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Ahtialan

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AHTIALAN
«Aylláwai»
Mikui > Ahtialan > Ahtialan aylawai
▸ Style: a priori (more than 95%)
▸ Type: slightly agglutinative
▸ Alignment: nominative-accusative
▸ Writing system: Ahtialan (alphabet with ideographs); Cyrillic
▸ Reason: art, traditional, conworld
▸ Author: RWHÔ in 1994
▸ Codes: ah, aht, SNLC2
“Nika verha ŝis se mımı
ŝin duk nayná ẽt harras.
Yu çatu oym suẑari,
fuola var õ-erraŝ.”
Flagaahtialii

Ahtialan flag

    Ahtialan language (ah. Aŝtialidai kíñau [ʹas̪͆tɪ̯ˌaɮʲɪ'dai ʹkiːn͈ˠɑ̃ũ]) or Aylláwai ['aɪ̆ɫɑ'waj] - central Mikui language of the Ahtialan family, official language in the Ahtialan Commonwealth of the conworld Haivööri, lingua franca in the Mikui continent; in the Commonwealth it is spoken by approximately 60% of the population and by minorities in Amultia and Makratia.

Ahtialan is one of the two oldest languages of RWHÔ, the second being Makratian, that were created about 1994 or 1995, when the author was only at the age of four. "Ancient" Makratian did not survive and was forgot in time. The complex alphabetic system was designed in about 1996 for Ahtialan language that helped the child's language to somehow last until the first major reform in 2005. Today it is a well developed a priori conlang with history, tradition, literature and ideology.

Ayllawai
Name of the language written in Ahtialan script

Name and rightsEdit

As the author is not a native English speaker, the name "Ahtialan" was derived directly from Polish name of this language, "ahtialański". In this form it is phonetically correct comparing to its name in the conlang itself, but (as usual) English pronunciation may be misleading. However, any separate name for English was never created, and the form "Ahtialan" is supported by the Polish conlangers. Originally, it is «ahtialedai» («ahtial-» + suffix for language names, «-edai»), from «Ahtiala» (name of the country), which originates from the common word «ahtiawume», meaning "armadillo", Ahtialan national animal (also depicted in state coat of arms).

However, «aŝtialidai» might be used for any Ahtialan language, and the standard version (made by the author) is called «aylláwai» ['ajɫɑwäi], transcribed in English as "aylawai". The etymology of this word is derived from old Ahtialan «ayllá» "scent" or "gust" + «wai» "flower", but as both "scent" and "flower" have other names, it is considered to be meaningless (apart from the language, state and nation).

The author says that Ahtialan language can be used as anyone wishes unless it is used for commercial purposes. It means that creating conlangs based either completely or partially on Ahtialan or borrowing to other conlangs any part of it are allowed. The only wish is to give an a priori name to any new conlang based on aylawai.

Ahtialansign

PhonologyEdit

It was never planned, but in fact Ahtialan is almost always used as a whisper language. This resulted in severe changes in its phonology (which used to be quite regular in the past). As other languages focus on method (voiceless, voiced, etc.), Ahtialan focuses on power (fortis VS lenis, phonological phenomena combined, etc.). It currently includes phonetic features like vowel power, clicks and ejectives; consonants of a range from bilabial fricatives to epiglottal and glottal, dynamic~pitch stress, nasalisation and more.

Despite some opinions, Ahtialan phonology, no matter how unusual it may appear, is functional and allows to sing and speak very fast while used correctly.

VowelsEdit

Usually Ahtialan is described as a non-tonal language. However, this opinion is not so easy to maintain as clear pitch-accent tendencies meet three basic vowel series. If it was to be described as tonal, its vowels would have two tones: weak and strong. These tones are, however, unlike those found in Chinese (contour, lexical) or Sesotho (pitch, grammatical), but like Burmese: vowels of different "tones" use more than one phonological phenomena combined (simultaneously). There are two tones (weak-strong) and three series (weak-strong-ablaut) of vowels:

  • weak vowels are short, pure, voiced, oral, may be high or low (depends on utterance melody);
  • strong vowels are +50% longer than weak ones, are produced with strong breathy-voice and with nasal cavity open (passive nasalization), are always either harshly falling or rising (depends on melody and decision on whether to make it sound good or bad);
  • ablaut usually these are forms of weak vowels (same characteristics and they have no strong form), represent weak vowels of place of articulation altered due to certain circumstances (mostly historical).
Weak and ablaut
Front Central Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid

[i˞]

[ɨ] [ʉ]
[ɘ]

