Wikia

Conlang

Alemarese

3,208articles on
this wiki
Talk0
Alemarese
Alemarrix
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Alemarese (natively Alemarrix /alemaˈʀiʃ/) is one of the most spoken languages of Patrona. It is the majority language in several nations (most notable Westos and Alemar) and taught as a lingua franca the world over.

Classification Edit

Alemarese is an Aidelið language, of the Chevin branch and the Serazi subbranch.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

labial interdental alveolar postalveolar palatal velar uvular glottal
nasal m (n) ŋ
stop p b d tʃ dʒ k g q (ʔ)
fricative ɸ β s z ʃ (ç) x
approximant ð̞ l̟ j w
rhotic (ɾ̟) (ɾ̟̃) ɾ ʀ
  • The interdental nasal /n/ and partially the alveolar flap /r/ assimilate to the place of articulation of the following consonant.
  • The interdental nasal /n/ is pronounced as a nasalized interdental flap [ɾ̟̃] in non-stressed and non-word-initial locations.
  • The uvular stop /q/ is pronounced as a glottal stop [ʔ] in the coda.
  • Whether or not /z/ is a separate consonant and its degree of separation from /s/ both differ from dialect to dialect.
  • The velar fricative is pronounced as a palatal [ç] after /i/ or /e/.
  • The labialized velar approximant /w/ has many origins and thus alternates with several other phonemes. It is the pronunciation of /l/ in the coda, and of /u/ in many diphthongs.

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Near-close (ɪ) (ʊ)
Close-mid (e) (o)
Mid
Open-mid (ɛ) (ɔ)
Near-open (æ)
Open a (ɑ)
  • The close vowels /i/ and /u/ lower in response to a following /ŋ/, /k/, /g/, and /q/.
  • The mid vowels /e/ and /o/ lower when followed by a coda consonant and raise before another vowel or word-finally.
  • Conservative dialects have separate close-mid and open-mid vowels.
  • In some dialects, [e] and [ɛ] (and [o] and [ɔ]) contrast word-finally.
  • The front open vowel /a/ raises to [æ] before alveolar consonants in some dialects.
  • /a/ backs to [ɑ] when adjacent to a uvular stop [q].
  • Vowels gain a following semivocalic schwa before nasals in some dialects.
  • Any two adjacent vowels diphthongize.

StressEdit

Stress is typically on the penultimate vowel, unless the word ends with a consonant other than <n> or <c>; however, stress is contrastive, and is thus marked in non-obvious locations by a grave accent.

Writing SystemEdit

The AlphabetEdit

Chevin Alphabet

The Standard Chevin Alphabet with names in transliterated Alemarese

Alemarese is written in the Standard Chevin Alphabet (natively Ceaja Cevi).

The letter ta dun is only used in loanwords.

TransliterationEdit

Letter a b c d ð e f g h i j l m
Sound /a/ /b/ /k/, /tʃ/ /d/ /ð/ /e/ /ɸ/ /g/, /dʒ/ 0 /i/ /x/ /l/, /w/ /m/
Letter n o p q r s t u v x y z þ
Sound /n/ /o/ /p/ /q/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /u/, /w/ /β/, /w/ /ʃ/ /j/ /z/ /t/, /ð/
  • <c> is pronounced /tʃ/ before front vowels.
  • <g> is pronounced /dʒ/ before front vowels.
  • <l> is pronounced /w/ in the coda.
  • <v> is pronounced /w/ before back vowels.

DigraphsEdit

  • au /o/, ai /e/
  • cuF /k/F, c(i/e)B /tʃ/B, cm /m/ word-initially
  • guF /g/F, g(i/e)B /dʒ/B
  • jr /ʀ/ word-initially, jC /C/
  • ndgB /ŋg/B, ng /ŋ/, /ndʒ/ before front vowels
  • rr /ʀ/
  • sp /ʃp/, st /ʃt/
  • tt /tː/
  • veB /β/B, vuF /w/F

Native CollationEdit

c, a, j, d, g, u, q, p, b, o, h, v, e, s, z, t, l, f, i, y, ð, r, n, m, þ, x

NounsEdit

Declension tableEdit

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
nom sg -a -i -0 -e -e
pl -e -i -o -e -e
instr sg -an -in -(u)n -en -en
pl -en -en -on -en -en
gen sg -e -o -e
pl -̀au -̀eu -̀au -̀au -̀eu
voc sg -e -i -o -e -e
pl

