IPA for Aelatha
Noun infinitive Edit
A word's root, called the noun infinitive, controls the semantic meaning but can rarely work alone. A noun infinitive has an inherent gender as well.
|Polite a||Case Marker||Noun Infinitive (Root)||Honorific||Noun Class|
Noun gender Edit
A noun's gender refers to the vowel harmony declension it follows. All inflections on a noun or other part of speech must agree with it in gender. Three genders exist--neuter, masculine and feminine--none of which can be deciphered through the noun infinitive.
The table at the right demonstrates the pattern in which vowels change to agree in gender. "Á", by example, changes to "a" for the neuter, "o" for the masculine and "u" in the feminine. By contrast, "A" remains the same for all genders.
In its infinitive form, nouns aren't declined to meet vowel harmony. Therefore, the gender of each noun needs to be memorized.
Noun formality Edit
Aelatha maintains a high degree of formality by using prefixes and infixes for polite and honorific value. The prefix "a-", called "polite a" comes from the word ac, an archaic dual gender speech word meaning god. It is added to show politeness and respect toward the listener and toward everything in the sentence by suggesting that they all "belong to god" or are "godly, and therefore good-willed."
Formality is also expressed by having a high level of vagueness, thus word drop and pronouns are considered extremely formal.
|Means of being formal and polite|
|Use polite a|
|Use word drop|
|Use pronouns with honorifics|
|Means of being colloquial and casual|
| Drop polite a from verbs, modifiers,|
the tempus and a few select words
|Drop honorifics from common nouns|
|Avoid word drop|
|Use names, not pronouns|
|Means of being rude and impolite|
| Drop polite a from all words including|
names and proper nouns
| Drop honorifics from words or replace|
them with pejorative honorifics
Polite A Edit
It is said that all words begin with the vowel "a" in Aelatha. This however is false. "A" is an honorific and the only one placed at the beginning of a word to make it polite. Polite a can be dropped to make the word casual or pejorative or to mark it otherwise as an expletive though it is viewed much harsher than dropping other honorifics. Polite a is rarely dropped from proper nouns due to this.
|anibellaþ||properness||nibellaþ|| properness, coolness,|
|aþeliafu||the girl||þeliafu||the girl||þafu|| the girl, the bratty girl|
the damn girl
Dropping polite a from a word that would already begin with a vowel is easily visible when that vowel is a or i. Words beginning with a- are written as ae- when adding polite a, and words beginning with i- are written as ai-. When words begin with e-, they are written as ane- and may be confused with ne- words. There’s no definite way to distinguish them and their colloquial forms must be memorized. Likewise, dropping polite a from some words results in vowel-less words or consonant clusters that cannot exist such as aþ to þ or and to nd, this is usually do to the contraction of a following e or i.
- Aþ > þe
- And > nid
Colloquially, the polite a is dropped from verbs, modifiers and the tempus in spoken language. Dropping it from the other parts of speech however is always viewed as marking that word colloquially or pejoratively.
Honorifics are formal infixes (or suffixes, if applicable) placed directly after the noun and before the noun's class ending.
While they are not often found in common nouns, they appear as an integral part of any noun they appear in. The proper noun, however, becomes pejorative when dropping the honorific title, showing the speaker's disdain for the person, place or thing.
Honorifics have a wide range in meaning. There are set honorifics for someone who is a teacher, a bachelor, engaged, divorced, the brother of the speaker, the brother of the listener, a child, and so on. A large number of honorifics deal with a person's familial or social relationship with another person, though many exist as amelioratives or pejoratives, as markers of a person's talents or careers or as personality traits. Because the honorifics have such varying meanings, a person's name is said to change a few times in his or her life.
Contrarily, there are some honorifics that can be kept throughout one's life. These honorifics usually detail something unchangeable about the nouns they modify.
List of common honorifics Edit
|-er||-erh-||coming of age||-sjér||-sjá-|| father|
|-édag||-édagg-||professor||-ést||-ést-||law professional||-ich||-ch-|| caretaker|
(of a boat)
believer in god
|-ádan||-ádn-|| spouse (of an|
|-ít||-íd-||chivalrous||-ách||-ách-|| victor; winner;|
Word drop Edit
|Part of speech||Commonality|
|Non-subject genitive||Very common, very rare without its object|
|Noun in possessed case||Very common, very rare without genitive|
|Proper noun||Very rare|
Aelatha is a pro-word drop language. Some words can be inferred from the context and dropped from the phrase though some may not. In the right context, the most complex of phrases can be summed up by the use of just the verb's tempus and the modal. Word drop is viewed as a formal practice, used in schools, newspapers and religious ceremonies as well as in business and legislature. The idea is that the more words in a sentence, the more informal it sounds. A common saying in Aelatha translates as "Only casual friends are chatty." This is true so much so that speaking to older relatives such as parents, uncles and aunts, grandparents and oftentimes siblings makes use of word drop.
Noun case Edit
The case indicates the grammatical function of the noun in the sentence. Aelatha has at least 24 cases. The uninflected, dictionary case of the noun is the vocative case. All nouns are declined from this case.
|Noun cases in Aelatha|
|Vocative (VOC)||(none)||exclamatory, part of the verb phrase|
|Semblative (SEM)||asj-||makes noun into adjective or adverb|
|Modal (MOD)||aj-||makes noun into modal|
|Inessive (INE)||atra-||inside, in, at, on|
|Apudessive (APU)||aþé-||beside, next to|
|Intrative (INT)||antre-||between, amid(st)|
|Elative (ELA)||ag-||out (of), off (of)|
|Delative (DEL)||abia-||from, away from|
|Ablative (ABL)||abé-||far from, away from, behind, after|
|Illative (ILL)||amní-||into, onto, against(touching)|
|Sublative (SUBL)||alié-||to, toward|
|Allative (ALL)||ará-||close to, near, by, in front of, before|
|Perlative (PER)||accha-||through, across, along|
|Superessive (SUPE)||allé(l)-||over, up, above|
|Subessive (SUBE)||avé-||under, down, below, outside|
|Instrumental (INS)||agaxa-||with, using, via (a thing)|
|Abessive (ABE)||asá-||without (a thing)|
|Sociative (SOC)||afi-||with, alongside, among(st) (people)|
|Antisociative (ANS)||aende-||without (people)|
|Benefactive (BEN)||avamá-|| for, because of, due to|
|Vialis (VIA)||aexé-||by; (subject benefits)|
|Contrastive (CONT)||assém-|| against, despite; (subject benefits,|
object loses something)
|Accusative (ACC)||adahe-|| of, about; (both subject and object|
benefit from verb, or object benefits
and subject loses something)
|Genitive (GEN)||(see Genitive case)|| marks the nominative or possessive|
form of the noun
|Possessed (POSS)||(see Genitive case)|| marks the object of the genitive:|
the possessed form of the noun
|For a list of temporal cases, see the list of common tempuses|
All verbs are transitive and may receive direct objects. The accusative case is the case used for direct objects for some verbs though verbs receive objects in a case specific to the verb in question.
Most cases are inflected at the head of the noun, though the vocative and the genitive are inflected alternatively.
Base Cases Edit
All nouns can decline into at least 23 cases that further have their own genitive and possessed forms. Nouns can also inflect to a large number of temporal cases in which the case marks a change in state of the noun between the period of time with which the case marks it and the verb’s largest tempus.
Grammatical cases Edit
The grammatical cases are used to change nouns into different parts of speech and rarely as the object of a verb. The grammatical cases are the only cases that can never be usurped by a temporal case.
Vocative case Edit
The vocative case (VOC) is a grammatical case and the case used as the subject of the verb as well as an exclamatory. It is formed by taking the root of a word and adding the correct noun class ending to form the word and is the only case that doesn’t receive a prefix. With the few verbs of naming (to be called, to be named) the vocative is used as the subject and object of the verb.
Semblative case Edit
The semblative case (SEM) is a grammatical case that marks a description. The case is marked by taking the vocative base and adding the prefix "asja-". All descriptors—numbers, adjectives and adverbs—are made using the semblative case. A few rare verbs take the semblative as an object, usually only those whose meaning is a description using a simile, (to taste like).
Modal case Edit
Locative cases Edit
- States of being that do not deal with emotional or physical well-being (to exist, to remain)
- Changes of state that do not deal with emotional or physical well-being (to become, to melt)
- Descriptions using metaphors (to be, to appear to be).
In prepositional phrases, the cases mark location of an object or action.
Inessive case Edit
The inessive case (INE) is a locative case marked with "atra-". It describes the meanings "inside, in, at" or "on."
Apudessive case Edit
The apudessive case (APU) is a locative case marked with "aþé-". It describes the meanings "beside" or "next to."
Intrative case Edit
The intrative case (INT) is a locative case marked with "antre-". It describes the meanings "between" or "amid(st)."
Motion from Edit
Some cases show motion, sentiment or movement from one object or state of being to another. There are three cases that show motion away from something: elative, delative and ablative. As objects of verbs, the motion from cases mark:
- A place from which a motion or movement is done; (from the house)
- A change of state from emotional or physical well-being, (from happiness to anger);
- The object of one of the five senses ((I can taste) the garlic.)
In prepositional phrases, the cases mark where an action, object or state of being begins.
Elative case Edit
The elative case (ELA) is a motion/sentiment from case marked with "ag-". It describes the meanings "out (of)" or "off (off)."
Delative case Edit
The delative case (DEL) is a motion/sentiment from case marked with "abia-". It describes the meanings "from" or "away from."
Ablative case Edit
The ablative case (ABL) is a motion/sentiment from case marked with "abé-". It describes the meanings "far from, away from, behind" or "after."
Motion to Edit
Some cases show motion, sentiment or movement from one object or state of being to another. There are three cases that show motion toward something: illative, sublative and allative. As objects of verbs, the motion to cases mark:
- A place to which a motion or movement is done; (to the store)
- A change of state to or from emotional or physical well-being, (from sanity into insanity);
- The object of one of the five senses ((I can see) the book.)
In prepositional phrases, the cases mark where an action, object or state of being begins.
Illative case Edit
The illative case (ILL) is a motion/sentiment to case marked with "amní-". It describes the meanings "into, onto" or the pertingent sense of "against (touching)."
Sublative case Edit
The sublative case (SUBL) is a motion/sentiment to case marked with "alié-". It describes the meanings "to" or "toward."
Allative case Edit
The allative case (ALL) is a motion/sentiment to case marked with "ará-". It describes the meanings "close to, near(by), by, in front of" or "before."
Motion through Edit
Some cases show motion, sentiment or movement through something. There are three case that mark motion through something: perlative, superessive and subessive. As objects of verbs, the motion through cases mark:
- An emotional or physical state of well-being; (anger, sickness)
- The elements of fire, water, wood, earth, air or time; ((He swims) in the ocean),
- A state that has permanent changed over time; ((She turned) six years old)
- The object of a mental process; ((I remember) that day)
In prepositional phrases, the cases mark the current state of an action or thing.
Perlative case Edit
The perlative case (PER) is a locative/motion through case marked with "accha-". It describes the meanings "through, across" or "along."
Superessive case Edit
The superessive case (SUPE) is a locative/motion through case marked with "allé(l)-". It describes the meanings "over, up" or "above."
Subessive case Edit
The subessive case (SUBE) is a locative/motion through case marked with "avé-". It describes the meanings "under, down, below" or "outside."
Sociative cases Edit
Some cases show accompaniment. There are four case that mark accompaniment, two of which are used for things (instrumental, abessive) and two of which are use for people (sociative, antisociative). As objects of verbs, the accompaniment cases mark:
- The victim of physical or emotional harm; ((He made fun of) the boy)
- The company with which an action happens; (with my brother)
- Items or persons used to complete an action; (using a pencil)
- Reciprocity; (each other, one another)
- Outcome over benefit; ((I won) the game)
In prepositional phrases, the cases mark accompaniment.
Instrumental case Edit
The instrumental case (INS) is a sociative case marked with "agaxa-". It describes the meanings "with, using, via" or "by means of" when the noun is a thing.
Abessive case Edit
The abessive case (ABE) is a sociative case marked with "asá-". It describes the meanings "without" when the noun is a thing.
Sociative case Edit
The sociative case (SOC) is a sociative case marked with "afi-". It describes the meanings "with, alongside" or "among(st)" when the noun is a person.
Antisociative case Edit
The antisociative case (ANS) is a sociative case marked with "aende-". It describes the meanings "without" when the noun is a person.
Benefactive cases Edit
- The intended benefactor of an action
- The intended victim of an action whose subject is the benefactor
In prepositional phrases, the cases mark general concepts.
Benefactive case Edit
The benefactive case (BEN) is a benefactive case marked with "avamá-". It describes the meanings "before, because of" or "due to." As the object of a verb, a noun in the benefactive case shows that the object of the verb benefits from the action.
Vialis case Edit
The vialis case (VIA) is a benefactive case marked with "aexé-". It describes the meanings "by." As the object of a verb, a noun in the vialis case shows that the subject of the verb benefits from the action.
Contrastive case Edit
The contrastive case (CONT) is a benefactive case marked with "assém-". It describes the meanings "against" and "despite." As the object of a verb, a noun in the contrastive case shows that the subject of the verb benefits from the action, while the object loses something physically or symbolically from the action.
Accusative case Edit
The accusative case (ACC) is a benefactive case marked with "adahe-". It describes the meanings "of" and "about." As the object of a verb, a noun in the accusative case shows that the object of the verb benefits from the action, while the subject loses something physically or symbolically from the action. The accusative is also used when both parties benefit from the action.
Other Cases Edit
Genitive case Edit
The genitive case serves the purpose of indicating the possessive form of a noun as well as, while in the genitive of the vocative, distinguishing which nouns are acting as the subject and verb of the sentence. The noun class at the tail of the noun is taken away and replaces the noun class of the object of the genitive. Its object then must agree with the genitive in gender (vowel harmony). The object of the genitive is said to be in the possessed case (POSS).
Because the genitive requires that its object agrees with it and not vice versa, the genitive and its object are often treated as compound words in some dialects. It is common in eastern dialects to hyphenate the genitive and its object, while in the northern dialects, the words are crammed together to form a single, larger word.
|Andeli abëräidasjo||Standard Dialect|
Verbs, being nouns that are acting in the possessed case (of the vocative), follow this phenomenon as well by attaching themselves to the subject in some dialects. The tempus then attaches to the end to create a three-part compound. The tempus takes an apostrophe to show that it does not agree in gender with the rest of the compound in the eastern dialects. When this happens, the hyphen is dropped between the noun and the verb. In the northern dialects however, the tempus does agree with the compound in gender and the apostrophe becomes optional.
|Andeliasjo aestäisam astreth.||Standard Dialect|
When a genitive is used on words in the other case, it must take that case's prefix. In a double genitive compound such as "a friend's mother's car" where two nouns are in the genitive case in English, only the first will appear to be so in Aelatha. This is because the first genitive requires that the word it modify (the second genitive) drop its noun class from the sentence and agree with it in gender. The final noun in a multiple genitive series is made optional to agree in gender with its modifier because its modifier is being modified itself. The final noun in this case rarely, if ever, drops its noun class and agrees with its modifier's gender in the written language or when the final noun itself is the verb's tempus.
