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... Alean is a language spoken on the Hysperian Pennisinula, as well as across the continent of Avlopa. It's culture venerates, horses and water, is animistic, with strong esteem to thought, reason, emotion, individuality, and creativity. It is a highly inflected language making distinctions between grammatical gender and grammatical sex, a wide range of cases and pluralities, verb moods, tenses, aspects as well as important semanto-syntactic distinctions. The basic word order is VSO with change in word order having intricate changes in focal expessions. The phonotactic structure is very unconstrained, with complex consonate clusters, however the nucleus of a syllable must be a vowel.
P T B D F V S Z H L M N all as in English
C is always hard as in ‘cat’ never like ’cell’
G always hard like ’guitar’ never like ’gel’
Ph- as in whew. By putting the two lips close together and blowing.
Th- as in Thick, Thin, Aether, Breath
qp-as in this, that, either, and breathe.
Sh- as in English.
Tc- as it caTS. A TS sound.
Dz- as in suDZ a DZ sound.
Ch- as in English, tsh.
R - sometimes as the R’s in Irish dialects, sometimes rolled. When rolled specifically it will be written as Rr.
y- as in Yes. w- when in front of a vowel like in will.
a- as in father.
o- as in omen. Try not to round your lips as much.
u- as in stool.
i - as in machine.
è- as in bet
é- as in bait.
ÿ- as in the word ‘eye’
ï- as in the word ‘eye’
ü- and in the word ‘you’
w- when in front of a consonant is as ‘eu’ in French or ‘moon’ in Celtic dialects.
Ai- as in ‘eye’
Aë- as in ‘eye’
Oi- as in oyAu- as in ‘ow’
Principles: Gender and animacy.
Nouns are either animate or inanimate and animacy is not morphologically marked.
Inanimate nouns cannot be the subject of a verb that precludes thought or conscious doing. The inanimate pronoun is Mu.
Animate nouns include people, animals and living things or things that are perceived as having a spirit, such as the wind, celestial bodies, water, trees, or even certain rocks. The pronouns Ru, Zoa, and Tcu can stand in for an animate noun depending on its gender, masculine, feminine or neuter, respectively.
There are three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. The gender of inanimate nouns is determined solely by the letter the noun ends with.
-a and -ë are feminine
-o and -u are masculine-é and consonants are neuter.
Adjectives and pronouns agree with nouns in their gender. (along with number and case)
Animate nouns usually have a default gender assigned to them. Vlumnu Vitheriana, Valna, Alomë. For animate nouns that don’t really have biological sex, the default is almost always used but can be changed if one wishes to attribute a specific quality to something like a tree. Alomo might be “ The old man tree.” For creatures that do have biological sex, the default is used when one does not know of it its sex and once it is learned the appropriate ending can be attached.
So since horses are matriarchic animals the default is feminine.
Valno/Valnu “Stallion” Valn, Valnid “Gelding”
The distinction between adding an -o or -u is arbitrary but -u does suggest a more personal/emotional connection to the being.
Verbs agree with animate nouns in gender but they do not agree with inanimate. Inanimate nouns take the masculine third person form of verbs.
Number.Alnëèn nouns can be inflected for eight numbers, the default unmarked singular, the plural, the dual, the trial, the tertiary, the partive plural, permultive, paucal, and the collective-abstractive.
Plural formation. This number is used for more than one object, it can fulfill the duties of all the other numbers, in some dialects has replaced the other numbers, however when expressible, the other numbers are always used in the standard dialect. It is the most irregularly formed of the numbers but it is generally formed by adding -i to the end.
Valna (horse) Valnaë (horses)
Nelebu (tiny bird) Nelebi (tiny birds)
Arno (king) Arnoë (kings)
Alomë (tree) Alomü (trees)Languel Langwelni (tongues)
Nouns ending in -n simply add -i
“wolf” Lopien-> Lopieni
Epenthesis sometimes occurs.
“sheep” Vathen-> Vathni
Nouns ending in -s sometimes drop the s and add -I
“man” Thontos-> Thontoi
The dual is used for any entity of which there are two. Common uses are for body parts but anything that occurs in the singular has a dual form which is used if there is a pair of them. It is formed by adding -t- between the root and the final vowel or by ablaut.
Arno Arnuo Arnue
Alomë AlomituaLangwel Langwelta
-t- +pluralThe tertiary is simply the plural of the dual, it is used for two pairs of an entity or four. It began in poetry with the old dual form of Voi Balvita (two hands) being pluralized to Voiti Balvitae (our four hands, both our two hands) and quickly expanded into colloquial use.
Alomë AlomitaeLangwel Langweltae
-thr-The trial is used for three of an object. -thr- This number is found in the very oldest forms of the language and have continued to prosper very likely due to the religious, superstitious and ceremonial significance of things that come in threes.
