noun that can be pluralized in English, that ends in “-a” when singular. The pronounciation is simply adjusted, and then it follows the rule above.




Nebyula, Yénebyula.


Nebula, Nebulae.




Ensiklopidia, Éyensiklopidia.


Encyclopaedia, Encyclopediae.




Čan kalo pe’ahu, pé čan talo фarī mela ''čan tošo pa či yawuja!


We are powerful, and we must do what we can for our nation!








Še фu tesikla i temani


The four circles of pronouns




Sikla u

Kan


Tri


Lo


Ži


Šo


Čan


Čo




Sikla ta

Ke


Tre


Le


Že


Šé(y)


Ča’é (or Čayè


Če




Sikla tu

Ki


Ti


Li


Žui


Ši


Či


Čui




Sikla 'ф'u




Žī



Čī


T’šī




Englyeyh: I, me, my, mine, etc.




to=that, tau=those


tiy=this té=these



Ma kali ta tečos.


There are two dogs.




Nu-kal’ (Nu kala) u loki.


It is a disaster.




Kal’-nu še kéyù? Kal’-nu kéya?


Is it the truth? Is it true?




Verbs for which “wa” is noun and “u” is “é”

Košī, košwa=temtation


Kitī, kitwa=death


Surī, surwa=life


Lilitī, lil’twa=evil “darkness”


Tokanī, tokanwa=exercise




Či Maža




Či Maža, mén kala ko Siyèl,


žitelhaču kala ti ném,


ti tođa tiha,


ti ležwa kala faru,


su Tér po ko Siyèl.





Ča’é jalé tiy 'ф'o či pèyn 'ф'okè,


pé ča’é lerušé i či telukwa,


ču či lerušo tau mén ko ča’é luki.





Pé ča’é tandé čal dako še košwa,


šu ča’é palaré hé še lil’twa.





(Tor tī kala še tođa,


še pe’a pé še jor,


pa kéyté pé kéyté.)





Émèn.




==Chapter 6 ==





Note: Nu follows the four pronoun circles, as well as to and tiy.




Sikla u

Nu


To


Tiy


Tau





Sikla ta

Ne


Te


Tiyè


Tauyè


Téyè




Sikla tu

Ni


Teyì


Tiyì


Tauyì


Téyì




Sikla фu



Ti’ī


Tau’ī


Té’ī




Še tetakwa i teŋ łeni ketu.


The witch hunts are over.




Bayonetta kal’ še Jateŋ i še Žamauwyī.


Bayonetta is the All-Witch of the Jamauwyi.




Nu té’ī kal’.''


It is of these.




Pikotuko še mèž i še Žamauwyī kal’.


Pikotuko is the god of the Jamauwyi.




Ru teretu ma kali. Kun, šon, pal, kos, mer, pé šut.


There are six elements. Earth, fire, air, light, water, and shadow.




Note: Kimwa is (a) flame, but šon is fire




New words

retu: element


kun: earth


šon: fire


pal: air


kos: light


mer: water


šut: shadow




Kan še kun jol ła, pé še pal jalté.


I take the earth now, and will take the air.




Še kos še mer kot’, pok u yatu.


Light pierces the water, like a child.




Lo kimwi kal’.


He is flammable.




Lo ‘u tandwe kal’.


He is a leader.




Ši te far’té čal čqé shi ‘u tanwe kal’.


She won’t do that because she is a worrier.




Haleǘ u lirwi kal’.


Faith is a runner.




Haleǘ ro Sè kal’čé halu.


Faith was chosen by God.




Yatan Teli

Some: Ker


Every: Ketà


Any: Natè





Note: In English, when saying things like “nowhere” or “everywhere”, we normally use “where” as “place”, but in NJ, using “mék” like that would be considered incorrect, so we use “mak”, “place”, instead.








English

Adverb

No~

Some~

Every~

Any~

Thing

Liy

Kèliy

Kerliy

Ketàliy

Natèliy

One

Šo

Kèšo

Keršo

Ketàšo

Natèšo

Place

Mak

Kèmak

Kermak

Ketàmak

Natèmak

Time

Katwa

Kèkatwa

Kerkatwa

Ketàkatwa

Natèkatwa



Ko tetetu, ketàšo kal’če jéru, šu čal ła.

