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About Edit

"9" is just a placeholder name until I come up with an actual name. I know English and am studying Japanese. We have too many conlangs based off of Western European languages, so I will make this language closer to Japanese, though I will attempt to create word roots completely from scratch. I plan to use some symmetry with the letters.

This is a work in progress. Everything is subject to change.

Phonology Edit

Alphabet Edit

vowels
i u
e o
a
consonants
x s/z β
k/g t/d p/b
ŋ n/l m

Script Edit

i e a o u
x s β
k t p
ŋ n m
z g d b l

The pronunciation of the consonants by themselves, such as when spelling something out, is formed by taking the letter and combining it with the vowel /e/.

The order for collation starts at the top-left of the grid, going left to right, then up to down. Letters listed in pairs are collated together, with the left one of the set coming first.

Sounds Edit

  • <i> is the close front unrounded vowel [i].
  • <e> is a mid to open-mid front unrounded vowel - ranging from [e̞] to [ɛ]
  • <a> is an open unrounded vowel - ranging from [a] to [ɑ].
  • <o> is a mid to open-mid back rounded vowel - ranging from [o̞] to [ɔ].
  • <u> is the close back rounded vowel [u].
  • Consonants represent their IPA equivalents. Plosives <k>, <t>, and <p> are normally aspirated, but are unaspirated following <s>.
  • Affricates [ts] and [dz] are used.
  • [j] and [w] are used between vowels, noted in the chart below.

Second Vowel →

First Vowel ↓

i e a o u
i N/A [ije] [ija] [ijo] [iju]
e [eji] N/A [eja] [ejo] [eju]
a [aji] [aje] N/A [awo] [awu]
o [owi] [owe] [owa] N/A [owu]
u [uwi] [uwe] [uwa] [uwo] N/A

Structure Edit

Syllable Structure Edit

The syllable structure is (C)V(n,s,t), where

  • (C) is an optional consonant.
  • V is a vowel (or diphthong).
  • Final <n>, <s>, and <t> are used for verb conjugations and loanwords only. Final <t> is unreleased [t̚].
  • /n/ assimilates to the next consonant.
  • Allowable medial consonant clusters are [mp], [mb], [nt], [nd], [ns], [nz], [nɾ], [ŋk], [ŋg], [sp], [st], and [sk].

Sentence StructureEdit

The unmarked word order of the language is (S)(O)V. A sentence only needs a verb to be grammatically correct. In these cases, the subject (and object, if applicable) is determined by context.

Stress Edit

For nouns, the penultimate syllable is stressed. For verbs, the final syllable is stressed.

Numbers Edit

Basic Numbers Edit

This language will use a dozenal base.

Name Symbol English Equivalent
o/no o zero
ko k one
ho h two
to t three
so s four
po p five
ɾo ɾ six
go g seven
zo z eight
do d nine
ɸo ɸ ten
bo b eleven

The symbols for the digits are simply an underlined letter. With this system, reading out a string of digits is as simple as reading out the letter with the vowel /o/. The word for "zero" has two possible pronunciations. It is normally /o/, but in certain cases such as when an ambiguity can occur between the number <o> and the letter <o>, then /no/ is used instead.

Larger Numbers Edit

<mi> is "dozen" and <mu> is "gross". When counting, you need to explicitly say "one dozen" and "one gross" instead of simply "dozen" and "gross".

Name Symbol English Equivalent Base 10 Equivalent
komi ko one dozen 12
komi-ko kk one dozen and one 13
homi ho two dozen 24
komu koo one gross 144
komu-to kot one gross and three 147
komu-homi-to kht one gross, two dozen, and three 171
bomu-bomi-bo bbb eleven gross, eleven dozen, and eleven 1727

A dash may be inserted between place boundaries for easier readability.

Nouns Edit

Nouns do not decline. A noun can represent one of any number, gender, or definiteness.

Case Particles Edit

Particles will be used to indicate the case of nouns. They are placed after the noun they modify.

Particle Case Indication
na Nominative Subject
ia Accusative Direct object
ua Dative Indirect object
di Genitive Relationship/possession
do Attributive
ka Locative/Temporal A specific location/time
ki Ablative/Egressive A starting location/time
ku Lative/Terminative An ending location/time
br Instrumental Means by which an action is accomplished

Noun Classes Edit

Every noun falls into one of four main classes. Of course, the classes themselves are nouns in their own right.

Noun Class Group
tana Animate
tama Inanimate
taŋa Abstract
taba Descriptive

The Descriptive class will be covered in a later section. The other three classes have sub-classes for extra precision. Some of the more important sub-classes are shown below.

Noun Class Sub-class Group
tana taʃi Human
tasu Non-human animal
taŋa kavi Time
kavu Location

Determiners Edit

The demonstrative determiners are <he->, <ha->, and <ho->, respectively meaning "which", "this", and "that". They are used before a noun class word.

Determiner he-
which
ha-
this
ho-
that
Animate Thing hetana hatana hotana
Inanimate Thing hetama hatama hotama
Abstract Concept hetaŋa hataŋa hotaŋa

To use determiners with a specific noun, use the prefix, followed by a class word, followed by the noun. For example, <hatama PIANO> means "this piano". While <hatana tasi> can be used to mean "which person", certain common nouns may take the determiner prefixes directly.

Determiner he-
which
ha-
this
ho-
that
Person hetaʃi
who
hataʃi
this person
hotaʃi
that person
Time hekavi
when
hakavi
now
hokavi
that time
Location hekavu
where
hakavu
here
hokavu
there
Reason ?
why
?
this reason
?
that reason
Amount (for count nouns) ?
how many
?
this many
?
that many
Amount (for mass nouns) ?
how much
?
this much
?
that much
Determiner ?
any
e-
all
?
some
o-
none
Person ?
anybody
etaʃi
everybody
?
somebody
otaʃi
nobody
Thing ?
anything
etana
everything
?
something
otana
nothing
Time ?
anytime
etaki
always
?
sometime
otaki
never
Location ?
anywhere
etaku
everywhere
?
somewhere
otaku
nowhere

Note that the determiner for non-existence uses the word for "zero", so that <otasi> literally means "zero people".

Personal Pronouns Edit

The most general way to refer to a person is by using their name, even when talking directly to them. A second-person pronoun exists, but it is mainly to be used if you don't know the name of who you are speaking to. However, using your own name to speak about yourself is considered childish or egotistic, so only the first-person pronoun sees general use.

First Person ai
Second Person au

Note that there is no third person pronoun. Again, the name of who you are talking about is to be used if it is known. Otherwise, use the phrase <hotasi>; "that person".

The suffix <mo> is added to indicate a group including the person you are talking about. This can be used to pluralize the pronouns, but it is not limited to being added to pronouns. e.g. <aimo> = we, <aumo> = you (plural), <Alice-mo> = Alice and her group.

Adjectives Edit

The base form of adjectives ends in <-lr> or <-hr> and represent something neutral. Words toward the negative direction end with <-i> and <-e>; toward the positive direction, <o> and <-u>. (Positive/Negative here does not necessarily correlate to desirable/undesirable.) The nominal form ends in <-a>.

-a
nominal
-i
<<
-e
<
-r
Neutral
-o
>
-u
>>
tala
quality
tali
very bad
tale
bad
talr
average
talo
good
talu
very good
mola
quantity
moli
very few
mole
few
molr
not many or few
molo
many
molu
a lot

Verbs Edit

Verbs conjugate for tense and polarity. Aspect is determined by auxiliary words placed before the verb. Mood is determined by auxiliary verbs placed after the main verb. A basic verb ends in <-ta>, <-da>, <-pa>, <-ba>, <-ka>, or <-ga>.

Copula Edit

The copula is <da>. It is used to say that a noun is another noun or has the properties of a certain adjective.

Sentence
ai na  tasi  da.
Gloss
1  NOM human be
Translation
I am human.

Existence Edit

The verb to show existence is <naba>. This can be translated to English verbs such as "to exist", "to be located", "to happen", or "to have" depending on how it is used.

Sentence
miua na  hitaku ka  naba.
Gloss
cat  NOM here   LOC exist
Translation
There is a cat here.
Sentence
ai di  guo na  naba.
Gloss
1  GEN dog NOM exist
Translation
I have a dog.

Note that this construction uses the genitive case, so it literally means "A 'my dog' exists".

Tense and Polarity Edit

To create the past tense, change <-a> to <-e>. To create the future tense, change <-a> to <-o>. To make verbs negative, add the appropriate nasal at the end. The copula conjugates irregularly.

to be Affirmative Negative
Past ade
was/were/was
aden
wasn't/weren't/wasn't
Present da
am/are/is
daŋ
am not/aren't/isn't
Future ado
will be
adom
won't be
to see Affirmative Negative
Past nabe
existed
naben
didn't exist
Present naba
exist
nabaŋ
doesn't exist
Future nabo
will exist
nabom
won't exist
Sentence
Santa Claus na  nabaŋ.
Gloss
Santa Claus NOM exist-NEG
Translation
Santa Claus isn't real.

Aspect Edit

Placing the word <havi> before a verb forms the progressive aspect.

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