[ɯ]

[u]

[ɪ]

[ɤ]

[ə]

[e]

[o]

[ä]

[ɑ]

Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Strong
Front Central Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid

[iː]

[ɨ̤̃ː]

[ṳ̃ː]
[ẽ̤ː]

[ʏ̤˞ː]

[õ̤ː]

[ə̤͡ɘ]

[ã̤ː]

[ɑː]

Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Weak Strong Ablaut
«a» [ä] «ã» [ã̤ː] «á» [ɑ]
«o» [o] «õ» [õː] «ö», «ä» [ə]
[ɤ]

, [ɘ] [1]

«e» [e] «ẽ» [ẽ̤ː] «ë» [ɘ]
«i» [i]
~ [ɪ]
«í» [iː]
«u» [u] «ũ» [ṳ̃ː] «û» [ʉ]
«ı» [ɨ]

, [ɯ] [2]

«ĩ» [ɨ̤̃ː]
«y», «ý»[3] [i˞]
«Cer», «Car» [ɾ̩]

Alveolo-palatal (compressed) vowel «y»Edit

Ahtialan language uses sounds which are compressed (unnaturally alveolo-palatal). They are broader described in consonants section. The vowel «y» is also made by having the tongue retracted right after the alveolar ridge and contracted with heavy tension, pressing the lateral teeth, but it makes a passage for the airstream. The place of articulation seems to be identical to that of [i], but due to tongue shape, it sounds much more like the vowel [y]; even if it is unrounded.

Cer, Car reductionsEdit

Some syllables beginning with a consonant and having -er or -ar after it have the vowel removed, and its function is taken over by [r], which is able then to bear the stress. This happens with frequently used words such as «ver» "more" (and its forms, particularly «verha» "all"), «var» or «vár» "I", «sar» "into", «kir» "but" and more. What is interesting about it is that such words with the letter "v" differ in pronunciation - in strong form, the consonant is nowadays [w] (or officially [β]) and the vowel remains, while in rapid speech the vowel vanishes, [r] becomes syllabic, and "v" consonant is pronounced as [v].

Nasal clustersEdit

The most common adjectival ending is -ant (it may also be in other forms such as -int like in "kirilint", -ent "sertent" or -unt "nudunt"). While recently the pronunciation of this changed to [ãɔ̯̃] , the official version is the same as it was in the past, [ãɰ̃] . This is a borrowing[4] from Polish nasal vowels system, which uses [ɰ̃]

for nasal vowels, despite having neither [ɰ̃]
in any other position nor even [ɰ]
at all. The usage of [ãɰ̃]
cluster still seems normal, with [ãɔ̯̃]
being slightly colloquial.

StressEdit

    Ahtialan uses utterance melody rather than a normal stress. It used to have a dynamic stress like Polish, but this change appeared because of songs. Each word has its own inbuilt stress. It may be initial, medial, or final. While usually this is unpredictable, there are some patterns that help:

  1. if the word has two syllables of the same type, the higher stress is on the second one, strong vowels don't count (ala, kiñí)
  2. if the word has three syllables, usually there are two main-high stresses (no secondary), one on the beginning, the other on the end (kanama)
  3. if the word has more, it builds up melody according to rules stated below

In an utterance, the stress of the first word counts and enforces the melody order of all words that follow it. Usually this melody is like (pitch notation) HLHLLH, (stress notation) áaáaaá, (Potebnya’s stress patterns) 131321. First two syllables after the starting point are unlikely to change patterns, nevertheless, this might happen, especially if strong vowels or heavy nasalization appear. When the utterance - stream of sounds - meets a pause (longer than used to divide words), the melody breaks. The pitch differences between a high (stressed) and low (unstressed) vowels are not big, but distinguishable.

Stress has almost no meaning in grammar and morphology, except for one conjugation pattern.

Ahtialan as a syllable-type languageEdit

Languages can be divided to stress-type and syllable-type. In the first group there are languages which use a very powerful syllable stress, which makes other vowels alter or vanish ("vowel reduction"). Examples of these include English: "banana" ['bnænə]

and Russian: "банана" [bɐ'nanə]

. The second group uses relatively weak stress and maintains other vowels in their shape, allowing long words and vowel chains to be pronounced without much effort. Two examples of that are from Japanese: "katakana" [kätäkänä]

and Polish: "Antananarywa" [ˌäntänänä'ɾᵻvä]

.

Ahtialan belongs to the second group and this is crucial to learning Ahtialan pronunciation. Aylláwai language allows long vowels chains, such as aeoı, which is a word for "government law system", which is pronounced [äe'oɨ] .

ConsonantsEdit

Consonants can also be divided into three groups, according to the source of airstream. These are pulmonic, velum-assisted, and velaric. All consonants are produced with an aerostream finding an unambiguous obstacle on its way, producing a sound, which usually can not bear stress (in Ahtialan, except for "r"). English, Polish and Russian all use only pulmonic sounds. These are created using the airstream generated in lungs by contracting rib muscles or the diaphragm. They use lung aistream in 100%.

Velaric sounds comprise implosives (ingressive), ejectives (egressive) and clicks (ingressive). Ahtialan used to have an implosive "g’" [ɠ~ʛ] , but it is obsolete, so now it has ejectives only. Ahtialan ejectives are strong and loud, made with easily audible glottal stop. Most ejectives appeared from doubled consonants (e.g. "tt" [tt] → [ʈ’]; "kk" [kk] → [c’]). An exception is [q’], being a much older phoneme, and morphonologically considered a click. Ahtialan has also clicks [ǀ] and [ǃ˞] in rounded and unrounded versions. They use velar airstream in 100%.

Velum-assisted ("pulmono-velaric", "weak ejectives") sounds are characteristic for Ahtialan and quite frequent. They emerged as a result of whispered speech, usually out of voiced consonants. These sounds are made with weaker airstream from lungs assisted with a quick move of the back of the tongue up, towards the velum. This movement is never fully completed (so it does not stop the airstream) and causes a rapid raise in airstream velocity and pressure in mouth cavity. While ejectives by definition can not be continuously pronounced (they are momental, even fricatives like [s’]), velum-assisted to some extent can be. If prolonged too much, the back of the tongue must go down in order for the move to continue, and the consonant starts sounding childishly sinusoidal. Ahtialan does not use any long velum-assisted consonants, but short ones are common. The airstream is 50% pulmonic and 50% velaric.[5]

  Bilabial Near-
dental
Inter-/bi-
dental
Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal lenis [m] [n] [ɲ]

[6]

fortis [m͈ˠ] [n͈ˠ]
Plosives voiceless [p] [tʰ] [kʰ]
~ [q]

[7]

[ʔ]
voiced [b] [d]
Affricates [t͡s] [t͡ɕ] [q͡ʜ]
Fricatives voiceless [s] [s̪͆] [θ] [ʃ] [x]
~ [ç]
[ʜ] [h]
voiced [β]

[8]

[z] [z̪͆] [ð] [ʢ] [ɦ]
Approximants ustne [w] [ʍˑ] [ɾ] [j]
nasalized [w̃] [ɰ̃]
lateral [lˠ]
~ [l]
[ɮʲ]
clicks [ǀ] [ǃ˞ʷ] [ǃ˞] [q’]

[9]

  Bilabial Near-
dental
Inter-/bi-
dental
Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Epiglottal Glottal
Long stops [p̄] [t̄] [k̄] [q͡ʜ]
Ejectives [p’] [ʈ’] [c’] [q’]

[10]

Long sonorants
and fricatives
[mː] [nː] [θː] [sː] [ʝː]
  Bilabial Near-
dental
Inter-/bi-
dental
Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Epiglottal Glottal
Sonorants [ɾ̩]

Division according to airstream mechanism:

Pulmonic Velum-assisted Velaric
Ingr. Egr.
[m]
[n]
[m͈ˠ]
[n͈ˠ]
[nǀ]
[mː]
[nː]
[ɲ]
[ɰ̃]
[w̃]
[p̄] [p]
[b͈]
[p’]
[tʰ]
[d]
[t̄]
[d͈]

[ǃ˞] [ʈ’]
[kʰ]

~[q]

[k̄]
[ʔ]
N/A [ǃ˞ʷ] [q’]
[t͡ɕ]
[q͡ʜ]
[t͡s]
[β]
[θ]
[ð]
[θː]

[s]
[z]

[sː] [s̪͆]
[z̪͆]
[ʃ]
[x]

~[ç]

[h]

~[ɦ]

[c’]
[ʜ]
[ʢ]

N/A
[j] [ʝː]
[ɾ] [ɾ̩]
[lˠ]

~[l]

[ɮʲ]
[w] [ʍˑ]

N, M fortis and lenisEdit

This is mainly applicable to "n", but recently may also be the case with "m". These two nasal consonants appear in two versions, weak and strong (lenis and fortis). Weak "n" is pronounced with nasal cavity open, but the back of the tongue directs the airstream in oral cavity. This is the weak nasalization. Only "n" is then nasal. If after it comes the high vowel [i], it turns into [ɲ] . N fortis is velarized, and most of the airstream falls onto the nasal cavity. This is the strong nasalization, which may spread throughout the utterance, weakly nasalizing all nearby vowels and consonants. There are some consonants which are better at stopping this process than others, for example, plosives. However, if an n fortis comes straight after a plosive consonant, like in tñae or pñasa, it nasalizes also them.

M fortis is relatively rare and does not have such influence n fortis has. It may alter some vowels, like in mual [m͈ˠɯa] .

ClicksEdit

Ahtialan is a click language. However, clicks appeared naturally in it and are not to be associated with those used in Khoisan languages - they are much more rare and have no variations (all are voiced and slightly nasal). These are [ǀ], [ǃ˞] and [ǃ˞ʷ].

Compressed soundsEdit

Some sounds are produced with tongue compression. This organ hides right after the alveolar ridge, on the hard palate, and contracts (with heavy tension, pressing lateral teeth). If then it makes a full ejective, it forms a [ʈ’]. If it makes a click, it forms a [ǃ˞]. If a passage is created, it gives the vowel [i˞]. If this sound is lateral, it forms a [ɮʲ] (which others tried to transcribe as [ʎ͡ʑ] or similar).

These kind of sounds appeared certainly because of "l" and this process is known. At first, "l" was a normal [l]. Then it was altered to sound different, so it became monolateral: it was pronounced using either left or right side of mouth cavity. When a [lu] → [ly] mutation appeared, it had to face monolateral pronunciation of "l", so to maintain both features, the tongue retracted forming [ʎi˞]. This is also the modern pronunciation of "lu" (or spelled "ly") syllable. However, this tongue position remained in all other syllables, there forming a [ɮʲ], [ɮ] or sometimes [ʎ]. After that, a [lˠ]~[l] sound was also added, and these are spelled with double l.

Ahtialan "R"Edit

Unlike natural languages,[11] Ahtialan "R" is always trilled, no matter how rapid the speech is, no matter what the fonetic context is. There are few exceptions, in which a tap [ɾ]

is used (and no [r]). These are words in which "r" is between two vowels, the second of which bears the stress and is final in the word; like viru, ara, lare, etc. Trilled pronunciation is slightly different than it is in Polish. The vibration is caused by the very tip of the tongue, and the whole organ moving slowly to the back (single "r" is near-dental when it begins and alveolar when it ends, or alveolar to post-alveolar). This movement allows using trilled r in every position and velocity of speech. English [ɹ]

~[ɻ]

are not allowed and are considered to be a grave error when used in Ahtialan.

OrthographyEdit

Ahtialan script is used. It has been invented in about 1996 and have a crucial importance in language's existence, it plays a big role in its ideology. Some letters were based on Latin script, like "A", or "O", most of them are not. Ahtialan script uses mostly sharp lines, with little curves. Characteristic are letters made of vertical lines, such as | being "i", || being "d", ||| being "n", |||| being "m" and ||||| being "w" (now obsolete). In about 2005 a system of minuscule graphemes was invented, and mediscule right after it. Ahtialan script is an alphabet (in its decorative forms it has a lot of letters for consonant clusters) mixed with ideographs.

When it is impossible to use it (e.g. on computers due to technological circumstances), Latin alphabet is used. This alphabet was composed the way it would be possible to write without any special software on GNU/Linux operating systems, using Polish keyboard layout as basic (where all keys have ALT + assigned values, including dead keys).

VowelsEdit

[ä]

A a
[o]

O o
[e]

E e
[i~ɪ]

İ i
[u]

U u
[ɨ; ɯ]

I ı
[i˞]

Y y
[ã̤ː]

à ã
[õː]

Õ õ
[ẽ̤ː]

Ẽ ẽ
[iː]

Í í
[ṳ̃ː]

Ũ ũ
[ɨ̤̃ː]

Ĩ ĩ
[ɑ]

Á á
[ə~ɤ~ɘ]

Ö ö
[ə~ɤ]

Ä ä
[ɘ]

Ë ë
[ʉ]

Û û

Six basic letters are used:

A a - O o - E e - U u - I ı - Y y

and five diacritical marks to expand the number of available letters:

  • dot above (Polish: kropka ponad) - dot is put above the letter «I ı» to form «İ i»
  • tilde (Pl. tylda) - strong vowels are signed using a tilde: «Ã ã», «Ẽ ẽ», «Õ õ», «Ũ ũ» and «Ĩ ĩ». Strong series are vowels with complex phonological phenomena; simultaneously, nasal, breathy-voiced, longer for ±50% and with specific tone
  • acute (Pl. akcent ostry) - marks ablaut vowels. Used with "ı" «Í í» means the same as «İ i» but in longer form, under the main or secondary stress; and for «Á á», where means an irregular pronunciation [ɑ]
  • umlaut (Gr. diaeresis) - also marks ablaut vowels, marks those that in their history were centralized (towards "e"). This is the case mainly with «A a» and «O o», which are spelled «Ä ä» and «Ö ö» then. If the vowel in ablaut-like pronunciation was introduced in a new word (isn't historical), the letter «Ë ë» is used. All three letters - ä, ö, ë - are pronounced similarly. Not in all dialects this change has been completed, so differencing is necessary.
  • circumflex (Pl. Odwrócony daszek) - notes weakening of the vowel [u]
to [ʉ]
and it is used only for this vowel.

ConsonantsEdit

[b͈]

B b
[ʢ]

G g
[d͈]

D d
[ð]

Ð đ[12]
[z]

Z z
[z̪͆]

Ẑ ẑ
[t͡s]

C c
[t͡ɕ]

Ç ç
[θ]

Þ þ
[ʝː]

J j
[kʰ~q]

K k
[ɮʲ]

L l
[lˠ~l]

Ll ll
[w]

W w
[m; m͈ˠ]

M m
[n͉; ɲ]

N n
[n͈ˠ]

Ñ ñ
[x͡s̪͆]

X x
[p]

P p
[ɾ̺]

R r
[s̺̠]

S s
[s̪͆]

Ŝ ŝ
[ʃ]

Ş ş
[t~tʰ]

T t
[β~v]

V v
[ʍˑ]

F f
[q͡ʜ]

Q q
[x,h,ɦ]

H h
[ʜ]

Ħ ħ
[ʔ]

-
[ŋǀ]

[ŋǃ˞]

[ŋǃ˞ʷ]

tǀw
[q’]

k'
[p̄]

p”
[p’]

pp
[t̄]

t”
[ʈ’]

tt
[k̄]

k”
[c’]

kk
[mː]

mm
[nː]

nn
[θː]

þþ
[s]

s”
symbol
·

PunctuationEdit

In Latin script Ahtialan punctuation seems to be quite regular, with the exception of middle dot usage. This sign is used after the so-called superparticles (see grammar), which in Ahtialan script are written with an ideograph instead of a phonetic writing system. For example, ne ("no" - denying, refusing) may be written as "ne" when negating one phrase, like in the following verb phrase: Varna yurtaŝ ẽt ne lu. "I don't chat with YOU" and as "ne·" when negating the whole utterance, like in the following sentence: Ne· varna yurtaŝ ẽt lu. "I don't chat with you (at all)."

SyntaxEdit

Ahtialan is a compulsory SVO language. No change of this word order is possible, under no circumstances.[13] The full order of words is according to the following formula:

[superparticle] [subject's features] [subject], [circumstances], [verb] [adverb] [object] [object's features] [object complement]

For example:

Fñuba· ver kene, ŝin tãr kaidaya, ııetaoeıen t|ai kae okõs.
I wish he, a strong one, helped her, a weaker person, inside this house.
  • fñuba· - superparticle expressing a wish for the following situation. Requires the subject, which can be elided if the subject is "I" (1st prsn. sg.)
  • ver - 1. a lot 2. more, better 3. strong
  • ŝin tãr - inside, kaida - house
  • ııetaoeıen - irregular verb, meaning "to help", a traditional word, but a regular "llainivst" is more popular since '50s of the XXth century[14]
  • t|ai - a lot, more
  • ka - feminine 3rd person singular pronoun
  • okõs - weak

Superparticles always come first. They modify the whole message and usually carry emotional meaning, like "I'm sorry that..", "I hope that..", "Don't even think of.." or "Don't do.." or "I insist on you..". Hence, with the exception of ne· which sometimes might appear negating a subordinating clause or a phrase, they always appear at the beginning.

Agent and patient are told apart by using case markers, which is null for a Nominative case, and -e for Accusative. Plural ending -ı comes after Accusative -e. As the language is generally agglutinative, impossible to "simplify" anything phonetically. Compare Ahtialan agglutinative anaz "dog" with Polish fusional pies "dog":

  • anaz - anazı - anaze - anazeı
  • pies - psy - psa - psów

Ahtialan and Aswan languages both make use of the so-called Representative case, an introducer used when the noun first appears in the utterance. In Ahtialan its ending is -ya. When the Representative is used, other cases can't be formed and the function is expressed via context. Representative's function is similar to English "the".

Generally, double negations are not natural to Ahtialan, but their use is not considered an error in certain situations (just as with "ain't" in English). Most languages in the world use double negations, which under some circumstances can turn rather extreme:

  • Polish: Wcale nie, nigdy nie miałem żadnych pieniędzy. (five negations: 1. "wcale" not at all 2. "nie" no 3. "nigdy" never 4. "nie" no 5. "żadnych" none of that)
  • Ahtialan: Ne· var ik-art monexie. (one negation)

Ahtialan does not use passive voice at all, even if theoretically it is possible to create it. Instead, in some constructions requiring focus turned on the patient, either voice exaggeration or morphological means ("kahou", "luri") are used. There is, however, one more method: to use a dummy pronoun "ap", meaning "somebody":

  • "Apna lemekađi tulumee..." - An apple is being eaten... (Someone's eating the apple...)

Possessive constructionsEdit

There are two ways of expressing possession, either whose the object is, or to whom it belongs.[15] In Ahtialan the two are as follows:

irvar tulyme
My apple
irka tulyme
Her apple

"Var" is the first person singular pronoun. To form a possessive pronoun, "ir" (to have) is added before the possessed noun. This is different from Aswan language, where the object is inflected, not the noun possessing. "Ka" is the third person feminine singular pronoun ("she"). The word "ir" works only with pronouns.

tulyme yu Taita
Taita's apple
tulyme yu ka
Her apple

The joiner "yu" works in a similar matter as English "of" and is extremely frequent in Ahtialan language (more than "se"/"set", "et"/"ẽt" - all meaning "and"). Its usage with pronouns is possible, but unlikely; however, it does never appear with "var" (1st prs. sg.).

There are two grades of possession, surface and deeper, like when one has the book and the book has a page.

Haunãkãís triae yu ceue ak qırkai ma.
Look at the defence of the city of the Commonwealth.

"Tria yu ceue" - defending of the city. "Ak qırkai ma" - of the Commonwealth. On the surface level, a normal genitive construction was used "1. yu 2.", while on the deeper level, there is a circumfix "ak 1. ma".[16]

Pointing clausesEdit

When pointing objects, like "this is an apple", a 'luri vah' structure is used, which literally means "what this".

Luri vah tulyme.
This is an apple.

When the sentence is not built to introduce objects, but this activity is done within a more important sentence, a Representative case is used.

Apsıdaŝ lu hak’a arta. Tulymeya naik lemekavst.
I know you're hungry. But you can eat this apple.

The Representative case enforces sort of a turn in the message, slightly bringing the focus on its clause. Notice the "naik" she-can structure. While objects in Ahtialan have no gender, grammatical gender can be used to indicate word colour (see nouns in grammar section).

GrammarEdit

Ahtialan grammar is considered to be relatively simple. The word order is strict, no passive constructions are allowed, all is done with morphological means. However, Ahtialan focuses heavily on emotional background of the message and sometimes may appear illogical, as expressing feelings and sensations often are above straight meaning.

Ahtialan uses twelve noun quasi-cases. Adjectives are not inflected by cases, only by honourifics. Verbs have four conjugation patters, six tense-like constructions and four moods.

Word colourEdit

Ahtialan severely relies on "whether the word sounds good or bad". This is based on two factors: phonemes used and their combination, and the meaning of the word. For example, majority of words with the sound "ħ" are extremely negative, like war, noise, rape, ignorance, heat, flood, building fire, illness and so on and so forth. Five patterns have been discovered so far:

  • positive (symbol <<+>>, in double sharp brackets),
  • negative (symbol <<->>),
  • strong' (symbol <<↑>>)
  • and neutral (symbol <<0>>).

In addition to that, when two opposite values mix within one word, another value results from this:

  • weird (in a negative sense; ugly, loony, funny; symbol <<?>>).

Milya's division of Ahtialan phonemes according to values they usually represent seems to be correct. Phonemes /w/, /l/, /ɫ/, /j/, /ɥ/, /m/, /ɲ/, /ɬ/, /ʨ/, and also m fortis are considered to be positive. They usually mix with vowels such as "i" or "û". /ʜ/, /r/, /g/, /ʝ/, /x/ are negative. While /g/, /ʝ/, /x/ are "rather" negative (they become negative when the word is built entirely of them), /ʜ/ is extremely negative and will dominate the word, no matter what other sounds are. /r/ may be negative, but its primary value is strong. /r/, /v/, n fortis, bidental fricatives, "x", "s" are strong. They give the sense of power flowing from the word. [β], [d], [t], [p], ejectives, clicks, long stops are considered to be neutral. Weird are combinations of positive, negative, and/or strong.