In the thirties, everybody was nice, but not now.




Mék? Kèmak.

Where? Nowhere.




“Šo yišè košwa tosh’ čal perī.”

“We cannot speak of temptation.”



SHOULD I MAKE “TALĪ” INTO A SUFFIX?




Mék kaliče še tetetu?

When were the thirties?



==Chapter 7 ==



Alphabet pronunciations (Tejekatwa i še Akal) —originally “akat”, the grave/acute accent rules used to be not shown in the alphabet, now corrected

a, á, à, č, e, é, è, d, ð, ф, v, j, ŋ, g, ğ, h, i, í, ì, ī , k, l, ł, m, n, o, ó, ò, ö, p, q, r, s, š, t, u, ú, ù, ǘ, w, y, ž, ʔ, ’, ’ ’, ’ ’ ’.




ak


al


at


četa


ek


el


et


deka


đota


фota


veka


jeka


ŋota


geka


ğeta


heka


ik


il


it


īn


keta


leka


łota


meka


neka


ok


ol


ot


eön


peka


qeta


reka


seka


šeta


teka


uk


ul


ut


eǘl


weka


yeka


žeta


koʔono


ukono


takono


tukono


Rules: Normal vowels end in “k”. Accent grave vowels end in “t”, acute accent vowels end in “l”. Letters with Breve accents end in “eta”, and letters which are (visually) variants of normal Latin letters end in “ota”. Letters that sound like “k” must not end in the normal “eka”, but in “eta”. Umlaut letters look like “e_n”, and double-diacritical letters mix both umlaut and accent rules, so they start with “e”, then there is the double-diacritical letter, and then the diacritical mark at the top of the letter determines whether the last letter is a “t” or an “l”. On the side, “apostrophe” in NJ is “kono”, and the full glottal stop is “koʔono”. Finally, the letter “ī” is irregular (all of the letters except “i" sound like their English letter names, while “I" takes on a Japanese-like sound), so it takes the “n” letter, notifying that it is not regular.




Tekono

Solé-tri la ko še Žamauwyeyh Yatan, ma kali teu teliy la če leŋi “tekono”?


Muk u kono ma kal’, čan te leŋo ko še Englyeyh, “Singular”, čqé u yaž kal’ jolu.


Nu “Dual” kal’ mu ta teyaž kali jolu, pé ma kali ta tekono, pé nu “Plural” kal’ mu tu tsu mau teyaž kali jolu, tsa ma kali tu tekono.


Grammar note: “in English” modifies the verb “to call”, so it falls after “leŋo”.


Note: U or ut is usable when speaking of something where there is no indefinite article in English, like “bread”, so we say, u pèyn, which means “some bread”. Also, ker should not be used—ker pèyn is usually considered incorrect, because generally ker is reserved for things that use “quel’que” in French, so we can say ker tečos, “some dogs”, but not “ker pèyn, because we don’t say “some breads”. In the end, u or ut is used like “du” or “de”, teǘ is used like “des”, but ker is used like “quel’que”.———>APPLY TO WHOLE DOCUMENT!!! “tei” instead?


“Ya” as “land” only works for continents and countries. For provinces and cities, it follows an NJ-ized form of the word.


Yawa=province Yawu=city



==Chapter 8 ==



AΦganistya=Afghanistan


Kanadya=Canada


Amèrikya=America


Somaliya=Somalia


Iyjiptya=Egypt


Libiya=Libya


AΦrikya=Africa


Yuropya=Europe


Éža=Asia


Astréliya=Australia


Antarktikya=Antarctica


Arktikya=Arctic


Prasilya=Brazil


Italìya=Italy


Greskíya=Greece


Čīnya=China


Žapánya=Japan


Papa-i-Gini-Yatanya: Papua New Guinea


Serbìya=Serbia


Kroéša=Croatia


Koriya=Korea


Madagaskariya=Madagascar


Hawīya=Hawaii


Rušà=Russia


Pandoriya=Pandora


KaliΦornia=California


Toranto=Toronto


Spanya=Spain


Yatan York Yawu=NYC Is “rk” without a vowel after consonant-cluster legal?


Moskaw=Moscow


Pari=Paris


Kalgari=Calgary


Vankuver=Vancouver


Las Végas=Las Vegas


Los Anğéles=Los Angeles—If “Los Anjéles”, would be pronounced “Los Anyéles”


Róm=Rome


Soréntò=Sorrento


Šikágo, alternately Žikágo=Chicago


Neváda=Nevada


Des Moines, Iowa?




yež=word


yuž=sentence


yaž=letter


Φotu=week


Φoto=month


Φota=year


Satérn=Saturn


yož=paragraph, verse


yīž=page


Leš/Lešutsa=Book/Document




Accent and Stress Rules: There can never be an accent on the first vowel of a word, EXCEPT if the word is one syllable long. The accent generally literally points toward where the stress should be put in the word, but if the vowel is marked with an acute accent, then it is that syllable that should get the emphasis. If there is no accent, then usually one should put emphasis on the FIRST VOWEL THAT COMES AFTER TWO LETTERS, but only if there are at least TWO LETTERS BEFORE the vowel. If there is only one (which would have to be a consonant), then the next syllable gets the stress, UNLESS THE VOWEL IN THAT SYLLABLE HAS ONLY ONE CONSONANT BEFORE IT, or if an accent points otherwise, like backward to the first syllable, in which case that first syllable gets the stress, EVEN IF THERE IS ONLY ONE LETTER BEFORE THAT SYLLABLE. Also, if the first syllable should get the emphasis because there are two letters before it, but there is an acute accent on another syllable, then it is the acute accent syllable that gets the stress. Overall, accents govern over letter counting, but if there is no accents, then letter counting is used. ALSO, AN “i" USUALLY GETS THE STRESS, EVEN IF IT DOES NOT FOLLOW TWO CONSONANTS, UNLESS AN ACCENT GOES AGAINST THAT. The SECOND SYLLABLE often gets the stress, also, so the final order is accent, second syllable, “i", and finally letter counting. Finally, a two-syllable word always puts the accent on the first syllable, UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED BY AN ACCENT.




TeΦo i še Φotu

Monday=LilitwoΦo


Tuesday=TírΦo


Wednesday=WodenΦo


Thursday=ĐunarasΦo


Friday=FrejaΦo


Saturday=IsatérnΦo


Sunday=KemwoΦo



Kemwo is an adjective, so it kind of makes sense, but should it be kemwa?


Sun=kemwa

moon=lilitwa (third “i" is pronounced, unlike in “lil’twa”, which means “darkness”)




Moon

Mars/Týr

Woden/Odin/Mercury

Thunaraz, Thunor, Thor

Freyja, Frigg, Frige, Frijjō

Saturn

Sun



Colours/Temanda

A/ha=”light”, “shallow”, occasionally “empty” different from kemwo=bright


Light/Shallow cannot be “ah” or “hah”, because “sak-ah i kimwa” would sound like “sak-a hi kimwa”, which would change the meaning from “gun of death” to “gun to death”, which would be a bit confusing. Insead, use a full glottal stop.


Red=Mar


Orange=Tsok


Yellow=Kil-a


Green=Mern


Blue=Mir


Purple/Violet=Mīr


White=Kar


Black=Kir


Grey=Kīr-a


Gold=Kil


Silver=Kīr


Turquoise=Mir-a


Magenta= Mīr-a


Brown=Kal-originally “kol”, beige was “kol-a”—but that means “good”


Tan/Beige=Kal-a



==Chapter 9 ==



The thing that scares me is that you have made it to chapter 9. There will now be more lists of vocabulary, more rules to remember, more tips, and more history—but less help. All I can say is good luck, and hopefully you can read to the end of chapter 10, and to the end of this guide. These next two chapters will be the biggest in the guide.




