Alitalia (Latin form)
|Fusional to analytical|
|Yes, but rarely used|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Lingua Alitalia (English: Alitalian Language), or Alitalia for short, is the official language in Federa de des Respublika Alitalia(Federation of Alitalian Republics), an intergalactic federation. It is said the ancestors of the Alitalian people were emigrated from the Earth to a habitable planet several thousand years ago, stimulated by an unknown "divine" power, and then evolved into a human-like race and over 3,000 hybrid races. They united together and explored the universe, and found the Earth around 1st Century A. D. The language itself then transformed, absorbing a lot of Latin words, but only kept simpler inflections. Unlike ancient Alitalia, modern Alitalia does have conjugations and declensions, but highly regular (and relatively simple, of course).
Alitalia use Des Litera Baronika ("Letter of Baron", but the meaning of Baron is now missing), or Baronic Letters as its common alphabet, but every letter has its equivalent letter in Latin script. To keep texts simple and easy to read, this article, along with any article relevant to Alitalia and written on Earth, uses Latin alphabet instead of Baronic alphabet.
Alitalia uses 24 letters, with upper and lower cases. They are listed by order as follows:
Aa Bb Gg Dd Ee Kk Ff Hh
Ii Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Rr Ss
Cc Tt Ww Uu Vv Yy Zz Xx
The alphabet, when used independently, must be listed in three lines with 8 pairs of letters each line.
B, K, F, L, M, N, P, S, T, W, V, SH and CH are pronounced as in English.
Letter G never goes soft. It always pronounces /g/.
Letter H, when not used in DH, SH, CH, always pronounces /h/ or /x/.
Letter R is trilled, when not used in AR, AUR, ER, EUR, IR and OR. If used, it can be silent. Alternatively, if trilling is hard for a speaker, /ʒ/ is recommended.
Letter C is pronounced /ts/.
Letter Y, when used as a consonant, or used together with i, is pronounced /j/. However, when used as a vowel, it pronounces /y/.
Letter Z is pronounced /z/ or /dz/.
Letter X is pronounced /ɕ/.
DH is pronounced /dʒ/, DX is pronounced /dʑ/.
TX or CX are pronounced /tɕ/.
A always pronounces /a/.
The pronunciation for E is complicated: When not stressed and at the end of a word, /ə/; When stressed and after B, L, M, N, R, X, but not before A, F, H, I, N, O, U, /je/; Otherwise, /e/.
I is pronounced /i/, but sometimes, before another vowel, it will change to consonant /j/.
O is always pronounced /ɔ/.
U is pronounced /u/, but sometimes, before another vowel, it will change to consonant /w/. And, when used in OUR, it is silent.
EU is pronounced /ɔy/, and EUR is pronounced /(y)ə(r)/.
Stress is mostly on the first syllable, if prefixes and pseudo-prefixes are taken out. Exceptions will be marked with stress symbol (`) in dictionaries. e.g. Ni`hon (Japan).
Most Alitalia Dictionary will have a Prefix Table. It lists all prefixes and pseudo-prefixes. So, a learner may not pronounce a complicated word correctly if he doesn't know the structure of the word.
Currently, the following constraints exist in Alitalia:
- All syllables must have a nucleus.
- No geminates or long vowels.
- "x", "dx" and "tx" don't appear in the coda.
- No affricates in complex onsets.
- if "h" is voiced in the coda, it must be a /x/.
- Onset "ng" exists only in foreign words.
- Onset /ʒ/ exists only in some accents.
- The first consonant in a complex obstruent must be an obstruent.
- In codas, two neighbouring consonants must be or not be voicing together.
There are proper nouns and common nouns in Alitalia as in other languages.
There is a simple declension for nouns, as they have nominative and genitive. Nouns in genitive form can also be attributive, but unlike adjectives, they must be placed after the head.
Nouns have three genders: neuter, masculine, feminine. Masculine words are sematically masculine, and always end with -ius; feminine words are sematically feminine, and always end with -ina. However, words with -ius or -ina are not definitely masculine or feminine (if the word actually express a neutral meaning). A good example is the chemical element Hidrius (hydrogenium): it ends with -ius, but is a neuter word.
Nouns in Alitalia have three cases: Nominative, Genitive and Prepositional. The Prepositional case is exclusively used as if the "preposition" is omitted. For example, domem (prepositional case of dome, "house") may indicate "in/on/about/with the house".