Alomë AlomithraVulthnar Langwelthra
This number is used for a smaller group of a larger whole, ‘part of’ “some of” “some” “a group of” etc.
“Aivonli Nelebumpu” - Some of the birds flew away (but not all).
When a characteristic is only known for the partial group and not the group at large a different construction is sued, mainly the indefinite article ’o’ with a plural form as in “O nelebi aivonli” - At least some (of the) birds flew away but what they all did is uncertain.
Singular Partive plural
Alomë AlomampaLangwel Lanwelmpa
This is the plural of the partive plural, it is used for a great number of an entity. “lots of” Tons” “many” “a bunch of”
“Scelostampae” A great many grasshoppers. This number is only used for a great number of smaller divisible entities and cannot be used for a high quantity of a single entity such as water.
Alomë AlomampaeLangwel Lanwelmpae
-ish-This is used for a few of or a small number of an entity. Translations can include “ a few” “not many” “scarcely any” “hardly any” “only a few” “a small number of”
Alomë AlomishëVulthnar Langwelsha
This has two uses, it either is used for a great many of an entity that is too many to count, such as hair, or is applied to abstract ideas that have no number, such as love.
“Polima” - a hair “Polimae”- Hairs “Polimia” - Hair
“Roamia” -Bravery“Valnia” - Horses, Horse-kind, the realm of horses, the abstract essence of horses.
Alomë AlomëaVulthnar Langwelia
Case. Nominative is the default unmarked case, used for the subject of verbs, the argument of copulas and simple reference. The vocative is formed by simply lengthening all the vowels and in some cases epenthesize vowels in-between the consonants. Valna -> Vâlânâ
Used for the direct object of verbs.
Add -r after o- or a-And -th after everything else.
Nwelli moëu valnor - the boy sees the horse.Nwelli valno moëuth- The horse sees the boy.
Sing nom Sing acc. Plr. nom Plr. acc
Valna Valnar Valnae Valnaeth
Arno Arnor Arnoi Arnoith
Nelebu Nelebuth Nelebi Nelebith
Alomë Alomëth Alomü AlomüthVulthnar Langwelth Vulthnarni Langwelnith
Used for the indirect object of a verb.
As -s after -a and -i-ès
Acli moëu palnar valnoès. - The boy gives an apple to the horse.
There is sometimes a special use of the dative vs. the accusative. If the direct object of a verb is particularly effected by the verb, if it is the patient, or changes state, then it will always be marked by the accusative case. But if the object is a theme of the verb, does not change state or is not effect by the verb, than sometimes this is marked by the dative.
Lumni moëu melfas- The boy loves the girl but she doesn’t know.Lumni moëu melfar - The boy loves the girl and she knows.
Sing nom Sing dat Plr nom Plr dat
Valna Valnas Valnae Valnaes
Arno Arnos Arnoi Arnois
Nelebu Nelebus Nelebi Nelebis
Alomë Alomës Alomü AlomüsVulthnar Langwelès Vulthnarni Langwelnis
The genitive denotes a close association between it and its compliment, including the possessive below. Generally the uses of the English word “Of” which cannot be used with the English ending of “-’s” Its meaning can denote origin, material, source, topic of or any other close association between it and its head. Certain verbs also take the genitive as part of their argument.
Alienable Alienable possession is most often expressed through the possessive case, at times, the genitive may be used, but this is looked down upon.
InalienableInalienable possession, either through a strong association, ultimate ownership, etc. is expressed through the genitive.
Cnovum lescoa arnio - The knight’s crest of the king. Istiummi Moüio - The existence of the boy, the boy’s existence.
RelationshipAny sort of relationship, particularly at the modifier level, can be expressed through the genitive.
O mÿmia mëanaëa - a smile of happinessO qpomica lumnaëa - A book of love
Calba alomëon - A wall of trees Cwulfa Sëxëo - a soup of fish
o Awènu nelebion - a flock of birds
E Cloivu Arthianio - People of the world
Reference/ content Ludia Vnoaëa - A story about the stars
Description O moëu üvanaëa munaëa - A boy of good heart.
Sing nom Sing gen Plr nom Plr gen
Valna Valnaya Valnae Valnion
Arno Arnio Arno Arnion
Nelebu Nelebio Nelebu Nelebion
Alomë Alomëo Alomë AlomionVulthnar Langwelio Vulthnarni Langwelion
The possessive is similar in distribution to the so-called Saxon genitive of the English
“-’s” It denotes the owner of something. As in “E Arnum thornthu” The King’s sword. Meaning the King owns it or possesses it. When the possessive-declined noun follows the head noun, it can have a looser more complimental meaning. “E Vlumnu Lumniam” -Love’s wind or the Wind of love.