Direction words

Up=Tak


Down=Tok


Left=Rut


Right=Rót


Edge/Rim=Maka


Centre/Middle=Žako


Corner=Mutsitsi


Straight=Pat


Diagonal=Kitaka


Degree=Lešo


A turn=u pirwa


Through=Ketsa


Above=Korén


Around=Tsutan


Under=Maka


Beyond=Ketsano


Across=Kotsan


Go past the dog=tahé puku še čos.


Pass the cat on the corner=Mesé še tasé ko mutsitsi.


Turn (left, right) at the corner=Pirwé (rut, rót) ko mutsitsi.


Continue straight to the centre of the city=Metoké pat ko žako i še yawu.


Around the corner there is a place of the sun=Tsutan še mutsitsi u mak i še kemwa ma kal’.


Beyond Africa, there is Europe=Ketsano še AΦrikya, ma Yuropya kal’.


War Nouns

Sak-a=gun


Sak=Bow and arrow


Mento=arrow (santo?)


Ték=bow


U pitwa=a shot


Shotgun=pitwa-sak-a


a knife/a stab=u kotwa


Poison=Tsakwa


Majestic, Great=Kon



Family Nouns/Telaŋ i še Kočiya

Mother=Meša


Daughter=Pena


Sister=Mena


Aunt=Liké


Father=Mačas


Son=Peno


Brother=Meno


Uncle=Loto


Grandmother=Jameša


Grandfather=Jamačas


Great-grandfather=Kon-jamačas


Cousin=Marako (makaro?)—would sound like, “mara ko”, or “realm to”.



Plane, realm=mara



Peö=”second”, actually 10/23.3333etc. of a second




Kan' pet lotī še kaču.

I want to change the world.




Tsen


Tsan


Tson


Tsun




Direction=Mukolwa


North=Net


South=Set


East=Temwa (komwa? Tomwa?) U KETWA=A FINISH


West=Ketwa


An end, a finish=u ketwa


A start, a beginning=u temwa


Boy=šom (tsun?)


Girl=šém (tsen?)


Man=Jašom (tson?)


Woman=Jašém (tsan?)


Mister=Kijolt (Kijašom?)


Miss=Kijélt (Kijašém?)


Sir=Jolt


Lady=Jélt


Chair=Kolna


Table=Lekot


Elephant=Anoko


Monkey=Malno


Mouse (animal)=Min




~logical, ~ical=~ki




Mouse (computer)=Min-kolí (What is “kolí”?)


Computer=Kolí-tsekwo


Cell phone=Tsekwa


Electric(al)=Tsekwo


To electrify=Tsek


Electricity=Tsekwa


Electrification=Tsekwu


Short (in size)=ğa


Tall (in size)=ja


Small (in size)= ği


Big (in size)=ji


Skinny=ga


Fat=gi




Tree=Wén


Nature=Awéta


Leaf=Tsak


Fly (animal)=Tsi


Cave=Kurat


House, hut, dwelling=Met


River= ŋara


Ocean=Merja


Ax=Jotwa


Tool=Kutso


Floor=Tur


Ceiling=pišta


Wall=kelno


High=Qwi


Low=Qwo


Near=Qwa


Far=Qwu


Side=


Front=Qwa-nét


Back=Qwu-nét


Bottom=Qwo-nét


Top=Qwi-nét


Part=Nét


In front=Ko-qwa-nét


Behind


Beside


Apple=Mar


Orange=Tsok


Kiwi=Kiwi


Grape=Tsik


Pomegranate=Marperša


Grapefruit=Tsikimun (munitsik?)


Fruit=Mun


Vegetable=Gamun


Brussels sprouts=Tetomwa i Brasèls


Béarnaise sauce=Put Bérnés


Sauce=Put


Gravy=Putsa


Cow=Rumto


Horse=Mur


Squirrel=Lématsi


Bear=Tonok


Wolf=Jos


Lynx=Jatsè


A Sword/Slice=u Jutwa




Time=katwa


Before=


After=


During=


Meanwhile=


Out=do


Near=


Far=


Hour=


Minute=


Second=Peö (140 per min, not 60 per min, so not really second)


Week=


Year=


In=da


Always=


Rarely=


Sometimes=


Never=


Mostly=


Ball=


Lamp=


Bridge=


Island=

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