First declensionEdit

The first declension houses the vast majority of animate nouns, all morphological diminutives, and all instruments. There's very little irregularity in the first declension. Nouns ending in -ea or -aya in the singular become -eye and -ae in the plural nominative, plural instrumental, and singular genitive/vocative.

ex. otta "tongue, language, speech"

sg pl
nom otta otte
instr ottan otten
gen otte òttau
voc otte ottà

Second declensionEdit

Second declension nouns are mostly inanimate, though there are a few groups of animates. They are the most regular declension, with no irregularities at all.

ex. duji "gold"

sg pl
nom duji duji
instr dujin dujen
gen dujì dùjeu
voc duji dujì

Third declensionEdit

The third declension is almost entirely inanimate, save for some names and some dialects versions of the diminutives of the core family such as bab and nun in place of the more typical baba and nùnia.

ex. cur "flame, fire"

sg pl
nom cur curo
instr curun curon
gen curo cùrau
voc curo curù

Third declension nouns typically end in a stressed syllable in the nominative singular. The addition of the endings bring about predictable alternations of certain final consonants. These do not occur in recent loanwords.

gradation example oblique stem
f->v /w/
p->b haup "cord" haub-
t->d,ð1 yet "leaf" yed/yeð-
d->ð1
er2->r hèder "house" hetr-
  1. Only in the instrumental singular.
  2. unstressed

Fourth and Fifth declensionEdit

The fourth and fifth declensions are the same in the nominative and instrumental. They also lack a number distinction in those cases. In the other cases they completely match the first and second declension, respectively, except for the fifth declension's vocative singular. They can be animate or inanimate, though the fourth tends to be animate. The fourth undergoes i->e ablaut in the plural genitive and plural vocative. The fifth undergoes a->e ablaut in the singular genitive and plural vocative.

ex. xile "scratch, scrape"

sg pl
nom xile xile
instr xilen xilen
gen xile xèlau
voc xile xelà

ex. rame "rope"

sg pl
nom rame rame
instr ramen ramen
gen remì ràmeu
voc rame remì

Irregular nounsEdit

Few nouns are irregular, and if a noun is irregular, it is very predictable. An example of a truly irregular noun is oai "cloud".

sg IPA pl IPA
nom oai /oˈe/ uayo /ˈwajo/
instr oen /ˈoen/ uayon /ˈwajon/
gen uayo /ˈwajo/ uàyau /ˈwajo/
voc uayo /ˈwajo/ uayù /waˈju/

PronounsEdit

Nominative pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 seo nave
2 toya miun
2.cer
3.an jora jore
3.inan 0
3.obv tia tie

Accusative pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 ze nof
2 teo ciuò
2.cer mij
3.an jora jore
3.inan li eli
3.obv tia tie

Instrumental pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 seon naven
2 toyan miumon
2.cer mìn
3.an joran joren
3.inan lun elon
3.obv tian tien

Genitive pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 seo nave
2 toye miumo
2.cer mìo
3.an jore
3.inan lo elo
3.obv tie

Possessive pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 ze novo
2 teo toyàu
2.cer mijo
3.an jore
3.inan lo elo
3.obv tie

Vocative pronounsEdit

There are only two vocative pronouns: 2s toye and 2p miumà.

Interrogative pronounsEdit

who/which becine /beˈtʃine/
what/which becìn /beˈtʃin/
when byaiq /ˈbjeq/
where beu /ˈbew/
from where bevo /ˈbewo/
why gai becìn /gebeˈtʃin/
how bidera /biˈdeɾa/
how much/many jedaj /xeˈdax/

AdjectivesEdit

The citation form is the inanimate nominative singular. The adjectives have no vocative case forms, current standard is to use the genitive forms to agree with vocative nouns, but it is colloquially common to use the nominative forms instead. Where endings are separated by slashes in the table, the first is singular and the second is plural.

