Wikia

Conlang

Akinaido

3,215articles on
this wiki
Talk1


Progress 0%


Name: Akinaido

Type:

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Akinaido is a language drawing heavy influence from both European and Asian languages.

SettingEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Letter IPA English example
b b bird
c cheap
d d dine
f f fan
g g garden
h h hot
j jeep
k k skate
l l lip
m m mark

VowelsEdit

Letter IPA English example
a a father
ä ɑ hot (GA)
å ɒ hot (RP)
e e egg
i i key
w ɯ Like the Korean "eu" vowel
ø ɤ Like the "o" in "road", only with spread lips
o o boat
u u coffee
y y

French tu

æ Œ Like the "a" in "father", but with rounded lips
œ ø Like the "ay" in "day", but with rounded lips

DiphthongsEdit

In Akinaido, the main vowel of a diphthong always agrees with its offglide in labial roundedness.

Letter IPA English example
ai aj pie
aw count, but with spread lips throughout
æy Œɥ pie, but with rounded lips throughout
æu Œw count, but with rounded lips throughout
ei ej day
ew Spanish farmacéutico
œy øɥ day, but with spread lips throughout
œu øw Spanish farmacéutico
øi ɤj toy, but with spread lips throughout
øw ɤɯ low, but with spread lips throughout
oy

toy, but with round lips throughout

ou ow low
åy ɒɥ

pie, but with rounded lips throughout

äi ɑj

pie

åu ɒw

cow, but with round lips throughout

äw ɑɯ

cow, but with spread lips throughout

Phonotactics

Basic GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

CasesEdit

DeclensionsEdit

CasesEdit

Nominative is used for subjects of sentences and for the predicate nominative.

Genitive is used for possession, instrumentality, and to indicate motion from something. It is the object of some prepositions.

Dative is used for the indirect object of verbs and also to indicate location. It is the object of some prepositions.

Accusative is used for the direct object of verbs and also to indicate motion towards something. It is the object of some prepositions.

Akinaido nouns never end with a high vowel in the nominative singular.

Rounded DeclensionEdit

Nouns ending in rounded vowels are usually masculine.

In order to decline an Akinaido noun ending in a rounded vowel (œ, æ, or o) simply add the endings shown in the table below. The genitive and dative endings form a diphthong with the vowel at the end of the stem.

Number Sg. ending Pl. ending
Nominative -- -s
Genitive -u -us
Dative -y -ys
Accusative -b -bes

Unrounded DeclensionEdit

Nouns ending in unrounded vowels are usually feminine.

In order to decline an Akinaido noun ending in an unrounded vowel (e, a, or ø), simply add the endings shown in the table below. The genitive and dative endings form a diphthong with the vowel at the end of the stem.

Number Sg. ending Pl. ending
Nominative -- -s
Genitive -w -ws
Dative -i -is
Accusative -b -bes

Consonant DeclensionEdit

Nouns ending in consonants vary in gender. A rule of thumb is that nouns ending in sonorant consonants (nasals and liquids) are usually either masculine or feminine, depending on the vowel that precedes it (rounded = masculine; unrounded = feminine). There is no neuter in Akinaido.

In order to decline an Akinaido noun ending in a consonant, simply add the endings in the table below:

Number Sg. ending Pl. ending
Nominative -- -es
Genitive -w -ws
Dative -i -is
Accusative -ab -abes (†)

†For this form, an acute accent goes on the antepenult of the noun as a stress marker.

VerbsEdit

VoicesEdit

TensesEdit

There are three tenses in Akinaido: present, past, and future. 

  • Present tense: Marked by a zero morpheme between the stem vowel (vowel before final -r of present active infinitive) and the personal suffix.
  • Past tense: Marked by "-ba-" between the stem vowel and the personal suffix.
  • Future tense: Marked by "-be-" between the stem vowel and the personal suffix.

AspectsEdit

There are four aspects in Akinaido:

  • Simple aspect: Indicates neither a completed or currently ongoing action. Marked by a zero morpheme.
  • Perfective aspect: Indicates an action completed at a time the speaker is referring to. Marked by a reduplication of the first syllable of the verb added at the beginning of the verb.
  • Progressive aspect: Indicates a continuous or ongoing action at a time the speaker is referring to. Marked by a "e" and the nasal consonant closest to the place of articulation of the initial sound of the verb. See "progressive suffix" for more details.
  • Perfect progressive aspect: Indicates an ongoing or continuous action that has been done by the point the speaker is referring to. The reduplication and the "e-nasal" are added, but the reduplication is added on before the "e-nasal" is added on.

Progressive PrefixEdit

To give a verb progressive or perfect progressive aspect, add a prefix consisting of "e" and a nasal corresponding to the place of articulation of the first sound in the verb. So, in other words:

before a root starting with a labial consonant, add em- before a root starting with a coronal consonant, add en- (†) before a root starting with a palatal consonant or front vowel, add eñ- (††) before a root starting with a velar consonant or back vowel, add eng- † Changes to "end-" before "r". †† "a" and "æ" are considered front vowels.

MoodsEdit

Indicative moodEdit

The indicative mood is used to state facts and ask factual questions. It is marked by vowel the preceding the final "r" in the present active infinitive, which is always a front vowel.

Subjunctive moodEdit

The subjunctive mood is used for many uses, including purpose clauses, result clauses introduced by degree words, rhetorical questions, wishes, mild imperatives, and many other uses. It is marked by retraction of the original stem vowel found in the present active infinitive. The vowel keeps its roundedness (so a changes to ä, œ changes to o, æ changes to å, etc.)

Infinitive moodEdit

The infinitive is used to complement certain verbs, such as verbs of wishing, trying or ordering. The infinitive is also used as a gerund. An infinitive's gender depends on the roundedness of the vowel before the "-r" of the present active infinitive (rounded = masculine, unrounded = feminine). There are 6 infinitives in Akinaido:

  • Present active infinitive: This is the infinitive that you use to conjugate, translating "to verb" or "verbing". It ends in "-r".
    • Example: tolar to look at, watch
  • Present passive infinitive: Translates "to be verbed", "to get verbed", "being verbed" or "getting verbed". It is formed by adding on "-en" to the present active infinitive.
    • Example: tolaren - to be watched, looked at
  • Perfect active infinitive: Translates "to have verbed" or "having verbed". It is formed by reduplicating the first syllable of the present active infinitive and placing it on the beginning of the word.
    • Example: totolar - to have watched
  • Perfect passive infinitive: Translates "to have been verbed" or "having been verbed". Formed by adding on "-en" to the present active infinitive.
    • Example: totolaren - to have been watched
  • Future active infinitive: Translates "to be about to verb" or "being about to verb". Formed by adding "-ber" on to the stem of the verb.
    • Example: tolaber - to be about to watch
  • Future passive infinitive: Translates "to be about to be verbed" or "being about to be verbed". Formed by adding "-en" to the future active infinitive.
    • Example: tolaberen - to be about to be watched
    • This infinitive actually does have a practical use:
      • Hingaberen terrile sit. - Being about to get killed is frightening.

Imperative moodEdit

The imperative mood gives a direct command to someone.

  • Active imperative: Translates "verb!" Formed by removing an "-r" from the present active infinitive in the singular, and by replacing that "-r" with a "-d" in the plural.
    • domwb kai naki, puer! - Go home and cry, little boy!
    • Ed domwb kai nakid, pueres! - Go home and cry, little boys!
  • Passive imperative: Translates "be verbed!" or "get verbed!". Formed by adding "-hen" to the present active imperative in the singular and "-en" in the plural.
    • Altiehen æp samew! - Get eaten by a shark! (speaking to one person)
    • Altieden æp samew! - Get eaten by a shark! (speaking to multiple people)

To make any of these imperatives negative, simply add  in front.

Akinaido used to have future imperatives, but they faded out over time with the use of the jussive subjunctive.

ConjugationsEdit

There is really only one "conjugation" in Akinaido, as verbs in Akinaido generally conjugate with the same endings (except for a few irregulars).

Personal SuffixesEdit

These are the suffixes that indicate the person and number of a verb (besides the infinitive and imperatives). They are always added on the very end of the verb.

