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| Fai Language|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Phonology ∫aìlôñguaj uses 25 consonants and 10 vowels. All vowels can be rhoticized; two vowels (i/ı) can take tones (extra high, rising, falling, mid, and none). There is no standard ordering or grouping for consonants and vowels.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||ɸ β||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||x||h|
|Flap or tap|
- Used in the middle of words, whereas ÿ is used at the beginning.
- When this letter is followed by another vowel, the vowel in  disappears and is replaced by the next vowel.
†This letter is used to show an elision has occurred.
The standard form of any noun is objective form, suitable for use when the noun is the object of the sentence.
- ÿoc kôk xugão, zaua zahítonaì.
- As the King rules the country, the people love the king.
- ÿoc amakôk sì hítsíqíkmín fôndlô aßêç, ua sonaß npa.
- As America has a democratic constitution, it does not have a king.
The subjective form allows a noun to be combined with a verb to show that the given noun is the subject of that verb. Subjective nouns are only used in independent clauses. Nouns in the subjective form always end in -on.
- The people met.
Nouns ending in ô and a decline into the subjective form by dropping the terminal vowel and replacing it with -ºon.
- The person wrote.
Nouns are made plural by the substitution of -ºèn for the terminal vowel in words ending in ô or a, or by the addition of -èn to all other words.
ÿoc tuagè kôkèn xugão, tejkua zauºonua.
As the King rules three countries, the King is an emperor.
zagè xouºèn lonua.
They are all of the vice-roys.
The plural suffix is added before any other grammatical suffix.
- The peoples met.
- The persons wrote.
- Common Possessive
Nouns are made possessive by the additiong of dè between the possessor and the possessed.
- zaua dè kôk.
- The King's country.
- Literary Possessive
The qualifying particle za can be used to express possession in situations where a high degree of formality requires the possessed precede the possessor.
- Tejkua za Larjaptejkkôk.
- The Emperor of the Great Japanese Empire.
When something is the best version of something, or is the only of something, or comes first in a series, it is counted with the counter za built into the front of the noun.
- ∫aìzyñ sì, ∫aìkôk dè zavílonua.
- ∫aìzyñ is the capital city of the ∫aìkôk.
- síjwmín aßsoì zaxí sonua.
- It's the only free time I have.
When zagè is used before a noun, this signifies that it is the first in a series.
- kèße dè zagè torejn sonua.
- It is today's first train.
Any noun must be counted using a number plus the suffix -gè.
- nígè xêvèn monaß.
- I have two horses.
The numbers build on a base-10 system that builds from the smallest unit to the largest, where groups of numbers add from left to right and powers are connected by the multiplying particle mè.
|One Units||Tens Units||Hundreds Units||Thousands Units|
|0 w||10 díêz||100 cên||1000 míl|
Numbers are constructed in the following patterns:
19 non díêz
37 hêpt tuamèdíêz
954 yo cìnmèdíêz nonmècên
1877 hêpt hêptmèdíêz ôkmècên míl
- ôk nímèdíêzgè veèn sonaß.
- There are 28 days.
Decimals are expressed after any whole number to which they belong, in the same form as whole numbers, except that the multiplying particle is -mí-, and the decimal is introduced by the word unc.
3.14 tua unc yo díêz
115.25 cìn díêz cên unc cìn nímídíêz
- cìn yomèdíêz unc cìn hêptmídíêzgè fílèn sonaß.
- There are 45.75 stones.
Adjectives have no declension to match their nouns. Adjectives may appear at the end of a sentence before a verb. When used to describe a noun in the sentence, adjectives always precede the noun they modify, and take the suffix -mín.
- ro∂mín ÿam monmï.
- I see the red mountain.
- ro∂ sonua.
- It is red.
Pronouns decline heavily and behave at once as prefixes, suffixes, and individual words.
Personal pronouns contain relatively stable roots to indicate the number and person to whom they refer.
- This pronoun is used in second-person situations where the speaker has no information about the position of the other party. It is not used to express politeness to someone the speaker knows; it is only meant for situtations where the speaker does not know the interlocutor.
- voì huºonua?
- Who are you?
- kèplac vojonfumkè npa.
- You cannot smoke here.
- This pronoun is used in third-person situations where the speaker is indicating a particular person or thing. This pronoun is also used with non-personal concepts.
- Tô sonaì.
- He loves you.
- Nañ lonxa?
- What do they know?
†This pronoun is used in third-person situations where the speaker does not know the identity of the particular person serving as the antecedent. This pronoun is never used to refer to other than people.
- Huô mïsoìlè ÿosa monxa npa.
- I don't know whom I saw.
- ßangè tokèn honºonua?
- Who are the men from before?
††This pronoun is used in third-person situations where the speaker intends to generalize an action applying to all people who could be the antecedent.
- fualveèn ionrêsp.
- One breathes every day.
Pronouns in the objective form are used as words.
- sô monman.
- I eat it.
Pronouns in the subjective are only found in independent clauses; they are treated as prefixes of the verb.
Pronouns in the genitive are only found in dependent clauses. They are treated as prefixes to nouns to demonstrate possession.
- My head.
- Your soul.
- In independent clauses, pronouns are made possessive by adding the word dè between the pronoun and the possessed.
- mô dè hejm.
- My home.
- voì dè kôk.
- Your country.
Reflexive pronouns are used to express situations where the subject and object of the sentence are the same.
- mwên monaì.
- I love myself.
- mô dè bískuíèn honºí a man honºonaplè?
- Who ate my buiscuits? [Who fed themselves my biscuits?]
Pronouns in the incorporative are treated as suffixes to verbs and adverbs to show a personal involvement with, benefit from, or harm from the actions or actions described.
- unma a ßa tonßol?
- Do you want to go with me?
- ÿosa monxa npa.
- I do not know that. [I do not know as such.]
Paraverbal pronouns are used to stand in for or as suffixes and infixes to verbs in dependent clauses.
- tênhanx monïlè npa. to mô mïhejlèxí, huºoneßelè.
- I didn't catch what you were saying. Who ran away when they saw me?
- mansuñlèlè ÿosa xasoìlè zagè xí, age a man lonßollè.
- At the moment I realized they had eaten, they wanted to eat again.
In addition to these, there exists another paraverbal pronoun for official acts of state. This pronoun is gão.
- ßan kèlen fygãolè, ÿoc qutadêlô sonÿoñçlè.
- Before the king enfeoffed this land, it was used as a citadel.
- Non-personal interrogatory pronouns
Any concept can be made interrogatory by adding the prefix nañ-, which is also a separate word meaning "what."
- Nañxí nonßala?
- When will we go? [What time will we go?]
- Nañ a man tonßol?
- What do you want to eat?
- Which one?
- Relative pronouns
Relative pronouns take the form of prefixes; they are used depending on the distance of the object in question from the speaker and the interlocutor.
|Close to the speaker||kè-|
|Close to the interlocutor||qè-|
|Not close to either party||xè-|
- kèona huºonua?
- Who is this woman?
- qègè sì tô dè xíkonua?
- Is that yours?
- Degree of Dependence
The conjugation of a verb depends on whether it appears in a dependent or independent clause.
In dependent clauses, verbs take paraverbal pronoun suffixes to indicate person. They then accept suffixes to establish tense, mood, and negation.
In independent clauses, verbs take subjective pronoun prefixes to indicate person. They then accept suffixes to establish tense and mood. Negation is carried out by a separate word.
- Tense and Mood
For both dependent and independent verbs, the following suffixes are added directly after the verb, and before any negation, to indicate time and mood. The plain form of a verb is its indicative present form.
- [you] Go!
- sô ßonmanlè?
- Did you eat it?
- to ßaêçkèla xí, ô: ad sô tonaplalè.
- When he will be able to go, you will have given him money.
To indicate a passive voice construction, the suffix -ç follows the verb, before any tense or mood suffix. In independent clauses, the subject of a passive verb is written in the subjective and affixed to the verb; in dependent clauses, it is written in the objective. The agent of the passive verb is set off by the particle sì, in both dependent and independent clauses.
- zafôndlô sì zaua dè pubqíkonkreèçlè.
- The King's political mandate was created by the constitution.
Negation comes at the very end of a verbal phrase. Its form changes for dependent and independent verbs.
In dependent clauses, negation is achieved by adding -í to the end of the verb.
- íkoc laìêçí....
- Because he did not come....
The -í suffix adds irregularly to soì, transforming the word to sojí. Note the pronunciation is not identical to "sõí" but is instead [soj][í].
- ÿoc fhrancôn sojí....
- As I am not French....
When used with a tense or mood marker, -í combines with a terminal -è to form -eì and a terminal -a to form -aì.
- ÿoc manêckèlaì....
- As you will not be able to eat...
- ÿoc sô mïsoìlèleì....
- As I had not seen it....
For independent clauses, negation is achieved by adding the word npa after the verbal phrase.
- monua npa.
- I am not.
- soneßelè npa.
- He did not run away.