1st 2nd 3rd
INAN nom -i -0/o -e
instr -in/en -(u)n/on -en
gen -i/e -o/u -e/i
AN nom -e -a/e
instr -en -an/en
gen -e/a

ex. cremi 'holy' (Soa dine ginora husa mo creme! 'Even the trickster god is holy!')

sg pl
INAN nom cremi cremi
instr cremin cremen
gen cremi creme
AN nom creme creme
instr cremen cremen
gen creme crema

ex. baboref 'motherly, nuturing' (Jore emò crente ðes baboreve. 'They are very nuturing people.')

sg pl
INAN nom baboref baborevo
instr baborevun baborevon
gen baborevo baborevu
AN nom baboreva baboreve
instr baborevan baboreven
gen baboreve baboreva

ex. cade 'new' (Mo bendgaizì cade! 'It's from New Bendguise!')

sg pl
INAN nom cade cade
instr caden caden
gen cade cadi
AN nom cada cade
instr cadan caden
gen cade cada

DeterminersEdit

ArticleEdit

sg pl
INAN nom so
instr son sòn
gen so su
AN nom soa soe
instr soan soen
gen soe soa

DemonstrativesEdit

position
qede proximal
sole medial
tele distal

QuantifiersEdit

Quantifiers include: ispe (all), be (many/a lot), tlone (some), and five (few)

Case usageEdit

NominativeEdit

The nominative case (abbreviated nom) is the dictionary form of a noun. It is primarily used for the subject and primary object of a sentence. As a secundative language, Alemarese treats the indirect object of a ditransitive verb and the direct object of a transitive verb the same. This is called the primary object.

The nominative is also used for the objects of a few prepositions: locatives, temporals, set '(along) with', and id 'about'.

InstrumentalEdit

The instrumental case (abbreviated instr) has three uses. It is used to signify an instrument that is used to complete an action, for the secondary object of a sentence, and to signify movement towards. The secondary object corresponds to the direct object of a ditransitive verb.

When used with locative prepositions, it gives them a 'towards' component.

  • ex. in --> into, on --> onto, at --> to

GenitiveEdit

The genitive case (abbreviated gen) has a few uses. It primarily signifies possession (so frezif cùrau 'the flames' heat') and composition (emaje lotto 'a state of panic').

The genitive also shows the origin of something and, in the same capacity, to make demonyms.

  • ex. Seo mi alemaro 'I'm Alemarese.'

It's also used to show groups to which one is a member.

  • ex. hèder ridore 'House Kicker'

And to make matronymics.

  • ex. rajàn rajàno 'Rajàn, child of Rajàn'

When used with locative prepositions, it gives them an 'away from' component.

  • ex. in --> out of, on --> off of, at --> from

VocativeEdit

The vocative is used for direct address.

  • ex. Aðe crèntau! 'Hello people!'
  • ex. Farm vilxe. 'Bye, Viusche.'

VerbsEdit

There are four conjugation classes based on four thematic vowels: a, e, u, and o.

Nonpast tenseEdit

-a verbs

sg pl
1 -i -en
2 -ac -aru
3 -a

-e verbs

sg pl
1 -i -en
2 -ec -eru
3 -e

-u verbs

sg pl
1 -i -on
2 -uc -uru
3 -u -ui

-o verbs

sg pl
1 -i -on
2 -oc -oru
3 -o

emoc -to be

sg pl
1 (e)mi mon
2 moc moru
3 mo emò

ex. seo odi "I give"

Recent tenseEdit

sg pl
1 -ais -aint
2 -aist -aið
3 -ais -aisè

ex. seo odais "I just gave"

Direct remote tenseEdit

active participle + the following suffixes (stressed on the participle ending except in the 3p). ex. seo odera "I gave" -a and -e verbs

sg pl
1 -a -en
2 -ac -aru
3 -a

-u and -o verbs

sg pl
1 -u -on
2 -uc -uru
3 -u -ui

Indirect remote tenseEdit

active participle + the recent tense suffixes ex. seo oderais "I was told I gave"

Eventive tenseEdit

Thematic vowel + the following suffixes

sg pl
1 -nì -nèn
2 -nèc -neru
3 -nè -nes

ex. seo odanì "I'd probably give"

FutureEdit

The future is indicated by an auxiliary "jre", which is placed before a verb in the active participle.

  • ex. Jri oder li "I will give it",
  • Seo jrais oder li "I was going to give it".