Active personal suffixesEdit

Number Sg. ending Pl. ending
1st person -ri -rw
2nd person -s -zzi
3rd person -t -las

Passive personal suffixesEdit

Number Sg. ending Pl. ending
1st person -re -rø
2nd person -sen -zze
3rd person -ten -lasen (†)

†With this ending, an acute accent goes on the antepenult of the verb as a stress marker.


Example of a highly inflected verbEdit

ensosoñæbarw

en- (progressive) + so- (perfect reduplication) + soñæ (root) + -ba (past marker) + -rw (1st person plural)

soñær means "to dream"

So therefore, this verb form means "We had been dreaming"

Irregular VerbsEdit

sir (to be)Edit

er (to go)Edit

*Note: "Er" has passive forms that act as impersonal verbs.

kerir (to carry)Edit

While this verb is standard fifth conjugation in present, imperfect, and future, it is irregular in the other tenses as the stem changes from "ker" to "teik".

star (to be) (DEFECTIVE)Edit

Note: Star is defective in that it only conjugates in the present, imperfect, and future. It is only seen with passive verbs in these three tenses, such as in:

stari ghestu = I am being carried
stabari ghestu = I was being carried
stabeiri ghestu = I will be carried

por (to be able, to be strong, to have power)Edit

vell (to wish)Edit

mall (to prefer)Edit

noll (to refuse)Edit

fier (to be made, to become)Edit

empyr (to buy)Edit

ess (to be there, to have got)Edit

ArticlesEdit

There are only definite articles in Akinaido:

Gender & Number M. MM. F. FF.
Nominative tœs te tes
Genitive tœu tœus tew tews
Dative tœy tœys tei teis
Accusative tœb tœbes teb tebes

AdverbsEdit

Take the stem of an adjective and add iter.

sastu --> sast + iter ---> sastiter

DictionaryEdit

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

tatyr - to stand


sir - to be


er - to go


altier - to eat


kerir - to carry


kaver - to open


canur - to drink


solir - to wash


igoir - to play


trahair - to pull, to drag


pekuir - to climb


caneir - to sing


sasyr - to cook


fleur - to swim, to flow


nuer - to nod


quier - to hide


diikyr - to say, to speak


laber - to taste


volur - to fly


kazir - to swear, curse


savoir - to know


cosair - to run


loguir - to study


sekeir - to follow


sedyr - to sit


feur - to make


air - to do, to act


questier - to be necessary for (ex. me questiet cosair = it is necessary for me to run)


creier - to believe


leier - to read


ar - to paint (shortest verb)


sokashnihomonkadir - to lie down on a bed with a dog (longest verb)

AdjectivesEdit

NumbersEdit

uno - one (DECLINES)

duoi - two (DECLINES)

trani - three (DECLINES)

All the rest of the numbers do not decline

coitro - four

sinco - five

seis - six

sietes - seven

achi - eight

nona - nine

dec - ten

decun - eleven

decdu - twelve

dectra - thirteen

deccoi - fourteen

decsinco - fifteen

decseis - sixteen

decsietes - seventeen

decachi - eighteen

decnona - nineteen

bisdec - twenty

bisdecun - twenty-one

bisdecdu - twenty-two

terdec - thirty

coiterdec - forty

sincodec - fifty

seisdec - sixty

sietesdec - seventy

achidec - eighty

nonadec - ninety

squar - one hundred

bissquar - two hundred

tersquar - three hundred

kuib - one thousand

coirt - ten thousand

Colloquial PhrasesEdit

salonui! - hello (to one person)

salud! - hello (to more than one person)

ponoi! - good-bye (to one person)

pod! - good-bye (to more than one person)

coit annuis ess? - how old are you?

essi unum annum - I am one year old

essi traniis annuis - I am three years old

essi deccoi annuis - I am fourteen years old

essi sincodectra annuis - I am fifty-three years old

essi squar annuis - I am one hundred years old

frijiet - it's cold

calet - it's hot

quid ais? or quid sis aizon? - what are you doing?

quid aos? - what did you do?

quid sit hon? - what is this?

altigaro - let's eat

essi meganim - I'm hungry

tss! - shh!, hush!

Example textEdit

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki