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Nominative - Accusative
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Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit

Aleña (/al.'e.ɲa/) is a Romance inspired language spoken in modern-day Portugal, Spain, and Southern France. It is regulated by the Academy of Aleñal Culture and Language. (ACLA). 



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d k g
Tap/Flap ɾ
Fricative f v ð̪ s z x ʁ
Approximant j
Lateral app. l ʎ


Front Back
Close i u
Close-mid e
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a


[aɪ, aʊ, je, wo]


Letter a b c1 d e ê
Sound a b s, k d e ɛ
Letter f g2 h i j l
Sound f g, x x i j l
Letter ll m n ñ o p
Sound ʎ m n ɲ o p
Letter r3 s t u v y
Sound ɾ, ʁ s t u v ʎ
Letter z ai ao ie uo ui
Sound z je wo wi

1c is pronounced as [s] before [j, i, e, au]. A hard c can be written as qu

2g is pronounced as [x] before [j, i, e, au]. A hard g can be written as gu

3r is pronounced as [ɾ] at the end of words and after consonants. It is pronounced as [ʁ] everywhere else.

Aleña uses the acute accent (´) to mark stress. Except in a diphthong, a grave accent (`) on a vowel indicates a vowel is preceded by /j/.

Punctuation and CapitalizationEdit


Aleña uses periods to end a complete sentence or abbreviate a word, e.g. Lê aivòñe vuolao suovêr lo dao. 


Aleña uses commas to dependent clauses or preposition phrases to the beginning of a sentence or to separate ideas in a list. 

Question Marks

Question marks appear at the end of an interrogative sentence

Quotation marks

Aleña uses << text >> instead of quotation marks.


Aleña capitalizes names, titles, and place. It does not capitalize religions, languages, or adjectives derived places


Stress in Alenã falls on the penultimate syllable, except in infinitves, where it maintained Latin's stress on the V̄́re. Irregular stress is marked by the acute accent (´).



Unlike the other romance languages, Aleña did not completely eliminate Latin's case system, however, it came quite close. Latin's 5 declensions were also condensed into 3 declensions, with neuter nouns becoming masculine. Furthermore, Latin's cases were reduced to the nominative and oblique in Aleña. They are used as follows:

The nominative case is used to mark the subject of the verb and after certain prepositions. It is also used to mark the agent in the passive voice.

The oblique case is used to mark objects of the verb and after certain prepositions. It is also used to mark the patient in the passive voice

Other cases are expressed using prepositions, most notably the genitive case. To express possession, the preposition de is used along with the nominative case. The possessor is the head of the prepositional phrase (e.g. de lê aivòñe - of the airplane of the airplane's). 

Ambiguous case/gender/number are resolved by the articles (which are provided in the dictionary entry. Gender should be memorized).

Declension IEdit

These nouns are derived from the -a stems in Latin and are mostly feminine.

Singular Plural
Nominative -ao
Oblique -a -as

Declension IIEdit

These nouns are derived from the -us, -um stems in Latin and are mostly masculine.

Singular Plural
Nominative -ao -i
Oblique -ao -os

Declension III Edit

These nouns are derived from the  -es, -is stems (in the genitive) in Latin and are both masculine and feminine

Singular Plural
Nominative -e -es
Oblique -es


Many nouns can be derived from verbs. To this, remove the from the infinite of the verb and add:

-dor: the doer of something



Pronouns in Latin preserve the case system to a much higher degree than regular nouns, keeping (to some degree) the nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, and reflexive cases. In general the nominative case is used to mark the subject and after certain prepositions, the accusative case is used to mark the direct object and after certain prepositions, the dative case is used to mark the direct object, the genitive case is used to mark possession, and the reflexive case is used to indicate that subject both does and receives an action. However, note that some verbs change meaning when used with a reflexive pronoun. Also, the dative is used in certain passive constructions (deponent verbs).

