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Conlang

Ahise

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'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Ahise is your average synthetic conlang (which was designed to sound and look like Amerind, i.e. Quechua, Nahuatl). :3

Why coming up with a name is so difficult?

PhonologyEdit

I'm lazy to format the tables with <br>.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental  Alveolar/Dental  Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal  Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ñ /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive p /p/
b /b/
t /t/
d /d/
ŧ /c/
đ /ɟ/
k /k/
g /g/
q /q/
Fricative

f /ɸ/

v /β/

š /ʃ/

ž /ʒ/

(ch, x /x/) x /χ/

(x /h/)

h /h/

Affricate ts, tz, c /ts/ č /tʃ/
Approximant y /j/ w /w/
Trill r /r/
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l /l/
Lateral flap

/h/ occurs as allophone of /χ/ and /x/ between back vowels. Labialized consonants are indicated by "w".

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

i /i/

ü /y/

ы /ɨ/ u /u/
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid

e /e/

ö /ø/

o /o/
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a /a/

Long vowels are indicated with a macron.

There are 12 diphthongs, every vowel with /ɪ/ (i.e. /eɪ/, /oɪ/, etc); indicated with i after the vowel (ei, oi), /aʊ/ (au), /oʊ/ (ou), /eʊ/ (eu).

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

Consonant clusters include maximum 2 consonants of different places of articulation, ie two plosives can be in a row, but one requires to be e.g. velar and the second e.g. alveolar.

Altering of soundsEdit

Nasals:

Nasals become voiceless before voiceless consonants in complimentary distribution, qabamtei "we could do this a long time ago" is mainly pronounced /'qa.ba.m̥te/

Plosives:

All plosives agree in voicing with their successor consonants.

/ts/ is pronounced /dz/ before /a/.

The rare consonant cluster "px" is sometimes pronounced as /p'/

Vowels:

e is /e/ (close-mid) at the end of a word, otherwise /ɛ/

ei is /ei/ except at the end of a word, otherwise /e/

(same with ö, but rounded)

i is /i/ only at the end of a word, otherwise /ɪ/

(same with ü, but rounded)

o is /o/ at the end of a word, otherwise /ɔ/

StressEdit

The stress always falls on the penultimate syllable with some exceptions.

TonesEdit

Ahise is tonal in some dialects. The tones are the same in all tonal dialects and they are as follows:

One-syllable words are pronounced with high tone.

In 2 syllable words the stressed (usually penultimate) syllable is pronounced with high-falling tone, and the second syllable is pronounced with .

In 3-syllable words the pattern is varying; if the 1st syllable is stressed (the stress is marked with an acute accent in tonal dialects) the following two syllables are falling to low tone, if the last syllable is stressed it's vice versa. If the stress is regular, the 1st syllable is pronounced with low-rising tone, the 2nd syllable with high tone, and the 3rd syllable is pronounced with high-falling tone.

In 4+ syllable words the pattern is like low-mid-rising, mid-rising, high, and high-falling for every 4 syllables.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

(More to be done)

Singular Paucal Plural
Abs. čēk čēkni čēki
Erg. čēkaz čēkta čēkei
Gen. čēka čēko čēkwo
Dat. čēkö čēkēm čēkam
Instr. čēkem čēkme čēkti
Superessive čēkta čēktei čēkwe
Lative čēkos čēkpes čēknam
Ablative čēkös čēköm čēköl
Abessive čēkā čēkāi čēkāv
Similative čēkmö čēkmei čēköi

The vowel declension is basically the same as consonant declension, with some minor differences.

Singular Paucal Plural
Abs. ñe ñengi ñewo
Erg. ñesi ñeta ñeto
Gen. ñekis ñemang ñes
Dat. ñeme ñeye ñetos
Instr. ñetem ñemi ñeti
Superessive ñeta ñetei ñewe
Lative ñewes ñepes ñenö
Ablative ñekis ñete ñew
Abessive ñewā ñei ñewa
Similative ñemö ñemei ñemöi

Words ending in u and o just replace the final u/o with w and take the consonant declension and words ending with i replace the final i with y (and take the consonant declension).

The ablative case can also be used as a form of (lacking) abstract-essive (?), as in ihowe-kis itemiheke "in their dignity and rights"

Both declensions take -me ending when counting, i.e. ö čēkme, qu čēkme, etc.

VerbsEdit

Explained with the stem qaba-.

MoodsEdit

Pluperfect (far past) Past Present Future
Indicative qabašt- qabaš- qabay- qabaz-
Subjunctive qabast- qabas- qabail- qabav-
Conditional qabaxt- qabax- qabats- qaban-
Potential qabamt- qaba qabak- qabar-
Imperative (qabal-) (qabat-) qaba (qabam-) (qabad-)

Personal endingsEdit

Gnomic/Habitual Perfect Imperfect Causative
1p sg -il -i -ter
2p sg -eš -el -as -geš
3p sg -et -öl -it -dö
1p pl excl -ime -eme -me -temo
1p pl incl -imo -emo -mo -teme
2p pl -de -li -te -ir
3p pl -e -le -im -se

If two same consonants occur in a row it's simply replaced by a single consonant, like *qabatte - qabate. If voiceless consonant and then its unvoiced counterpart (and vice versa) occur it's replaced by a long unvoiced consonant, like *qabadte - qabatte.

Other constructionsEdit

Hortative:

Perfect Imperfect
1p sg ö- ña-
2p sg te- ngo-
3p sg ye- i-
1p pl excl ne- me-
1p pl incl nga- gi-
2p pl na- da-
3p pl xu- u-

Pronoun subjects:

Ending
1p sg -mi
2p sg -mek
3p sg -me
1p pl excl -mes
1p pl incl -mem
2p pl -met
3p pl -mit

Passive mood is indicated by -ti at the end of the verb phrase.

Reflexive is indicated with -ha at the end of the verb phrase.

CopulaEdit

In progress.

Pluperfect (far past) Past Present Future
Indicative -t-
Subjunctive
Conditional
Potential
Imperative
Gnomic/Habitual Perfect Imperfect Causative
1p sg -im
2p sg -es
3p sg -
1p pl excl -ime
1p pl incl -ite
2p pl -ete
3p pl -e

SyntaxEdit

Ahise is ergative-absolutive, which means the subject is in ergative and the object is in absolutive, for example "A dog bit a man" is translated as Hukasi sakašit čēk.

It can use a form of passive voice, which involves the object in ergative and the agent in absolutive, e.g. "A man was bit by a dog" is translated as Čekaz sakašiti huka. (Overall, this all makes quite a mess :/)

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

Universal Declaration of Human RightsEdit

Article 1Edit

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Ze čēkme toch hoyike ihowekis emiheke taheste. Atzitem qaweke tarēhiste dadarökis ühekis tehaweme.

Article 2Edit

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Zēheme takis tarēhiste yahekine ze takisi pxakeyöke kitehiste deklaratziyatekis han hayöwā či hohis, pehi, xe, deče, yēt, teheyö politike ši uhe, kahas nakahi ši oyehehi, wayö, taheyö ši tī uhe. Kehawate hayöwā hoti tīkis politike, yurisdiktziye, meheditose ditokis hayatikiso kihis čēke, kohi, tahameses, tahetis, mehihatis, uhe suverenakotehikiso.

See alsoEdit

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