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Ǩüttǩarrą Roś

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Name: Roś Ǩüttovoǩarrą

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Ergative-Absolutive

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No Yes No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Ǩüttǩarrą Roś is an international anti-auxiliary language created by Mythos Wyrm and the Demon-Slayers around 1600 JU (approximately 1600 BCE).

SettingEdit

Creation StoryEdit

Ǩüttǩarrą Roś was first thought up after Mythos Wyrm, Greshkhan, and Ferdirend were kicked out of a tavern in Hattusa for fighting with some off-duty guards. As they sat around the campfire they made outside the tavern, Greshkhan commented on how much he hated the Hittes and their relatives (Indo-Europeans), destroying the Old Cultures and Languages, with their new ones. That got them onto the idea of creating a new language made for the sake of being difficult for the interlopers to learn. Over the next few hours they created a language heavy in fricatives (and consonants in general) and a grammar somewhat different from Hittite and Proto-Indo-European.

Modern DayEdit

These days Ǩüttǩarrą Roś is spoken among the Glorious Organization Dedicated to Warring Against Demonic Invasions (GODWADI), the international society of people who secretly protect the world against demon who want to take over the world, in their conferences and high-level meetings. Like the organization, the language is non-classified and it is being put onto the web to educate people for fun.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Epiglot.1 Glottal Glottal
Plosive


p

[b]


b

[b]

t t [t̪ʰ]

d d

[d̪]

tí t´

[t̪']

ć [cʰ]

y

[ɟ]

ćí

[c']

c [cʰ]

j

[ɟ]

ć

[c']

k


[kʰ]

g

[g]

[k']

k [kʰ]

g

[g]

[k']

q


[q]ʰ



[q']

q

[qʰ]


q́ [q']

'

[ʔ]


h

[ʔ]


Affricates

ṫ [ʦʰ]

[ʣ]

ţ

[ʦ']

č [ʧʰ]

[ʤ]

čí

[ʧ']

ṡ [ʧʰ]

ż

[ʤ]

ş

[ʧ']

h

[h]2

Fricatives

ḟ [ɸ]

b

[β]

p [ɸ]

[ɸ]

f [f]

v

[v]

f [f]

v

[v]

ť [θ]

ď

[ð]

ť [θ]

ď

[ð]

c [s]

z

[z]

s [s]

z

[z]

s [ʃ]

ž

[ʒ]

š [ʃ]

ž

[ʒ]

š [ʂ]

ź

[ʐ]

ś [ʂ]

ź

[ʐ]

ċ [ç]

ÿ

[ʝ]

č
[ç]

ǰ

[ʝ]

x [x]

ǩ [x]

ǧ

[ɣ]

q̌ [χ]

h x

[ʜ]

ḣ x̌

[ʢ]3

Lateral Fricatives

ľ ľ

[ɬ]

Lateral Affricates
Nasals

m

[m]

m

[m]

n

[n̪]

n

[n̪]

ń [ɲ]

ń [ɲ]

ň ň [ŋ]

Trills

r r

[r]

Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim.

j y

[j]

Lateral Appr.

l l

[l]

labio-velar approx.

w w

[w]

VowelsEdit

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close

ë i

[i]

å ï

[y]

ů u

[u]

Near-close

ö ö

[ʊ]

Close-mid

ä e

[e]

ü o

[o]

Mid

u ü

[ə]

Open-mid

e ë

[ɛ]

Near-open

a ä

[æ]

Open

o a

[a]4

1- Can Also be a pharyngeal consonant.

2- Is not an affricate, rather that is a mistake made by the table

3- Can be an aproximant.

4- Is more central, however the table messed this up.

When there are two sets of letters that have the same sound, the reason is that the first one comes from the older original orthrography and the second set come is from the newer updated orthrography. Consonants can be geminate and this phonemic. Gemination is represented by the doubling of the consonant. There are three distinctive lengths of vowels, short medium and long. Short vowels are represented by a single letter, medium ones by having an acute accent for aeiou and an ogonek for äëïöü, and long vowels are represent by doubling of the original vowel.


PhonotacticsEdit

Vowels-Edit

In Roś Ǩüttǩarrą no vowels can be next to eachother. If when combining morphemes, you find that two vowels are next to eachother, then one of a few things can happen.

  1. If the vowels are the same and their combined length is less than or equal to 3, then they combine and the new vowel is the combined length.
  2. If the vowels are the same but their combined length is greater than 3, then a glottal stop (sometimes some sort of approximent) is added between the vowels
  3. If the vowels are different, but part of the same assimilation group, and have a combined length of less than or equal to 3, then the combine, being the same vowel as the first vowel.
  4. If the vowels are different, but part of the same assimilation group, and have a combined length of greater than 3, then see class 2.
  5. If the vowels are different and part of different assimilation groups, then see class 2.