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
NOM tu el/elao nuos vuos elos/elas
ACC me te lo/la nòs vòs los/las
DAT te le/le ñis vis les/les
REFL me te se/se nòs vòs se/se

Aleña uses separate possessive pronouns that agree in number, gender and case with the noun they possess. Note that the third person singular and plural possessive pronouns are identical. Pronoun placement in Aleña can be a bit complicated.

Pronoun Placement

The subject pronoun always goes before the verb and the object pronoun usually goes before the conjugated verb in the order of ACC, REFL, DAT. However, if the verb requires a preposition, the prepositional phrase is moved from after the verb to before the subject pronoun. More information is given in the verbs section. 

1st person singular

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
NOM mêù mao mi
OBL mao mao muos mês

2nd person singular

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
NOM tu tao ti
OBL tao tao tuos tês

3rd person singular

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
NOM su sao si
OBL sao sao suos sês

1st person plural


Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
NOM nuosu nuosao nuosi nuosê
OBL nuosao nuosao nuos nuosês

2nd person plural


Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
NOM viesu viesao viesi viesê
OBL viesao viesao viestos viesês

3rd person plural

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
NOM su sao si
OBL sao sao suos sês

Aleña's most common interrogative pronouns and adjectives, while descended from Latin's, have lost case, number, and gender. They are listed in the table below. 

Thing (What, Which) qué
Person (Who) qués
Time (When) cuêndao
Reason (Why) prao qué
Place (Where) uóve
Manny (How) cao
Amount (How many) cuêñao
Destination (To where) êòve

The most common relative pronouns/adjectives in Aleña are listed belove. Note they are similar to the interrogative pronouns/adjectives, differing only by an accent.

Thing (What, Which) que
Person (Who) ques
Time (When) cuandao
Reason (Why) prao que
Place (Where) uove
Manny (How) cao
Amount (How many) cuañao
Destination (To where) êove

Finally are the Aleña demonstrative pronouns/adjectives. These are used simillarly to their English counterparts. They agree in number in gender with their antecedent/the noun they are describing. Note which forms are the same. 

Proximal Distal
Masc Fem Masc Fem
Sing hao esê esao
Plural hi hao esi esao
Sing huon hên esao esos
Plural hos hês esao esas


Adjectives in Aleña are far simplier than there Latin counterparts and only agree in number and gender with the noun they are describing. Usually, adjectives are placed after the noun they modify; however, some adjectives (like buoñào, mêlo, vèos, and huovên) are placed before the noun they modify. In addition, adjective placement can sometimes change the meaning of the adjective. 

Adjectives that end in -ao

Masc Fem
Sing -ao -a
Plural -os -as

Adjectives that end in a consonant.

Masc Fem
Sing -e
Plural -es -es


Aleña uses articles to express definiteness and agree in number, gender with the noun they modify. Since some nouns have ambigious gender, the definite article is provided as part of the dictionary entry. The definite article is used more frequently than in English (like in Spanish), but the indefinite article is used in approximately the same way.

Definite Article

The indefinite article is derived from ille, illa

Singular Plural
Masc Fem Masc Fem
NOM lao los las
OBL lo la luos lês

Indefinite Article

The indefinite article is derived from ūnus, ūna

Singular Plural
Masc Fem Masc Fem
NOM uno uñao uñi unê
OBL uñao uñao unos unas

Comparison of adjectivesEdit

Aleña lost the suffixes of Latin and instead uses a modifier, mais + que or mieños + que to form the comparative form of the adjective and lê/lao mais or lê/lao mieños to form the superlative form of the adjective.

A few irregular forms adjectives still exist

buoñao (good) > meyor > lê/lao meyor

mêlo (bad) > peòr > lê/lao peòr

vèos (old) > maiòr > lê/lao maiòr

huovên (young) > mienor > lê/lao mienor

Note, don't confuse meyor with maiòr and mienor with mieños

Both nouns in the comparison are in the nomiantive case e.g. Hê aivòñe êste maiòr que esê aivòñe - This airplane is older than that airplane.


Adverbs in Aleña are usually simple; adjectives can be made into adverbs by taking the feminine singular form and adding -mênê

For example:

grêndào > grêndamênê

fêcil > fêcilemêne

Some adjectves become adverbs irregular e.g. buoñao > bien

Most adverbs are placed immediately after the verb, but adverbs referring to duration of time (siemprê (always), nuoncao (never), etc.) are placed before the verb.


Verb are the most complicated part of Aleña grammar. Latin's 4 conjugations fell into 3 conjugations in Aleña: -ar, er, and -ir. Latin  become -ar, -ēo and -ō (-ere) became -er and -īo became -ire. Aleña verbs conjugate for the indicate, subjunctive, conditional, and imperative moods. The perfect and continuous apsects are formed using a paraphrastic construction: hêver + past participle for the perfect aspect and êser + present participle for the continuous apsects. While verbs do not have separate inflections for the passive voice, a special construction is used to create the passive voice (somewhat similar to, though more complete than, the passive se in Spanish).  

Verb negationEdit

Verbs in Aleña are negated with non e.g. Non eò te aimê - I might not love you.


In Aleña, the infinite usually ends in -êr, -er, or -ir. However, it is common in colloquial speech and writing to drop the end of the infinitive, writing/saying just the stem of the verb. If the verb stem ends in ñ or y, those letters are changed to and respectively (e.g. aimêr > aim, vêñir > vên, etc.). Verb stems that end in a vowel (oìr, lêèr, crêèr, etc.) do not exhibit this process.

Passive VoiceEdit

The passive voice is formed by placing a special pronoun in front of the verb. The pronoun agrees in number and gender with the patient. The verb itself is conjugated normally (i.e. there are no special passive conjugations).

It is important to distinguish these pronouns from the reflexive pronouns. Unlike other romance language, this construction is used even when the agent is explictly mentioned with pòr

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Masculine mêì toì es nor vor êè
Feminine mêì toì ào nor vor e

E.g - Aimao lo aivòñê - I love the plane vs. Lo aivòñê es aimao - The plane is loved vs. Lo aivòñê es aimao pòr eò - The plane is loved by me. 

The passive voice is fairly common in Aleña so it is important to learn it well. 

1st Conjugation Edit

This conjugation is the largest conjugation and is conjugated as follows.

Simple Tenses

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Ind. Pres. aimao aimas aimao aimêmos aimaìs aimañe
Pret aimêvi aimavesi aimave aimavemos aimavaìs aimavañe
Imp. aimêbao aimêbas aimêbao aimabêmos aimabaìs aimabañe
Fut aimarí aimarés aimaré aimaremos aimareìs aimareñe
Subj. Pres*. aimê aimes aimê aimemos aimeìs aimeñe
Past aimassê aimasses aimassê aimassemos aimasseìs aimasseñe
Fut. aimare aimarís aimare aimarimos aimariìs aimaréñe
Cond. Pres. aiaêreà aimareàs aimarejê aimareàmos aimareis aimareàñe
Past aimarò aimaràs aimarò aimaràmos aimarìs aimaràñe
Imp. Pres. ø aimao ø aimemos aimaè ø
Non-Finite Forms
Past Participle aimêào
Pres. Participle aimêndao
Infinitive aimar
  • Note that the stem for these verbs is from the eò form of the present indicative tense

Perfect Tenses

Perfect tenses are formed with hêv + the past participle.

