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Ahise

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Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Ahise is your average synthetic conlang (which was designed to sound and look like Amerind, i.e. Quechua, Nahuatl). :3

Why coming up with a name is so difficult?

PhonologyEdit

I'm lazy to format the tables with <br>.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental  Alveolar/Dental  Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal  Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ñ /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive p /p/
b /b/
t /t/
d /d/
ŧ /c/
đ /ɟ/
k /k/
g /g/
q /q/
Fricative

f /ɸ/

v /β/

š /ʃ/

ž /ʒ/

(ch, x /x/) x /χ/

(x /h/)

h /h/

Affricate ts, tz, c /ts/ č /tʃ/
Approximant y /j/ w /w/
Trill r /r/
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l /l/
Lateral flap

/h/ occurs as allophone of /χ/ and /x/ between back vowels. Labialized consonants are indicated by "w".

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

i /i/

ü /y/

ы /ɨ/ u /u/
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid

e /e/

ö /ø/

o /o/
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a /a/

Long vowels are indicated with a macron.

There are 12 diphthongs, every vowel with /ɪ/ (i.e. /eɪ/, /oɪ/, etc); indicated with i after the vowel (ei, oi), /aʊ/ (au), /oʊ/ (ou), /eʊ/ (eu).

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

Consonant clusters include maximum 2 consonants of different places of articulation, ie two plosives can be in a row, but one requires to be e.g. velar and the second e.g. alveolar.

Altering of soundsEdit

Nasals:

Nasals become voiceless before voiceless consonants in complimentary distribution, qabamtei "we could do this a long time ago" is mainly pronounced /'qa.ba.m̥te/

Plosives:

All plosives agree in voicing with their successor consonants.

/ts/ is pronounced /dz/ before /a/.

The rare consonant cluster "px" is sometimes pronounced as /p'/

Vowels:

e is /e/ (close-mid) at the end of a word, otherwise /ɛ/

ei is /ei/ except at the end of a word, otherwise /e/

(same with ö, but rounded)

i is /i/ only at the end of a word, otherwise /ɪ/

(same with ü, but rounded)

o is /o/ at the end of a word, otherwise /ɔ/

StressEdit

The stress always falls on the penultimate syllable with some exceptions.

TonesEdit

Ahise is tonal in some dialects. The tones are the same in all tonal dialects and they are as follows:

One-syllable words are pronounced with high tone.

In 2 syllable words the stressed (usually penultimate) syllable is pronounced with high-falling tone, and the second syllable is pronounced with .

In 3-syllable words the pattern is varying; if the 1st syllable is stressed (the stress is marked with an acute accent in tonal dialects) the following two syllables are falling to low tone, if the last syllable is stressed it's vice versa. If the stress is regular, the 1st syllable is pronounced with low-rising tone, the 2nd syllable with high tone, and the 3rd syllable is pronounced with high-falling tone.

In 4+ syllable words the pattern is like low-mid-rising, mid-rising, high, and high-falling for every 4 syllables.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

(More to be done)

Singular Paucal Plural
Abs. čēk čēkni čēki
Erg. čēkaz čēkta čēkei
Gen. čēka čēko čēkwo
Dat. čēkö čēkēm čēkam
Instr. čēkem čēkme čēkti
Superessive čēkta čēktei čēkwe
Lative čēkos čēkpes čēknam
Ablative čēkös čēköm čēköl
Abessive čēkā čēkāi čēkāv
Similative čēkmö čēkmei čēköi

The vowel declension is basically the same as consonant declension, with some minor differences.

Singular Paucal Plural
Abs. ñe ñengi ñewo
Erg. ñesi ñeta ñeto
Gen. ñekis ñemang ñes
Dat. ñeme ñeye ñetos
Instr. ñetem ñemi ñeti
Superessive ñeta ñetei ñewe
Lative ñewes ñepes ñenö
Ablative ñekis ñete ñew
Abessive ñewā ñei ñewa
Similative ñemö ñemei ñemöi

Words ending in u and o just replace the final u/o with w and take the consonant declension and words ending with i replace the final i with y (and take the consonant declension).

The ablative case can also be used as a form of (lacking) abstract-essive (?), as in ihowe-kis itemiheke "in their dignity and rights"

Both declensions take -me ending when counting, i.e. ö čēkme, qu čēkme, etc.

VerbsEdit

Explained with the stem qaba-.

MoodsEdit

Pluperfect (far past) Past Present Future
Indicative qabašt- qabaš- qabay- qabaz-
Subjunctive qabast- qabas- qabail- qabav-
Conditional qabaxt- qabax- qabats- qaban-
Potential qabamt- qaba qabak- qabar-
Imperative (qabal-) (qabat-) qaba (qabam-) (qabad-)

Personal endingsEdit

Gnomic/Habitual Perfect Imperfect Causative
1p sg -il -i -ter
2p sg -eš -el -as -geš
3p sg -et -öl -it -dö
1p pl excl -ime -eme -me -temo
1p pl incl -imo -emo -mo -teme
2p pl -de -li -te -ir
3p pl -e -le -im -se

If two same consonants occur in a row it's simply replaced by a single consonant, like *qabatte - qabate. If voiceless consonant and then its unvoiced counterpart (and vice versa) occur it's replaced by a long unvoiced consonant, like *qabadte - qabatte.

Other constructionsEdit

Hortative:

Perfect Imperfect
1p sg ö- ña-
2p sg te- ngo-
3p sg ye- i-
1p pl excl ne- me-
1p pl incl nga- gi-
2p pl na- da-
3p pl xu- u-

Pronoun subjects:

Ending
1p sg -mi
2p sg -mek
3p sg -me
1p pl excl -mes
1p pl incl -mem
2p pl -met
3p pl -mit

Passive mood is indicated by -ti at the end of the verb phrase.

Reflexive is indicated with -ha at the end of the verb phrase.

CopulaEdit

In progress.

Pluperfect (far past) Past Present Future
Indicative -t-
Subjunctive
Conditional
Potential
Imperative
Gnomic/Habitual Perfect Imperfect Causative
1p sg -im
2p sg -es
3p sg -
1p pl excl -ime
1p pl incl -ite
2p pl -ete
3p pl -e

SyntaxEdit

Ahise is ergative-absolutive, which means the subject is in ergative and the object is in absolutive, for example "A dog bit a man" is translated as Hukasi sakašit čēk.

It can use a form of passive voice, which involves the object in ergative and the agent in absolutive, e.g. "A man was bit by a dog" is translated as Čekaz sakašiti huka. (Overall, this all makes quite a mess :/)

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


Example textEdit

Universal Declaration of Human RightsEdit

Article 1Edit

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Ze čēkme toch hoyike ihowekis emiheke taheste. Atzitem qaweke tarēhiste dadarökis ühekis tehaweme.

Article 2Edit

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Zēheme takis tarēhiste yahekine ze takisi pxakeyöke kitehiste deklaratziyatekis han hayöwā či hohis, pehi, xe, deče, yēt, teheyö politike ši uhe, kahas nakahi ši oyehehi, wayö, taheyö ši tī uhe. Kehawate hayöwā hoti tīkis politike, yurisdiktziye, meheditose ditokis hayatikiso kihis čēke, kohi, tahameses, tahetis, mehihatis, uhe suverenakotehikiso.

See alsoEdit

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