|"Accha addissevho||agrebarinthas";||rarely,||"Accha addisso||agreburu"|
|"Friend-GEN.VOC your.mother-POSS.VOC||car-VOC"||"Friend-GEN.VOC your.mother-POSS.VOC||car-POSS.VOC"|
|« "A friend's mother's car" » (aelsjonoþ)|
|"Atraccha atraddissevho||atragrebarinthas;"||rarely,||"Atraccha atraddisso||atragreburu"|
|"Friend-GEN.INE your.mother-POSS.INE||car-INE"||"Friend-GEN.INE your.mother-POSS.INE||car-POSS.INE"|
|« "In/on/at/inside a friend's mother's car" » (aelsjonoþ)|
|"...Addissevh attedchu||acereþ;"|| almost|
|"Your.mother-GEN.VOC driving-POSS.VOC||progression of time-VOC"||"Your.mother-GEN.VOC driving-POSS.VOC||present time-POSS.VOC"|
|« "Your mother is driving to..." (lit., "Your mother's driving's present time") » (aelsjonoþ)|
Noun class Edit
Nouns are separated into different groups called noun classes. These classes represent different groups of things the noun can belong to and correspond to the gendered nouns of Indo-European languages. The noun's class ending tells which group of words the noun belongs to. The groupings can range from vague and broad to detailed and specific. Common nouns fall mostly into the correct group, though several groups are irregular, having taken words from noun groups that fall between Middle Aelatha and modern Aelatha. The word for house, by example, ends in -attís, the noun class for buildings and structures.
In the table below, all examples are aelsjonoþ.
|Class|| Forms words|
|Example||Class|| Forms words|
|-és||general animals||aschionës||hunting||-é||edible animals||artäe||hen|
|-í||insects||adirmi||worm||-iás||inedible plants||aferias|| flower (of an|
|-ám||edible plants||antënom||food||-án||medicinal plants||apfegrun||eucalyptus|
|-él||emotions & senses||asrël|| (conditional)|
|-áþ||ideas & concepts||acchanaþ||friendship|
|-asjá||male beings||andeliasjo||boy||-afá||female beings||aþeliafu||girl|
|-á||sentient beings||aëllo||adult man||-íj||places||avaij||beach|
|-ás|| air; wind;|
|aedos||summer wind||-íl||weather & seasons||aisräil||summer|
|-ísch||edible liquids||abäisch||drink||-ébh||inedible liquids||avaebh||ocean; sea|
|-iphás|| non-living nature;|
|ardiphas||sunlight||-inthás|| manmade objects;|
|-attás||furniture||aestysmattus||chair||-inthís|| natural substances|
made artificial or
synthetic by man
rules & law
|-ér|| internal body|
|avydjäer||lung||-áj|| external body|
|-árd||brain; mind; psyche||afarard||knowledge||-émþ||clothing||arëmþ||glove|
|-íth1||soft things||abdeggith||light blue color||-áx1|| destructive|
|-íd||fine arts||accoräid||poetry||-ál|| books; writing;|
|-ár|| math & science;|
|-ís||(hand) tools||ammis|| eyeglasses;|
|-éj||sickness & health||avydjäej||leukemia|
|-ilhés1|| jewelry; trinkets;|
- 1: Nouns in these categories are irregular, receiving nouns from fallen noun classes
Noun classes with irregular groupings usually have incorrectly grouped words in a regular pattern. By example, many words from the "-ixhánt" (fire, smoke and heat) noun class fell into the destructive things or the air, wind and temperature noun classes. Likewise, all word from the "-adíð" (celestial bodies) noun class fell into the "-ád" (magical) noun class.
Proper nouns do not follow noun gender and class conventions. The can be any word root within any gender and belong to and class. The name Andeschid coming from the root "anid" (boy) should follow masculine gender’s vowel harmony and belong to one of the noun classes concerning people, however, it follows the neuter pattern and ends in –íd, the class containing arts. As a person ages and changes his or her honorific, they never change the root or the noun class of the name they are given.
A noun's paradigm is the term used to refer to all the total amount of noun class endings a root can take in order to make new words. Many roots can take ten or more endings. The meaning of a word is based strongly from the root's meaning making changes for its noun class ending. The root "addis" meaning both "community" and "middle aged woman" may mean a "community of animals" (animal kingdom) when taking the -és ending, but means "the mind of a middle-aged woman" (intelligent conversation) when taking -árd. All words in a paradigm will be of the gender speech and usually of the same gender.
|Example paradigm table|
|Noun infinitive meaning:||addis; "community, middle aged woman" (fem., aelsjonoþ)|
"temperament of society"
"toolbox, tool shed"
"the number five hundred"