Consonants-Edit

The rules of consonant phonotactics and sound change are much more complicated. In short, the phonotactics are very loose and very much like Georgian and other Caucasian languages, with very long consonant clusters possible. However, there are many rules of sound change and alternation. First of all, all the obstruents in a group have the same voicing as the final cononant in the group. A group is the the consonants next to each other between sonorants or glottal stops/ejectives. So the cluster zfmgi would be pronounced [sfmgi], not [zfmgi] or [zvmgi]. Another example is kokvlzḱz which would be pronounce [kogvlsk'z], not [kokvlzk'z] or any other possible way of pronoucing it. Another point of alternation is that if two plosives from the same point of articulation are next to each other, they turn into a geminate (voicing depending on the above rule). So kg would be pronouced as [g:]. Also, when a frictive precedes a plosive at the same point of articulation nothing happens, but if the plosive precedes the fricative, then they geminate into the plosive. The only exceptions to this are when the dental plosives precede a silibant, it turns into the appropriate affricate (the retroflexes affricates only form this way and are allophones of the postalveolar affricates). If one or both of the consonants is already geminated then instead an enpenthetic vowel (ü /ə/) is placed between them and there is no assimilation. Also, glottal stops and ejectives do not cause these changes, just like how they break up consonant "groups". Another change is that nasals assimilate the the point of articulation of the following consonant, so ms is [ns] and nq is [Nq]. All of these changes are unwritten in most cases and must be learned. The few excpetions include case endings and other affixes made from multiple affixes.

Basic GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns have suffixes for definiteness, number (singular, dual or plural), and case.

DefinitenessEdit

The definite article/suffix is normaly ǩa, but it combines with the the dual and plural markers and is ťa and ľ, respectively. The definite suffix is need not just when you would need a definite article in english, but also after determiners and someother types of words. There is no indefinite article.

NumberEdit

Nouns can be either singular, dual or plural. Singular is unmarked, dual is marked with a ť, and plural with a ľ in the indefinite and combines with the definite article when the noun is definite.

Case Edit

There are 21 case sufixes in Ǩüttǩarrą Roś. They each have 6 "declenisation": definite singular, definite dual, definite plural, indefinite singular, indefinite dual, and indefinite plural, with number 4 (indefinite singular) being the basic form of the case.

case 1 2 3 4 5 6
absolutive -ǩa -ťa -ľ a -
ergative -ǩahí -ťahí -ľ ahí -ťí -ľ í
dative -ǩav -ťav -ľ av -v -ďv -ľ v
instrumental -ǩaho -ťaho -ľ aho -o -ťo -ľ o
commitive -ǩako -ťako -ľ ako -ko -ťko -ľ ko
genitive -ǩarrą -ťarrą -ľ arrą -rrą -ťrrą -ľ rrą
partitive -ǩahe -ťahe -ľ ahe -e -ťe -ľ e
benefactive -ǩać -ťać -ľ ać -ťć -ľ ć
compartive -ǩaht -ťaht -ľ aht -ht -ťht -ľ ht
essive -ǩak -ťak -ľ ak -k -ťk -ľ k
inessive -ǩas -ťas -ľ as -s -ťs -ľ s
subessive -ǩatï -ťatï -ľ atï -tï -ťtï -ľ tï
superessive -ǩaxo -ťaxo -ľ axo -xo -ťxo -ľ xo
adlative -ǩad -ťad -ľ ad -d -ďd -ľ d
inlative -ǩahüü -ťahüü -ľ ahüü -üü -ťüü -ľ üü
sublative -ǩan -ťan -ľ an -n -ťn -ľ n
superlative -ǩaș -ťaș -ľ aș -ťș -ľ ș
adablative -ǩaǰu -ťaǰu -ľ aǰu -ǰu -ť ǰu -ľ ǰu
inadablative -ǩakś -ťakś -ľ akś -kś -ťkś -ľ kś
subadablative -ǩap -ťap -ľ ap -p -ťp -ľ p
superadablative -ǩaw -ťaw -ľ aw -w -ťw

-ľ w

A brief description of each case:

Case Purpose
absolutive

Marks the argument of an intrasitive verb and the object of a transitive verb

ex: The dog slept; He ate the salad.

ergative

Marks the subject of a transitive verb

ex: The dog bit the man.

dative

Marks the recipient of something (certain verbs) or the indirect object of a verb.

ex: The man talked to the dog; I gave the box to her.

instrumental

Marks the thing being used

ex: I swept the mess up with the broom.

commitive

Marks something in the company of something else.

ex: I ate with the girl.

genitive

Marks possesion or relationships.

ex: The box of the man.

partitive

Marks that something that is part of something.

ex: Three of the houses (Thanks Wikipedia)

benefactive

Marks something for the benefit of something else

ex: John gave the ball to Ben for peace.

compartive

Used in comparisons.

ex: similar to/ like the boy.

essive

Locative, At.

ex: At the toystore.

inessive

Marks something that is in something.

ex: In the toystore.

subessive

Under something

ex: Under the toystore

superessive

On something

ex: On the toystore

adlative

Towards a point

ex: to the toystore.

inlative

Into something

ex: Into the toystore

sublative

To go under something

ex: He goes Under the toystore.

superlative

Onto something

ex: Onto the toystore.

adablative

To move away from a point.

ex: Away from the toystore.

inadablative

Out of something

ex: Out the toystore

subadablative

Move out from under something

ex: out from under the toystore

superadablative

Move off of something

ex: Off the toystore.


PossesivesEdit

The article can be replaced with a possesive suffix. This marks what owns the object, and takes the function of a possesive adjective (like my or your). The plural (of the object) is marked with a _________.

Person Singluar Dual Plural

1st (inclusive)

1st (exclusive) N/A
2nd
3rd

VerbsEdit

Verbs are polypersonal, being conjugated for the subject, direct object, and indirect object. They are conjugated for person, number, mood, and tense. There are evidental suffixs added to the end of verbs.

VoiceEdit

There are 2 voices in Ǩüttǩarrą Roś, active and antipassive. Active voice is the normal voice, while antipassive is formed by taking the subject and putting in the absolutive form, with the normaly transitive verb being used like it is an intrasitive verb.

Verb constructionEdit

Verbs are formed through the use of multiple suffixes. The order of suffixes is:

root dervational suffixes non-finite markers negative marker mood tense agreement evidental

The root can be composed of multiple roots (compounding) and there can be multiple dervational suffixes. There are two non-finite markers, Vv (V representing the vowel group of the verb, usually is o, but can be ö,ï, and ä) for verbal nouns (gerund ad infinitive), and VzVv (V is the same both times and refers to the rule above) for participles.

NegativeEdit

In order to make a verb negative, one adds -ǧom- after the non-finite verb marker (if applicable).

MoodEdit

There are nine moods. They are:

Mood Suffix
Indicative --
Imperative -q́i-
Weak Imperative -q̌i-
Suggestive -uḋ-
Conditional -ëčot-
Conditional 2 -ňübďe-
Hypothetical -xör-
Opative -itto-
Dubitative -gafš-

The use of the moods is:

Mood Use
Indicative

The basic form of a verb. Marks something as factual or real.

ex: The dog ate the food.

Imperative

The command form of a verb. Considered very rude and is onl to be used toward one's inferiors, or in times of urgency. It is never used with superiors or equals, unless there is an extreme need.

ex: Go!

Weak Imperative

Used with equals and superiors. Acts as a more polite form of the imperative. The idea is that command should be followed, but if the person decides otherwise then it is their choice.

ex: Please go.

Suggestive

Used for suggestions. The most polite of the imperatives, and can be used with anyone.

ex: Could you please go?

Conditional

Would. Used for a conditional sentences.

ex: I would go bowling, but my tire is flat.

Conditional 2

If. Also used in conditional sentences.

ex: If it snows, Jim will eat candy.

Hypothetical

Expresses something that could have been true, but wasn't.

ex: You could have broken your arm.

Opative

Expresses wishes, wants, hopes, etc

ex: May the king live long (Thanks Wikipedia)

Dubitative

Expresses uncertanity, doubtfulness etc.

ex: It probaly won't rain.


TenseEdit

There are nine tenses. They are:

Tense Suffix
Present - -
Immediate past -ḱo-
Hodiernal past -mužda-
Hesternal past -ibˇęm-
Past -kiňqa
Immediate future -set-
Hodiernal future

-xˇüta-

Crastinal future -jëšan-
Future -laź

The use of each future is:

Tense Use
Present

Used to denote verbs happening right then

Immediate past Used to denote an action that just happened
Hodiernal past Used to denote an action that happened earlier in the day
Hesternal past Used to denote an action that happened the day before, or less formally, sometime in the last few days
Past Used to denote an action that happened in the past, usuall more than a day or two before
Immediate future

Used to denote an action that will immidiately happen

Hodiernal future Used to denote an action that will happen sometime later today
Crastinal future Used to denote an action that will happen tomorrow or in the next few days
Future Used to denote an action that hasn't happened yet, but will happen in the future, usually in more than a day or two

AgreementEdit

EvidentialityEdit

In Ǩüttǩarrą Roś, one must explain who they come about information using an evidental suffix. There are 5 evidential suffixes in which are:

Evidential Suffix
Assumed - -
Inferential -vëk--
Hearsay -yäbri-
Visual sensory -yäm-
Non-visual sensory -yäňi-

The uses are:

Evidential Use
Assumed Used as the default evidentiality, or when there is no evidence in your favour.
Inferential Used when reporting information that you came by through inference. For example: The horsemen went this way because I see hoofprints in the snow.
Hearsay Used when reporting information that came from another person. For example: The horsemen went this way and I know this because Bob told me so.
Visual sensory Used when reporting events/information that you saw. For example: The horsemen went this way because I saw them go this way.
Non-visual sensory Used when reporting information that you came by through some non visual sense. For example: The horsemen went this way, which I know beacause I heard them go this way.

AdjectivesEdit

PostpositionsEdit

ParticlesEdit

OtherEdit

SyntaxEdit

Advanced GrammarEdit

Derivational MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

AdjectivesEdit

VerbsEdit

DictionaryEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

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