2nd Conjugation Edit

Simple Tenses

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Ind. Pres. bevao beves bevê bevemos beveìs bevêñe
Pret bevi bevesi beveò bevemos bevès beveroñe
Imp. beveà beveàs bevejê beveàmos beveis2 beveàñe
Fut beverí beverés beveré beveremos bevereìs bevereñe
Subj. Pres1. beva bevas beva bevamos bevaìs bevañe
Past bevessê bevesses bevessê bevessemos bevesseìs bevesseñe
Fut. bevere beverís bevere beverimos beveriìs beveréñe
Cond. Pres. bevereà bevereàs beverejê bevereàmos bevereis2 bevereàñe
Past beverò beveràs beverò beveràmos beverìs beveràñe
Imp. Pres. ø beve ø bevamos beveè ø
Non-Finite Forms
Past Participle bevejao
Pres. Participle bevêndao
Infinitive bever

1 Note that the stem for these verbs is from the eò form of the present indicative tense.

2 In this case, the and are in two separate syllables, not separated by /j/

Perfect Tenses

Perfect tenses are formed with hêv + the past participle

3rd Conjugation Edit

Simple Tenses

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Ind. Pres. rêcevao rêcevis rêcevê rêcevimos rêceviìs rêceveñe
Pret rêcevivi rêcevivis rêcevive rêcevivimos rêcevivaís rêceviviñe
Imp. rêcevià rêceviàs rêcevijê rêceviàmos rêcevís rêceviàñe
Fut rêcevirí rêcevirés rêceviré rêceviremos rêcevireìs rêcevireñe
Subj. Pres1. rêceva rêcevas rêceva rêcevamos rêcevaìs rêcevañe
Past rêcevissê rêcevisses rêcevissê rêcevissemos rêcevisseìs rêcevisseñe
Fut. rêcevire rêcevirís rêcevire rêcevirimos rêceviriìs rêcevirèñe
Cond. Pres. rêcevireà rêcevireàs rêcevirejê rêcevireàmos rêcevireis2 rêcevireàñe
Past rêcevirò rêceviràs rêcevirò rêceviràmos rêcevirìs rêceviràñe
Imp. Pres. ø rêcevê ø rêcevamos rêceviè ø
Non-Finite Forms
Past Participle rêceviào
Pres. Participle rêcevindao
Infinitive rêcevir

1 Note that the stem for these verbs is from the eò form of the present indicative tense.

2 In this case, the and are in two separate syllables, not separated by /j/

Perfect Tenses

Perfect tenses are formed with hêv + the past participle

Irregular Verbs

Aleña has a fair amount of irregular verbs, most of which are stem changing verbs. There are a few verbs that are totally irregular. The most common ones are listed below (the irregular forms are highlighted)


Hêv is an auxiliary verb used to form the perfec tenses (the third person singular also means "there is/are"). This is the only verb with a different pattern for the infinitve. 

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Ind. Pres. hi hes he hemos heìs heñe
Pret hêò hêàs hêò hêàmos hêìs hêàñe
Imp. heà heàs hejê heàmos heis heàñe
Fut hêví hêvés hêvé hêvemos hêveìs hêveñe
Subj. Pres. heja hejas heja hejamos hejaìs hejañe
Past hêssê hêsses hêssê hêssemos hêsseìs hêsseñe
Fut. hêvé hêvís hêvé hêvimos hêvìs hêvèñe
Cond. Pres. hêveà hêvàs hêvejê hêveàmos hêveis1 hêveàñe
Past hevò hevàs hevò hevàmos hevìs hevàñe
Imp. Pres. ø heve ø hevamos heveè ø
Non-Finite Forms
Past Participle hêào
Pres. Participle hêìndao
Infinitive hêv

1In this case, the and are in two separate syllables, not separated by /j/


Êsser is one verb meaning "to be" (along with estêr). 

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Ind. Pres. sao ês estê somos eseìs soñe
Pret fui fuesi fue fuemos fuesis fueroñe
Imp. êrao êras êrê êrêmos êraìs êrañe
Fut êsserí êsserés êsseré êsseremos êssereìs êssereñe
Subj. Pres. se sis se simos siìs señe
Past fuessê fuesses fuessê fuessemos fuesseìs fuesseñe
Fut. êsseré êsserís êsseré êsserimos êsseris êssereñe
Cond. Pres. êssereà êssereàs êsserejê êssereàmos êssereis1 êssereàñe
Past êsserò êsseràs êsserò êsseràmos êsserìs êsseràñe
Imp. Pres. ø se ø simos señe ø
Non-Finite Forms
Past Participle êsseào
Pres. Participle êssêndao
Infinitive êsser

1 In this case, the and are in two separate syllables, not separated by /j/


Estar also means "to be" and is used to form the continuous tenses (along with the present participle). It is irregular only in the preterite and past subjunctives.

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Ind. Pres. estao estas estao estêmos estaìs estañe
Pret estêvi estêvesi êstêve êstevemos êstêvaìs êstêvañe
Imp. estêbao estêbas estêbao estabêmos estabaìs estabañe
Fut estarí estarés estaré estaremos estareìs estareñe
Subj. Pres. estê estes estê estemos esteìs esteñe
Past estêvassê estêvasses estêvassê estêvassemos estêvasseìs estêvasseñé
Fut. estaré estarís estaré estarimos estaris estareñe
Cond. Pres. estareà estareàs estarejê estareàmos estareis1 estareàñe
Past estarò estaràs estarò estaràmos estêrìs estaràñe
Imp. Pres. ø estao ø estemos estaè ø
Non-Finite Forms
Past Participle estêào
Pres. Participle estêndao
Infinitive estar

1In this case, the and are in two separate syllables, not separated by /j/


Poder is an auxiliary verb meaning "to be able to." 

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Ind. Pres. puosao puodes puodê podemos podeìs puodêñe
Pret pui puesi pue puemos puesis pueroñe
Imp. podeà podeàs podejê podeàmos podeis podeàñe
Fut poderí poderés poderé poderemos podereìs podereñe
Subj. Pres. puose puosis puose puosimos puosiìs puoseñe
Past puessê puesses puessê puessemos puesseìs puesseñé
Fut. poderé poderís poderé poderimos poderis podereñe
Cond. Pres. podereà podereàs poderejê podereàmos podereis1 podereàñe
Past poderò poderàs poderò poderàmos poderìs poderàñe
Imp. Pres. ø puodê ø puosimos puodeè ø
Non-Finite Forms
Past Participle podêào
Pres. Participle podêndao
Infinitive poder

1In this case, the and are in two separate syllables, not separated by /j/

Reflexive VerbsEdit

Reflexive verbs are formed using a reflexive pronoun. Conjugation tables usually list the reflexive pronoun with the verb e.g. dormirse - to go to sleep is conjugated as me duormao, te duormes, se duormê, etc.



Generally, Aleña is an SVO language. Independent clauses are always SVO when not used in an interrogative sentence. However, dependent clauses not introduced by que are often VSO. Que is never optional as in English.

Pronoun PlacementEdit

In general, nominative pronouns are not used in Aleña because the verb usually indicates the subject. Object pronouns are always placed before the conjugated verb and nothing may go between the object pronoun and the verb. They may also be attached the the end of an infinitve (when there is a conjugated verb before it), present paritciple, or past participle (when the verb is being used in the perfect).

Some verbs are followed by a preposition. When they require a pronoun, the preposition + pronoun are moved before the subject pronoun. An overview of pronoun placement is below.

Preposition + Pronoun - Subject Pronoun - Reflexive Pronoun - Indirect Object Pronoun - Direct Object Pronoun - Conjugated Verb


Preposition + Pronoun - Subject Pronoun - Conjugated Verb - Infinitive/Present Participle/Past Partciple - Direct Object Pronoun - Indirect Object Pronount - Reflexive Pronoun 

Interrogative SentencesEdit

The order of the sentence is inverted in questions, becoming VSO. Unlike English, the verb "do" is not needed in questions (e.g. Does the plane fly = Vuolao lê aivòñe?). When an interrogative pronoun is used as the subject, the word order remains VSO (e.g. Who is flying the plane? = Vuolao qués lo aivòñê?). Wen an interrogative pronoun is used as the object, the word order becomes OVS (e.g. Whom do you love? = Qués aimas tu?)

Conditional ClausesEdit

Aleña, like other languages, has several ways of expressing conditional clauses. All conditional clauses have the same structure:

Si + verb (condition) + ,  + verb (result).

However, there are several differrent combinations of verb moods that create several different meanings

  • If X is true, Y is true (Indicative Present + Indicative Present)
  • If X is true, Y will be true (Indicative Present + Future Present)
  • If X has been true, Y has been true (Present Perfect Indicative + Present Perfect Indicative)
  • If X has been true, Y will have been true (Present Perfect Indicative + Future Perfect Indicative)
  • If X were true, Y would be true (Imperfect Subjunctive + Conditional Present)
  • If X were true, Y would have been true (Pluperfect Subjunctive + Conditional Present Perfect)1
  • If X had been true, Y would have been true (Imperfect Subjunctive + Conditional Past or Conditional Present Perfect)
  • If X should be true, Y will be true (Present Subjunctive + Future Subjunctive)2

1Relatively rare, not generally used in spoken Aleña

2Incredibly rare, never used in spoken Aleña, only extremely formal literary or legal documents.

Uses of VerbsEdit

The distinctions between tense/mood in Aleña can be quite complicated and sometimes differ from other romance languages. 

Preterit vs. Imperfect

The distinction between the preterit and imperfect is largely similar to other romance languages. In general, the preterit refers to a single event or a completed action and the imperfect refers to a habitual or ongoing event. Some verbs change meaning based on which past tense is used

Verb Preterite Imperfect
poder tried was able to
têñer received had
estar became was
hêv there was (event) there was (description)

Descriptions also change meaning depending on the past tense used. Descrptions in the preterit mean that that characterstic has changed (e.g. Lao isolao fue pêqueña - The island was small (but it isn't anymore)). Descriptions in the imperfect mean that the characteristic hasn't changed (e.g. Lao isolao êrê pêqueña - The island was small (and still is)). 

Use of the infinitive vs. the present participle (gerund)

Aleña only uses the present participle when forming the continuous tense. When the present participle is used as a noun in English, Aleña uses an infinitive (this is not declined). When the peresent participle is used as an adjunct, Aleña uses de + infinitive.


Estao joguêndao en la aica - I am playing in the water

Aimao jogar en la aica - I love playing in the water

Veèmos luos piscos de naàr en la aica - We saw the fish swimming in the water. 

Use of the indicative vs. the subjunctive

While similar to many romance languages, there are some unique distinctions in Aleña. One thing unique to Aleña is that Aleña frequently uses the subjunctive in independent clauses (sobjonctivao solao). There are several ways to translate it depending on context

Present Subjunctive

The present subjunctive, when used in independent clauses, usually translates as "may" or "might" e.g. Te aimê - I might love you. It can also be used to refer to an indefinite or non existent subject or used in general truths e.g. Los pisqui naèñe - Fish swim. 

Future Subjunctive 

The future subjunctive, when used in independnet clauses, also translates as "may" or "might." The phrase êsse a + infinitive translates as "to plan to" when used in the future subjunctive. It can also be used to refer to an indefinite or non existent subject.

Êsserí a naàr - I plan to swim

Hêvé piscos en la mêra mañao - There may be fish in the sea tomorrow.

The future subjunctive is very frequently used in independent clauses to refer to events that may or may not happen, such as weather predictions, predictions about sporting events, and the distant (> 1 year in the future) future.

Past Subjunctive

The past subjunctive is not used in independent clauses very frequently. It usually translates to "may" or "might" as well. It is not usually used to refer to an indefinite or non existent subject.

Hêssê piscos en la mêra deào - There may have been fish in the sea yesterday. 


Example textEdit


Todao los humañi nacêñe libros e aicuales en digneda e dirêctos 

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