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Prepositions in Adwan are polygoverning, meaning they all govern more than one case. In the case of Adwanic prepositions, a preposition will span over three main meanings over the span of three different cases. The dative case is governed by prepositions denoting motion towards; incidently, beneficial prepositions also govern the dative. The ablative is governed by prepositions denoting motion from. The difference between the dative and the ablative is that, while both may indicate motion, the ablative denotes motion from the perspective opposite of the one in motion, therefore technically, not all prepositions governing the ablative denote motion; also, the ablative denotes instrument, motion within, and most temporal phrases. The locative, unlike the dative and ablative, never denotes motion but denotes location, so while the dative and ablative typically denote motion, the locative is always still. Below is a list of each Adwanic preposition with their English usages under the respective cases. Note, there are few prepositions that form prepositional phrases to express certain meanings rather than use one preposition alone.


  • In (indicating year); ablative
nino 2011 graðwanás. -- I graduate in the year of 2011.
  • In (indicating time in amounts); ablative
Dwaentas mí stravosg cyvum sgcyvufi! -- I need to start on my work in ten minutes!
  • Into; dative
Tełẃ herno. -- He went into the forest.
  • Divided by; Ablative
Cyf cyve þyð uny. -- Ten divided by ten is one.
  • In (indicating means, emotion, enrolled in, etc); ablative
Scẃvreta cgescana vieðw ánlaney vievréc. -- The czech student read a book (in English).
Chagiáfc faie sgmátersgi. -- They behaved in a respectful manner.
dýtlevem neifyzgney. -- In sickness and in health.
  • In (locational); locative
hérnena það. -- I'm in a forest.
  • Inside; locative
ċesga viósgcena þws? -- Are you in your house?
  • Among: genitive
Scunvráy þyst revi herni Nori. -- I found this among the trees of the Black forest.
  • In between: ví + ag + mediżeg + genitive
Scwnvrát þyst ví ag miédiżeg mia dwvias vieði. -- I found this in between my two books.


  • To; dative
Masga cgivóy ag cíno. -- I gave (to) the girl some gum.
  • Toward, Towards; dative
Teldéc ag þresgco. -- She walked towards the door.
  • At (indicating location); locative
Ag seia viósgcena það. -- I'm at my house.
  • At (indicating time in selective periods); ablative
Owrí myna stravy ag iosgté yð unié zgole. -- I will do (and finish) my work at ten o'clock.


  • Times; dative
Cyf y cyvum þyð vera. -- Ten times ten is one hundred.
  • For; dative
Morscáy sgcgazgw (y) fum. -- I bought a bird for you.
  • By (before given time); ablative
Dwaiówr mí stravosg y cyve wesċi. -- I need to start on my work by ten AM.
  • For (supporting); vïy (ví + y); dative
Twði łavan þyla vïy łávacgno. -- All women are for feminism.
  • According to; y + að cwýðwenech + genitive
Y að cwýðwenech mia fevni. -- According to my mom.
  • For (price); ablative
Twe sgvestenáċ vieða y cyvum sgróvioho. -- I will send you [this] book for ten ounces.
  • For, In role of, As; ablative
Þa sachviż þyð dgagtaga dgiþyð y sachvyżiża dgagtagey. -- This language has been elected (to be as) a featured language.


Zwð and Ziw can be used interchangeably, though ziw is usually used before consonants while zwð before vowels.

  • With; ablative
Ziw łowa ciney ena þïa. -- She was with her cat.
  • Including; ablative
Entẃss, łema ziw. -- We all started, including her.

Used post-positionally.

  • Via, Using; ablative
Tasié ag sgwsco ziw seia swacgé. -- I went to school using my car.
  • Near; locative
Ċeła sgwsca þyð ziw ċesga viósgcena? -- Is your school near your house?


  • Without; ablative
Owrí iosgtinn sað ezgmay að ryteneg sgwzivieði. -- I did my work without having to read the textbook.
  • Except for; ablative
Entẃss, łema sia. -- We all started, except for her.

Like zwð/ziw, sað/sia is used post-positionally.

  • Far from; locative
An, ma sgwsca þyð sia seia viósgcena. -- No, my school is far from my house.


  • About; genitive
  • In front of; locative
Iag, ma viosgca þyð evo seia sgẃscena. -- Me, my school is in front of my house.
  • Before (sequence, time); ablative
Tws ag sgwsco evo meno. -- You go to school before me.


  • From (locational); locative
Tiago (ag) Lóndonnam olsa Prágena. -- I am going to London from Prague.
  • From (origin); genitive
Ma gova þyð olsa Lóndonnis. -- My friend is from London.
  • From over/on top of; olsa + smeðam + genitive
Łováy olsa smeðam eleffanntu. -- I fell from the top of an elefant.
  • From under; olsa + cewórðena + genitive
  • Out of; ablative
Sgcgazga fyvi olsa seia viosgcey! -- A bird came out of my house!


  • After; ablative
Ví wevéstnena dgimozgim, þera dgencwí seia perley. -- I was after my sister in the lunch line.
  • Around (direction); dative
Y grevurðiłwfté, dwagyrim dgencwí tarthco mia sgwsci. -- For physical education, we have to run around my school's track.
  • Behind; locative
Þawras tan (ag) zgewrko sað þyð dgencwí seia viosgcena. -- I like to go to the river [that is] behind my house.
  • Under (price); ablative
Vieða þyð dgencwí cyfe sgrovieyn? -- Is this book under ten ounces?
  • Until; dative
Zaðáy ta dgencwí wesċo. -- I didn't sleep until this morning.


Note, stea is more commonly used postpositionally than prepositionally.

  • Across; locative
Stentas tovy stea. -- I'm standing across from you.
  • Despite; ablative
Di owrí stéfnamey stea. -- I did it despite the instructions.
  • Versus; ablative
Chyðawm chyðawmem stea. -- People versus people.


  • Because of; ablative
Odgi teniw, tuðý tiosawlyr dwapeias. -- 'Because of you, I have to clean the whole bathroom.
  • For the sake of; ablative
Odgi ċesca sgwscastrave, wrðúy! -- For the sake of your academics, study!
  • On behalf of, genitive
Mezgmydgosgcgi þyð odgi sgnaw. -- This announcement is on behalf of us.
  • Ago, ablative
Scẃvretw þera ví iwnyférsytey odgi cyfe eyn cylem ninech. -- I was a student in university fourteen years ago.
  • Outside of; locative
Odgi ċesca viósgcena það. -- I'm right outside of your house.


  • Compared to, than; ablative
Mynn puzg þyð tairoro ċa eð ċynech. -- My dog is bigger than your dog.
Ċa ċesca perla, ma miwa þyð teiycna. -- According to your sister, my cat is the smallest.


  • Like, According to; ablative
Mynn puzc þyð roro ży eð ċynech. -- My dog is big, like yours.
Þyð saż ena þwthay ży sgtem cgisgmey. -- That's what she said according to our teacher.


  • On (temporal); ablative
  • On, On the surface of; locative
  • During; ablative

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