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Fa'lysh (فعليش)

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Fa'lysh
فعليش
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

For the most part, this page will be written in Romanized words (ie "a b c" not "ا ب س") for obvious reasons (because the author would like it to be easier to write). The IPA pronunciation/spelling of each word, however, may not be given, due to the sheer number of times the author would have to copy and paste.

In the immortalized words of Katniss Everdeen, "Thank you for your consideration."

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal/ Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive b t d k q
tˤ dˤ
Fricative f θ ð s z ʃ ʒ x~χ ɣ~ʁ ʕ~ʢ̰ ħ~ʜ h
ðˤ~zˤ
Approximant w ɫ j
Trill rˤ~r

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i (iː) u (uː)
Near-open æ (æː)
Open a (aː) ɑ (ɑː) ɒ
Diphthongs iu̯ ai̯ (aj) au̯ (aw) (uj) u̯a (wa)


PhonotacticsEdit

Since the written phonotactics differ from the spoken phonotactics, I will put both here.

(C=consonant V=vowel)

written= (C)(C)(V)(C)

spoken= (C)(C)V(V)(C)(C)


There are many combinations.

OrthographyEdit

AlphabetEdit

Letter Transliteration Pronunciation Name
ا a or " [aː] /haːliv/
ب b [b] /bæːb/
ت t [t] /tæːm/
ث th [θ] /θæːm/
ج j [ʒ] /ʒiːmz/
ح kh [ħ] ~ [ʜ] /ħæːθ/
خ x [x] ~ [χ] /xæːl/
د d [d] /daːlin/
ذ dh [ð] /ðaːlin/
ر r [rˤ] ~ [r] /rai̯ː/
ز z [z] /zæːθ/
س s [s] /siːn/
ش sh [ʃ] /ʃiːn/
ص s' [sˤ] /sˤɒːdiv/
ض d' [dˤ] /dˤɒːdiv/
ط t' [tˤ] /tˤɒː/
ظ z' [ðˤ] ~ [zˤ] /zˤɒː/
ع a' [ʕ] ~ [ʢ̰] /ʕɒːnin/
غ gh [ɣ] ~ [ʁ] /ɣɒːnin/
ف f [f] /fæːθ/
ق q [q] /qæːθ/
ك k [k] /kæːθ/
ل l [ɫ] /ɫai̯ːm/
م m [m] /miːmni/
ن n [n] /nuːnmi/
ه h [h] /hæːb/
و u [uː u w] /wau̯ːn/
ي i [j iː] /jæːn/































Implied LettersEdit

Not all of the vowels that are in the vowel phonology are listed in the alphabet, and that is for a reason. Sometimes, (perhaps most of the time) the vowels are implied using certain diacritics.

For example, if you were to write a word (ie shadiuz') you'd place a small diacritic, called fadh"kh (plural fadh"kh"i), above the sh (ش) like so شَ. Fadh"kh"i look like َ , and they denote a short /a/ sound. To denote the /i/ sound after the letter d (د), we place a kazr"kh (plural kazr"kh"i) below it. Kazr"kh"i look just like fadh"kh"i, but are placed below the letter they come after. In the afore mentioned word (shadiuz'), the kazr"kh would be placed below the d (د), and therefore look like this: دِ .

So, in essence, only the long vowels are written and the short vowels are sometimes written as small diacritics so as to be written swiftly and easily.

shadiuz' would therefore be pronounced as /ʃadiu̯zˤ/, and spelled 

Untitled-2

shadiuz'





There is another vowel written aometimes as a diacritic, and that vowel is u (و). Written as a diacritic, this letter is called a d'aim"kh, and is written above the preceding consonant. The d'aim"kh diacritic looks like this: ُ  (like a small awareness ribbon).

For instance: in the word jusard' the u is short, so it may be written as


Untitled-3

jusard'





Strange DiacriticsEdit

Some diacritics are not vowels, and some of those do not even have a phonemic value at all. An example of a diacritic with no phonemic value is a zukhun (plural zukhun"i). A zukhun may look like a small circle above a letter. The zukhun denotes that there is no vowel after the consonant that the zukhun is modifying.

Take into account the word xalban. There is no vowel between the l and the b, so to write this in the native Fa'lysh script, you would write

خَلْبان

x"lban





Another example of a strange diacritic would be the jadd" (plural jadd"i). The only thing that they do is double the consonantal value (instead of writing two of the same letter, just write a jadd" over the consonant to be doubled)

That is to say that if you were to write the same exact name of the diacritic you are using in the name of the diacritic (does that make sense?) jadd", then you would write

Untitled-6

jadd"

This example is nice because it also demonstrates the combination of two different diacritics, and how they could still be used in conjunction.



DiacriticsEdit

There are a couple diacritics (not including the fadh"kh"i, kazr"kh"i, zukhun"i, and jad"i), and they are used to change the pronunciation of some letters. These diacritics, in Fa'lysh, are called xhamz"i (singular xhamz"h). They look like a u with the top kicked over on its side to the right: ء

Whenever it is on the bottom of the letter a (ا), it changes the /aː/ sound to an /æ/ sound. When on the top, the /aː/ sound changes to the diphthong(s) /ai̯/ or /aj/

Like so:

Untitled-٤



However, when a xhamz"h is written on the letter u (و), it turns the /u/ sound into an /ɒ/ sound.

Like so:

Untitled-5




GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

PronounsEdit

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English Fa'lysh
1Ihana'
2you (singular)hanto
3hekhuwa
4wena'ghnu
5you (plural)hantuno
6theyhumin
7thiskhadha
8thatdha'ilik"
9herekhin"
10therekhin"q
11wholudhin
12whatmai
13wherekhaith
14whena'ndima
15howkift
16notlai
17alljmiq
18manyraghidid
19somebaghid
20fewflil"j
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
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195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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