ParticiplesEdit

active passive
a -er -aud
e -er -et
u -or -ut
o -or -ud

SyntaxEdit

Noun phraseEdit

Verb phraseEdit

NegationEdit

AdverbialsEdit

QuotationsEdit

InversionEdit

PrepositionsEdit

vent (at/to/from), set (with), id (about), ro (on), ij (in)

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

Though Patronans have ten fingers in total, the most common base is 8 (octal) which was spread by Alemarese and Barejine-speakers across most of Patrona. Typically, fingercounting starts with the thumbs out, the first finger being the index, etc.

# name 8+# #*8 #*64
0 pidejn on
1 jen gen on hied
2 diz eqa teziq dizied
3 hor horòn horsiq horied
4 mir miròn mirsiq mirried
5 dorsa dorsòn dorsiq dorsied
6 sexa sexòn sixiq sixied
7 ðea ðeòn ðeziq ðeyed
8 on teziq hied onied
  • Ordinals are formed with <-me>. First and second are formed suppletively (veit and drezip). They are adjectives.
  • Fractions are formed with <-aj>. Half is suppletive and quarter is irregular (foli and meraj). They are nouns.
  • In both, only the last word of the number receives the ending. If the last word in a fraction is "one" (e. g. 21) then it is rendered as veit.
  • Numbers (except for jen, diz, and hor) are nouns declined according to form. The item they tell the quantity of is rendered in the genitive.
  • Jen, diz, and hor are undeclined and appear before the noun.

ColorsEdit

Patronans can't see blue, so they have no need of words to distinguish it, greatly shrinking their color vocabulary.

  • cindi: dark red, purple, brown
  • god: light red, pink, orange
  • plauve: white, yellow
  • xab: light green, chartreuse, cyan
  • varze: dark green, teal
  • eriti: black, blue
  • hoici: gray

Days of the WeekEdit

The Patronan week is only six days long.

  1. deruax- Sunday
  2. lameax- Loveday
  3. cavecax- Thoughtday
  4. veverax- Fastday
  5. mindax- big Moonday
  6. jiliax- little Moonday

DirectionsEdit

samar
dejsamar ciosamar
deje vuxe cios
dejling ciosling
ling

ConjunctionsEdit

and (ð), either or (iy...iy...), and/or (ài), but (no)

FamilyEdit

Body partsEdit

Important PhrasesEdit

English Alemarese
hello/hi (norm.) aðe
hello (frm.) aðe mì
hi/bye/ciao (inf.) farm
How are you? Moc bidera?
Welcome
please
thank you broji (teo)
sorry
yes
no
maybe
What's your name? Teo tung mo becìn?
My name's... Ze tung mo...
Where are you from? Moc vent bevo?
I'm from... Seo mi vent...
Do you speak Alemarese? Ceðac alemarrix?
I don't know. Moizi ge.
I love you. Ectadi teo.

Telling timeEdit

Naming conventionsEdit

SwadeshEdit


No. English Alemarese
1Iseo
2you (singular)toya, mì
3hejora, tia
4wenave
5you (plural)miun, mì
6theyjore, tie
7thisqede
8thatsole, tele
9hereqede (visù)
10theresole (visù), tele (visù)
11whobecine
12whatbecìn
13wherebeu
14whenbyaiq
15howbidera
16notContionary_Wiki
17allispe
18manybe
19sometlone
20fewfive
21otherContionary_Wiki
22onejen
23twodiz
24threehor
25fourmir
26fivedorsa
27bignedui
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortjem
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womancrente
37man (adult male)crente
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherbabora, baba
43fathernunora, nunu
44animalremuras
45fishN/A
46birdN/A
47dogN/A
48louseN/A
49snakeN/A
50wormN/A
51treeveðùdia
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitcùltia
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafyet
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerìdria
60grasslant
61roperame
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeriðuri
75noseoðàncuer
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueotta
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastmània
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkpaibe
93eatpaibe
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepðumu
108livecimoda
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntsterre
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutxaula
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeunge
123liefuro
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveoda
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139counttalentu
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunDerù
148moonMinde, Jilia, varsxlavi
149staraurim
150watermode
151rainpete
152riverdogri
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stonesaig
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthN/A
160cloudoai
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windzaj
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167firecur
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainpàrom
172redcindi, god
173greenvarze, xab
174yellowplauve
175whiteplauve
176blackeriti
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayax
179yearrang
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullvuozi
183newcade
184olddun
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correcttobrol
197nearvent
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withseit
204andð
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nametung

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki