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Name: Bqiqqe Mjeh]]

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Tripartate (See Grammar)

Head Direction: Head-Final

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


This is heavily based off of Bqiqqe, Mjeh, Bzøssktlyx, and N!apd.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal Normal m{m} ɳ{n'} ŋ{ny} ɴ{nq}
Rounded mᶣ{m'}
Velarized mˠ{mw} nˠ{nw}
Palatized mʲ{mj} nʲ{nj}
Plosive Normal p{p} b{b} t {t} d {d} ʈ {t'} ɖ {d'} k{k} g{g} ɢ{q} ʡ{?}
Aspirated p̪ⁿʰ{pn} b̪ⁿ{bn} ʈʰ{th'} ɖʱ{dh'} kⁿʰ {kn}
Nasalized ʈⁿʰ{tn} ɖⁿ{dn}
Labialized gʷ{gw} ɢʷ{qw}
Ejective Normal ɓ{b!} ɗ{d!} ɠ{g!} ʛ{q!}
Labialized ɠʷ{gw!} ʛʷ{qw!}
Fricative Normal ɸ{f} β{v} f{f'} θ{tt} ð{dd} s{s} z{z} ʂ{sh} ʐ{zh} ɕ{sy} ʑ{zy} h{h} ɦ{hh}
Geminate ɸ:{ff} β:{vv} s:{ss} z:{zz} ʂ:{ssh} ʐ:{zzh} ɕ:{ssy} ʑ:{zzy} χ:{hx}
Pharyngeal θˤ{tx} ðˤ{dx} ʂˤ{sx} ʐˤ{zx}
Nasalized fⁿ{fn} ɦⁿ{hn}
Velarized βˠ{vw} ðˠ{dw}
Palatized βʲ {vy} ðʲ {dy}
Affricate Normal pɸ{pf} pf{pf'} tθ{tth} ts{ts} ʈʂ{ts'} ɖʐ{dz'} t̠ɕ{tsy} kx{kx} qχ{qx}
Aspirated ʈʂʰ{tsh'} ɖʐʱ{dzh'}
Nasalized tθⁿ{ttn} dʒⁿ{ddn}
Lateral tɬ{tlh}
Approximant Normal ɻ {r} j {jy} ɰ {u'} ʕ {>}
Rounded ɥ {jw}
Nazalized ɻⁿ {rn} ʕⁿ {>n}
Palatized ɰʲ{uj'}
Lateral fric. Normal ɬ{lh} ɮ{lzh} ꞎ{lh'}
Velarized ɬˠ{lw} ɮˠ{lzw}
Lateral app. l{l} ɭ{l'} ʎ{ly}
Trill ʜ{rx}

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Back
Close ĩ{in} ɨ{ix} ʉ{ux} ɯ{u}
Near-close ɪ{i}
Close-mid ø{oy} ɘ{ex} ɤ{o} õ{on}
Open-mid ɛ{e} ɜ{eux} ɔ{ox}
Near-open æ{ey}
Open a{a} ã{an} ɑ{aw} ɒ{aow}


Palatalization is distinctive only before /a ɜ ɨ/ and before another consonant; the vowels /æ ɒ/ are preceded by palatalised and velarised consonants respectively. Only nasal-release consonants and n' ([ɳ]) may occur before nasal vowels.

There isn't a true tone system as much an odd combination of tone and phonation: it has three tones (high, mid, and low) that co-occur with voicing and are co-morbid with phonation differences; some dialects completely lose the tonal element. The low tone implies breathy voicing and high tone implies creaky voicing.

Downsteps occur:

  • After single/pairs of voiceless consonants*

Upsteps occur:

  • After single/pairs of voiced consonants*
  • On single vowels
  • On nasal vowels or nasal/nasal-release consonants

A shift towards normal tone occurs:

  • On clusters of non-nasal vowels
  • After clusters of consonants without the same voicing
  • *After fricatives/affricates

When there are series of upstep-causing phonemes, they will build on each other until an extremely high level has been reached. This will not happen with downsteps.

PhonotacticsEdit

A syllable cannot have more than three consecutive consonants or more than five consonants in total; voicing is disregarded and the sonority hierarchy is ignored. Syllables are usually (C)(C)(V)V, and as indicated by the diagram, the second vowel is stressed in diphthongs. Final consonants are rare.

GrammarEdit

The word order is SVO and the language is primarily left branching, although it is not that strict.

Arguments of a transitive verb aren't marked, but the argument of an intransitive verb is. In the slot after that, the nominative is marked and the accusative is not. This essentially makes it a tripartate language because:

NOM: Ø-NOM
ACC: {construct stem}Ø-Ø
ABS: INTRANS-NOM

NounsEdit

The nouns inflect for at most twenty-one cases:

  1. Abessive (without)
  2. Accusative* (marks object)
  3. Benefactive (for benefit)
  4. Comitative* (with/alongside)
  5. Comparative (similar to)
  6. Dative (to/for)
  7. Demonstrative (distinguishes specific entities)
  8. Distributive (per/each)
  9. Essive (temporary state in place)
  10. Genitive (of)
  11. Instrumental (using)
  12. Intransitive/Reflexive (marks noun of verbs with one argument)
  13. Lative* (from)
  14. Locative* (at)
  15. Nominative (marks subject)
  16. Ornative (endowed with)
  17. Partitive (part of)
  18. Pegative (thing that something is given to)
  19. Possessed* (something that is had)
  20. Similative (making condition as quality)
  21. Transitive (marks nouns of verbs that have two arguments)

It also inflects nouns for three numbers, which form a fused prefix with the cases:

  1. Singular
  2. Paucal
  3. Plural
Singular Paucal Plural
Abessive gtto gfnon gbnyo
Benefactive ksso knnyo kth'o
Comparative tlzho thso tlhgo
Dative kfo kfnon kfgo
Demonstrative dixo dyeyo dyfro
Distributive ssho shu'o sshux
Essive gw'o gpro gn'o
Genitive vlio vtgio vygio
Instrumental kvoey km'o kpjyo
Intransitive nyt'o nwtto nwsko
Nominative >do >bo >go
Ornative zhu'o zzheyo zzho
Partitive lho lhdh'o lhkso
Pegative bo bro b'to
Similative bnon bto bdo
Transitive Ø Ø Ø

*These cases all have a suppletive form of the noun which they attach to. This form looks and sounds entirely different, but means the same thing. These nouns are:
Absolutive: All numbers
Comitative: Paucal and Plural
Possessed: All 3rd Person and all Plural
Lative: Singular
Locative: Singular

Singular Paucal Plural
Absolutive Ø Ø Ø
Comitative tflo tnwo tlhzho
Lative sn'on zpnon slhgo
Locative hbo dhn'o dyeyo

Possessedness additionally attaches the person and number of the possessor, as well as the distance when in 3rd person.

Singular Paucal Plural
1st tzo b?o hbo
2nd jylhot rknon ztko
3rd near ghho nysho vtyeyo
3rd far ku'i sru'i lh'uj'o

The nominative and intransitive cases can be used with any other cases.

It has twelve noun class markers, nine of which are analyzed as noun classifiers and three of which are analyzed as noun classes.

Normal classes:

  1. Male
  2. Female
  3. Children and small animals
  4. Fruits
  5. Meat and body parts
  6. Predators
  7. Sounds, tastes, scents (stimuli)
  8. Plants
  9. Inanimates

Gender classes:

  1. Homosexual
  2. Heterosexual
  3. Pansexual
  4. Alien/Neutral

Noun class is conflated with veracity in its inflection, and the veracity levels are:

  1. Legitimate
  2. Close copy
  3. Bad copy
  4. False/Fake
  5. Opposite
Legitimate Close Copy Bad Copy False Opposite
Male mlhuey mtyeya mpai mtoox m>oxo
Female lpu'eix lsiix lfiaow llhexi ltuox
Small Animals jyfoa uj'kae jystaaw jy>ewe jylae
Fruits aorg aawb aonjnw aedyb aophh
Meat/Body oxosd oxobt oyossy oyojyt oaowshjy
Predators shdixa shneu shloaw shboan shmuux
Stimuli btoexe bshieo blhae bkeix bhaaw
Plants fb'ae fg'e fbnino fraey frtou
Inanimate gpawo gsriex gmsaowu gpnanux gsoxe

The gender classes have prefixes which inflect for case. They can be left off, but this also kind of makes it confusing.