Declension in Alitalia is relatively simpler, as it only depends on the ending of the word.
The declension table is:
|-a, -ar, -as||-as||-um|
|-b, -g, -d, -k, -l, -m, -n, -p, -s, -t, -z||+es||+um|
|-e, -es, -em||-es||-em|
|-i, -ir, -ion, -ium, -ius, -y, -iy||-ies||-ium|
|-o, -or, -os||-os||-um|
|-u, -um, -ur, -us||-us||-um|
|-ua, -ue, -uo||+s||-um|
“+es” means: add "es" directly after the entire word. "+um" is the same.
Example: lingua -> linguas, lingum
doma -> domas, domum
Proper nouns are capitalised; when indicating names, locations and unique localised objects, the spelling will be as close as the localised pronunciation. For example, Moskva (not Moskow or Moskov), Misr (not Egypt), Nihon (not Japan). But Kataiy (not China or Zhongguo).
Names of days, months, scientific names (of biological, chemical, astronomial, or other names with a naming system) are also capitalised.
Honourifics, such as Sur (neutral, for both "Mr. " and "Ms. "), Kamarad ("comrade"), Fratius ("brother"), Fratina ("sister"), and Mayeste ("Your/His/Her Majesty"), are always capitalised.
The article, das, which comes from Deutsch, is used for neutral words.
Masculine words use der, and feminine words use die.
Since nouns have no plural forms, if plural must be emphasized, use the article des.
When indicating indefinite meaning, use an (numeric "One") or bia (indefinite "One") instead. Thus, they are not articles.
Nearly all verbs are ended with letter "i", with only a handful of exceptions.
Verbs can be transformed into "disposal" verbs, which can loosely mean "to make somebody do". This transformation is only available when the original verb does not have a "disposal" meaning. Disposal verbs are never passive.
A verb generally has 12 forms, with non-past (present and future) and past tenses, active and passive voices, simple, progressive and perfect aspects. It doesn't use perfect-progressive aspect.
To form a future tense, use a proper form of verb wil before an simple aspect verb.
It is recommended, when not causing confusion, to use simple aspect, present tense and active voice.
The conjugation table is as follows (showing each aspect's end):
|Tenses & Moods||Simple||Progressive||Perfect|
For disposal verbs, the conjugation table is a bit different:
However, copula es is never passive, thus it has its own conjugation rule:
Auxiliary verb wil, which indicates future tenses, conjugates as follows:
|Tenses & Moods||Simple|
The verb di (English: do, act, perform), conjugates as follows:
|Tenses & Moods||Simple||Progressive||Perfect|
Its conjugation is irregular for the conflict with numeric word du (2) if using standard conjugation table.
Adjectives and AdverbsEdit
Adjectives have various endings, of which -ik, -(i)an, -al are the most common. Derived adverbs always end with -o.
Adjectives, when used as a modifier, are put before the head. A genitive noun can also be a modifier, but is placed after the head.
Adjectives and adverbs have comparative and superlative forms. Suffixes are added then.
Pronouns are declined by person, gender and number. They can be listed in the table below:
|English meaning (nominative)||Nominative||Genitive|
|it (or gender unknown)||da||dans|
|they (neuter or gender unknown)||dam||dams|
To express reflective meaning, use genitive pronoun plus noun aut to form a phrase. The genitive form of a reflective pronoun is a genitive pronoun plus autes (genitive of aut).
For a new learner, being familiar with related words is important. These words are mostly pronouns and adverbs, divided into five groups, representing assertive, universal, demonstrative, interrogative and negative meanings. They are lexically regular. See as follows:
|Indicate||bia||some of||cia||all of||dia||that||wia||which||nia||none of|
|Reason||vaus||somewhat||taus||after all||daus||therefore||kaus||for what reason||naus||for no reason|
|Temporal||ben||on an unknown time; sometime||ten||all the time||den||then||wen||when||nen||not ever|
|Possessive||bos||somebody's||cios||everyone's||dios||of this person||wos||whose||nios||nobody's|
|Circumstance||bion||on some condition||cion||no matter what happens||dion||under this circumstance||kion||under what circumstance||nion||never|
|Quantity||vom||some (partial)||kom||how much|
|Category||ved||some kind(s) of||ced||all kinds of||died||this kind of||ked||what kind of||ned||not a kind of|
The basic structure of Alitalia is SVO.