Grammatical gender in Ahtialan ceased to play its former role. It is more about emotional associations than gender.

  • Nowadays, the basic grammatical gender is either null or former neutral. It can be used to a person, too.
  • All female forms are very positive. They are immediately associated with ideas like "good", "nice", "gentle", "soft", and, particularly, "safety". Female forms rarely are used about men, but when the sentence focus turns on female values and it is about a girl, then it is considered to be a very nice way of talking about women.
  • Male forms are strong, but this is not as obvious as female values. They may be associated with words like "power", "ability", "strength", "defence".

No negative gender exists, both are positive. However, most often no gender or neuter gender are used. Opposing the immediate thoughts of Western people (from USA, UK, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Scandinavian countries, all trying to equal genders), the values of feminine and masculine genders are not antagonistic, they tell some values that "suit the gender better", but does not necessarily mean that women are weak or men are evil. Using them against the other gender is ungrammatical and forbidden by language usage (nobody does that).

Words sounding good (examples):

  • nya - love
  • nyo - star
  • nyu - good
  • nûmya - beauty
  • illa - faith
  • wen - winter
  • moilu - light
  • muuna - dream
  • imi - marriage
  • miyavst - to give, to make a gift

Words sounding evil:

  • ħavan - war
  • taħıı - noise
  • ħared - despair
  • alkaħ - remembering bad things
  • ħırve - damage to someone
  • ħren - accident
  • ħayı - empty
  • şppartħat - desolation
  • pusħa - lust
  • ħör - vulg. fucked, fucking, wicked
  • ħab - flood
  • ħan - summer

Words sounding strong:

  • drast - shock, tremor
  • ontra - darkness
  • kadrai - red
  • şã - question superparticle
  • vöört - ice
  • mãra - world
  • draak - dragon
  • psalvada - (military) special force
  • t|ai - a lot, more
  • şar (invars dialect) - but
  • đãrs - stamp
  • vãjs - net

Words sounding neutral:

  • ahta - soup
  • daş - fur
  • vuss - merely
  • elte - hair
  • teyrı - nature
  • tíra - stairs
  • tornya - promise
  • ımenlae - a case (not grammatical)

Some examples of weird:

  • gadja - a worm
  • aidayz - concrete
  • vebzn - a rat

VerbEdit

In Ahtialan, there are two types of verbs: regular and irregular. Regular verbs end with -vst, nowadays pronounced [sʷt], [ust], [wst] or similar. Irregular verbs do not have any patterns. Verbs are inflected with persons, tenses, numbers, moods and gender, which form two groups: person, number and gender can be indicated in one verb, but tense and mood must be expressed separately.

Regular verbs have -vst, to which tense and mood endings are attached by agglutination. With personal, number and gender suffixes, this -vst is removed and certain inflecting changes may take place. Irregular verbs are not inflected with persons, number and genders. Tense and mood suffixes form new words and are separated from their verbs.

Tenses (with aspects)Edit

Example (reg.) Suffix Translation (Eng.) Translation (Pol.) Translation (Rus.) Tense
Yurtavstart -art I was saying Mówiłem Я рассказывал Past imperfective
Yurtavstaran -aran I said (once) Powiedziałem Я сказал Past perfective
Yurtavstãk -ãk I will say Powiem Я скажу Future
Yurtavstoyd -oyd I speak; I say Jestem mówiący Я говорю Generic
Yurtavstellen -ellen I speak (in order) to... Mówię, by... Я говорю из-за... Causative
Yurtavstaãn -aãn I'm speaking while... Mówię, gdy... Говоря... Synchronic

Perfective and imperfective aspects of the past tense exist in Polish and in Russian languages, but not in English. These aspects are used to differ activities completed and not completed in the past, with no information about the sequence of events as perfect aspect does. For example, "yurtavstart" means that the activity was not finished or it was performed too long to be perceived as a point on a timeline; while "yurtavstaran" means that what is being told about was done once and it was finished. In English these can be translated as "was speaking" and "spoke", but this is only an approximation.

Continual tense was a huge problem to identify and describe. It emerged from blue in Ahtialan, out of no construction neither in natural languages nor to any structure of Ahtialan, and now is one of more commonly used tenses. Continual generally points that the activity is being performed right now, just as planned, just as was in the past. It has this meaning that this activity is typical or assigned to a person, like that dogs bark, blacksmiths make swords, dentists deal with teeth, et cetera; simultaneously, it tells for sure that this activity was already done at least once in the past.

Casual case is a rare and bookish case, like in "yurtavstellen nya" (I tell for good, to be good, to make you feel good). Synchronic case is used when two activities are performed at the same time, like "sörökevst sënılevstaãn" To hide and listen.

MoodsEdit

Form Suffix Translation Mood
Rırnıkayoñ! -yoñ Do not hurry! Forbidding mood
Rırnyukavstiís -іís Hurry up! Commanding mood
Gal-öriđan! -đan You be healthy! Optative mood
Boatarieisħë. -ieisħë I wish you die. Cursing mood

ConjugationEdit

IEdit

1 conjugation: Yurtavst
Sg. Pl.
1 prsn. Yurtaŝ Yurtastı
2 prsn. Yurtari Yurtawsë
3 prsn. Yurtađi Yurtarlıı[17]
Mıkñevst, tarinayavt, faikevst, gianovst

IIEdit

Second conjugation appears, when the root ends with "k" or "k" is the last consonant of the root.

2 conjugation: Haunãkãvst
Poj. Mn.
1 prsn. Haunãkãv Haunãkãstı
2 prsn. Haunãkãri Haunãkãvsı
3 prsn. Haunãkãði Haunãkãrlıı
Alyakavst, sallankavst, ikñaikavst, lemekavst

IIIEdit

Third conjugation takes place when the root finishes with a powerful diphthong, particularly if with "a".

3 conjugation: Genoavst
Sg. Pl.
1 prsn. Genoatau Genoataunı
2 prsn. Genoatari Genoataos
3 prsn. Genoatauđi Genoataurlıı
Boavst, hoapauvst, rırzaiavst, porħoavst

"Т" is a consonant linker.

IVEdit

Fourth conjugation appears when the stress falls on the final vowel, if that is "í".

4 conjugation: Abadívst
Sg. Pl.
1 prsn. Abadiao Abadianı
2 prsn. Abadiari Abadiaosı
3 prsn. Abadiađi Abadiarlıı
Zecelívst, ılinarnívst, un|alívst, balívst

NounEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. In a weak position it's [ə] , in stronger position and after approximants it's [ɘ] , other than that and if it's a new word it's ö: [ɤ] .
  2. [ɯ] appears as the form of the noun plural number morpheme (-ı), at the end of words, after plosives, affricates or nasals.
  3. [i˞] usually appears between consonants, but most often in the syllable «ly», hence no differencing between it and «y» letter for [j] sound. If such a necessity appears, «ý» is used, for instance «lýyin».
  4. Ahtialan language is not a planned language, it's a crystalized effect of glossolalia and its processes which can be described, but can't be regulated.
  5. In rapid speech it is like 65% to pulmonic and 35% to velaric.
  6. Actually, [ɲ] is alveolo-palatal, not palatal.
  7. Pronunciation of the phoneme /k/ is not so stable - for a long time already it balances from [kʰ] to [q] , which now is also intensified by the influence of Aswa language. While it might be difficult to say that /k/ is pronounced only as [q], the the frequency of using [kʰ] and [q] are uneasy to estimate as probably they are equally common and dependent on the phonetic context. /k/ is also aspirated, particularly before the vowel /a/ and unstressed consonants, for instance «Kamiva» /kʰa'miwa/.
  8. Usually realized as [w]. May also be pronounced as [v].
  9. Phonologically [q’] is an ejective. However, it is a solitary ejective, treated by the language as a click (because of a similar sound), it was put to the table as a click. Its manner of pronunciation is still ejective.
  10. Treated by the language as a click.
  11. With few exceptions, for example, Khmer language.
  12. Option: "Ð ð".
  13. The only exception is to shift the word order to emphasize certain structures. However, this is heavily discouraged as this is a syntactic abnormality characteristic for parts of villagers using Ahtialan.
  14. "Llainivst" was coined in honour of the only empress of Ahtiala, Koroneto Llai Niwa.
  15. Turkic languages also inflect nouns by their owners, like Tatar бала "child" балам "my child" балалары "our children".
  16. Might also be spelled with the word, like akqırkaima, in the past it was am-ka instead of ak-ma.
  17. In -rlıı endings, the letter "l" means the sound /l/.

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