Other Absolutive Comitative Lative Locative
Homosexual bzo bsu bkje bki bshoy
Heterosexual jydo jyve jymehh jyhoy jydyey
Pansexual dypo pzhi pnyi pu'a pge
Alien/Neutral ie dshawox pvexa ghu'oxa ?lexon

Example: kjeant/piosdyk = body, physical form

kjeantoxosd = body (as an accusative noun referring to a body) bzokjeantgpioshboan = belonging to the homosexual false predators (presumably mostaken for predators)

VerbsEdit

The verbs are polysynthetic with a complex system of affixes. They are formed by inflecting the stem, which is made from a root with attached derivations that is usually also a noun or noun stem.

The first one is an infix coming before/ in the middle of the vowels which the gender classes are:

Prefix
Homosexual o
Heterosexual i
Pansexual a
Alien/Neutral Ø

These are usually left unsaid when the vowel they come before or after is the same as the vowel they represent, which can sometimes be confusing, but usually isn't.

In contrast to basic nouns, the verbs have 7 numbers:

  1. Singular
  2. Dual
  3. Trial
  4. Greater paucal (8-16)
  5. Lesser paucal (3-8)
  6. Distributive

They also have 5 persons:

  1. 1st
  2. 2nd
  3. 3rd
  4. 4th (obviative)
  5. 5th (indefinite)

These verbs inflect for subject, direct object, and indirect object, and they do this by ordering the suffixes listed, under the rule that the first one references the subject, the second one references the direct object, and the third one represents the indirect object.

Singular Dual Trial Greater Paucal Lesser Paucal Plural Distributive
1st ha da ba ga g'a ma nwa
2nd fnin bnin ttnin knin n'in dpnin lfnin
3rd ho ko ddo do go jyo sho
4th he bfe dke lshe hhke vpe tme
5th six btix hxix m?ix lpix tuy'ix ddix

They also have 4 moods:

  1. Indicative (normal)
  2. Imperative (command)
  3. Desedarative (want to)
  4. Intentive (intend to)

They also have 2 aspects:

  1. Telic (action that can't continue forever)
  2. Atelic (action that can continue forever)

They also have 5 tenses:

  1. Non-past (present/future)
  2. Past Imperfective (was in the past)
  3. Past Perfective (complete action in the past)
  4. Distant Past Imp. (was in the distant past)
  5. Pluperfect (happened before the past)
Indicative Telic Indicative Atelic Imperative Telic Imperative Atelic Desedarative Telic Desedarative Atelic Intentive Telic Intentive Atelic
Non-past shoe shoa fkoe fkoa djye djya gmonwe gmonwa
Past Imperfect rtoe rtoa blkue blkua m'ehe m'eha sgue sgua
Past Perfective freye freya gfrie gfria stboe stboa dyeye dyeya
Distant Past Imp. hxe hxa zhe zha gw'e gw'a lh'e lh'a
Pluperfect hhahe hhaha texe texa bluie bluia smie smia

Verbs don't have voice as such, instead it's expressed by pronouns.

PronounsEdit

Technically, any verb conjugated for time and person that was subsequently nominalized could function as a pronoun. Essentially, the deal with pronouns is similar to the deal with them in Japanese, but instead of nouns, it's verbs.

Ttnanok = run (not grammatical)
Ttnanokha = I, a heterosexual, run. (not grammatical)
Ttnanokhashoe = I am running/will run for some time that will not necessarily end.
Jyvettnanokhashoe = me, the running heterosexual (not grammatical)
Jyvottnanokhashoemlhuey = me, the running straight legitimate man (Another possibility is Jyvettnaniokhashoemlhuey, but that's redundant.)

ConjunctionEdit

The conjunction "assh" comes in between words, and when it does this, the suffixes on the first word are removed. Because of this, these two words are then written connected with the "assh". This is the only conjunction; there are no sentence conjunctions.

Adjectives/AdverbsEdit

Most adjectives/adverbs are created using "assh", and due to the somewhat small amount of adjectives and adverbs people actually use in real life, this rarely causes problems.

Adjectives can also be created when a noun that must be in the genitive/dative case (but can be otherwise incomplete) becomes a verb that is conjugated for time which is subsequently given the same case as the noun which it modifies.

ttnanok = run (not grammatical)
ttnanokvlio = of the run (not grammatical)
ttnanokvlioshoe = to be of the run (not grammatical)
iettnanokvlioshoe = one who is of the run (not grammatical)
iettnanokvlioshoemlhuey = ... (accusative) who is a legitimate man of the run
p

Adverbs can also be created when a verb takes the same number and time as the verb it modifies, because both of them refer to the noun the verb refers to.

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