Sing nom Sing poss Plr nom Plr poss
Valna Valnam Valnae Valnaem
Arno Arnum Arnoi Arnoim
Nelebu Nelebum Nelebi Nelebim
Alomë Alomëm Alomü AlomümVulthnar Langwelm Vulthnarni Langwelnim
Possessed This case marks something that is possessed, it is not always obligatory however, it is used to clarify ambiguity, and also has some extra uses.
To make a distinction of something that is claimed or unclaimed.
O valna - A horse, which could either be claimed or unclaimed, nothing is known either way O valnala - A horse that is claimed, that is to say, mounted, or being ridden or used.
To clarify the relationship of ownership.
Qpomica Arnio - A book about the king (genitive)
Qpomica Arnum - The king’s book (possessive)
Qpomicala Arnum - A book of the king’s Voes o qpomicala arnum arthianio - I have a book about the world that is the king’s.
The essence of the verb “to have” can be represented by this case.
Zum o vieltola - She has a boyfriend. (lit. ‘her own boyfriend)
Ocqpomicala vlomu - I want to have that bookThornthula vu- I have a sword.
To reinforce possession.
Zum valna - Her horse
Zum Valnala - Her own horseValnaya vonya - My own horse of mine
To clarify dual possession.
Ormëlavi rws - My hear is his, my heart which is his. (Heart-possessed-possessive enclitic 1st. Sg. Third person dative.)
Sing nom Sing Poss’d Plr nom Plr Poss’d
Valna Valnil, Valnala Valnae Valnael
Arno Arnil Arnolo Arnoi Arnoil
Nelebu Nelebul Nelebulu Nelebi Nelebil
Alomë Alomëël Alomü AlomülVulthnar Langwelil Vulthnarni Langwelnil
AbbessiveThe abbessive is the opposite of the possessed form. It is used in the negative forms of the sentences above, and to clarify that something is unclaimed.
O valnowï nwellu - I see a horse which is wild or unclaimed by anyone.Rwm Ormëwï mnüm/shum - his heart isn’t anyone’s/ His hear is no one’s
Sing nom Sing abbs Plr nom Plr abbs
Valna Valnowï Valnae Valnïoï
Arno Arnowï Arnoi Arnoioï
Nelebu Nelebuwï Nelebi Nelebiwï
Alomë Alomüwï Alomü AlomüwïVulthnar Langwelowï Vulthnarni Langwelnowï
Attributive.The attributive simple conveys a loose association. In pronouns the case is used for adjective forms such as mine, yours, his, etc. in English. It is also used in titles.
Alvnius mlumianya - Alvnius the blue moon
Sing nom Sing attr Plr nom Plr attr
Valna Valnanya Valnae Valnÿnya Vulnanyae
Arno Arnonya Arno Arnoinya Arnonyae
Nelebu Nelebunya Nelebu Nelebinya Nelebinyae
Alomë Alomënya Alomü Alomünya AlomünyaeVulthnar Langwelnya Vulthnarni Langwelnyae
BenefactiveThe benefactive is used to show that the entity is benefited by something, or that something good resulted. “for” or “for the sake of”. Certain verbs take this case as an argument but in any case where the entity is seen as benefiting from either another noun, a condition, or an action, the generative can be used.
Lumnu oco melfinuva - I love this fair girl. (and she likes it)
Acliumo arnuva- I will give it for the king. (either to the king or the giving of it benefit’s the king), to combine the two senses it is possible to make a construction such as Acliumo Arnuvas
The benefactive of purpose shows the intention or design of something.Qpomica mëbluvia - Books for children
Sing nom Plr nom
Valna Valnuva Valnae Valnuvae
Arno Arnuva Arnoi Arnuvae
Nelebu Nelebuva Nelebi Nelebuvae
Alomë Alomüva Alomü AlomüvaeVulthnar Langweluva Vulthnarni Lanweluvae
The malefactive is the same as the benefeactive except it is used to express that the entity is worse off and that a condition is bad for it.
Raushté melfuvnaë - You hate the girlDrecuth Nwellupsi cnovuvnaë - The knight say the dragon, and suffered from it.
Sing nom Plr nom
Valna Valuvnae Valnaë Valnuvnÿna
Arno Aruvnae Arnoi Aruvnÿna
Nelebu Nelebuvnae Nelebi Nelebuvnÿna
Alomë Alomüvnae Alomü AlomüvnÿnaVulthnar Vulthnuvnae Vulthnarni Vulthnuvnÿna
Denotes the circumstances, situation or cause of something. Certain verbs also take this as an argument.
Nae olo valnax - he is not here because of the horse.Fystumni drecix - He is afraid because of the dragon
It also denotes natural cause. Something which is inanimate and has no will of its own performing an action will not take the nominative case but rather, the causal.
Carscax thontor fympsti - A rock crushed a man.
Sing nom Plr nom
Valna Valnax Valnae Valnaëx
Arno Arnox Arnoi Arnoix
Nelebu Nelebux Nelebi Nelebix
Alomë Alomëx Alomü AlomüxVulthnar Vulthnax Vulthnarni Vulthnarnix
The instrumental case marks an entity as the means of something, a tool or purpose might be marked in this case.
Thorthnucma Fysti - He fought with a sword, by means of a sword, using a sword.
It also identifies the agent in passive verbs.Nwallthumni melfucma - He was seen by the girl.
Sing nom Plr nom
Valna Valnucma Valnae Valnucmae
Arno Arnucma Arnoi Arnucmae
Nelebu Nelebucma Nelebi Nelebucmae
Alomë Alomücma Alomü AlomücmaeVulthnar Vulthnucma Vulthnarni Vulthnucmae
A rarely used case that denotes that denotes that something goes to every single entity.Similar to the word “per”
Cnovui Valnimba - Two knights to every horse.
Sing nom Plr nom
Valna Valnimba Valnae Valnibae
Arno Arnimbo Arnoi Arnimboi
Nelebu Nelebimbu Nelebi Nelebimbi
Alomë Alomimbë Alomü AlomimbüVulthnar Vulthnimba Vulthnarni Vulthnimbae
This case is used for when something is being transformed into another state or being. O cnovunco aispi - he’s become a knight. This case is used only for nouns.
Sing nom Plr nom
Valna Valnunca Valnae Valnuncae
Arno Arnunco Arnoi Arnuncoi
Nelebu Nelebuncu Nelebi Nelebunci
Alomë Alomuncë Alomü AlomuncüVulthnar Vulthnunca Vulthnarni Vulthnuncae
The comitive is used to mean that the entity accompanies the head, “with” “in company of” “in the presence of” “along with” are all possible translations.Aevu voi Valnan vu - I walk with my horse
Sing nom Plr nom
Valna Valnan Valnae Valnÿn
Arno Arnon Arnoi Arnoin
Nelebu Nelebun Nelebi Nelebin
Alomë Alomën Alomü AlomünVulthnar Vulthnan Vulthnarni Vulthnÿn
The incomitive is the opposite of the comitive and is used to mean that it is absent. “without”Agiscu ë moëums - I want to eat without the boy
Sing nom Plr nom
Valna Valnams Valnae Valnÿms
Arno Arnoms Arnoi Arnoims
Nelebu Nelebums Nelebi Nelebims
Alomë Alomëms Alomü AlomümsVulthnar Vulthnams Vulthnarni Vulthnÿms
Comparative case. This is a special case used for comparative constructions with adjectives. It holds the meaning of “Than x”
Valnwela - Than a horse
Vÿxiwr valnwelo vu - I am stronger than a horse.
Or simply Vïx vio, Valnwelo - My strength, beyond a horse.
The locative cases are used to show the location, position, or movement of an object, each case combines two elements, directionality, which shows whether the motion is towards, away from, or still, and position, which shows where by an object the meaning is. The order of the elements is: NOUN ROOT-DIRECTIONALITY THEMATIC VOWEL-POSTION CONSONATE CLUSTER-GENDER/NUMBER
movement away from, an object, the thematic vowel -a- marks the ablative.
Movement is still, it means the action is ‘at’ the location. The vowel is -ë-
Movement towards the object. -ÿ-
PerlativeMovement happens via, or through an object. The thematic vowel is -w-
Surface, touching the object. -tr-
Interior, inside of the object -st-
Proximity, near, or around the object. -br-
Top/Superior, on top of an object -dr-
Bottom/Sub, under or at the bottom of an object. -pt-
Between/Intra, the action happens between an object -ft-Lateral, on the side of an object. -str-
By combining these elements we can construct a complete locative case.Take the word Arca, “fort, castle”
Ablative From. Aevu arcatra - “I walk from the castle.”
Essive At. Arcëtra vu - “ I’m at the castle.”
Allative To. Aevu arcÿtra- “I walk to the castle”
Advial Aevu arcwtra “ I walk through the castle”
Ellative. Out of . Aevu arcasta “ I walk out of the castle”
Inessive. Inside. Arcësta vu - “I’m in the castle.”
Illitive. Into. Aevu arcÿsta - “ I walk into the castle.”
Invial~ Aevu arcwsta “I walk through the inside of the castle”
Apudlative. Towards. Aevu arcabra “ I walk towards the castle”
Apudessive. Around, nearby. Aevu arcëbra “I walk near the castle”
Apudallitive. Away from.Aevu arcÿbra “I walk away from the castle”
Apudvial~ Aevu arcwbra “I walk throughout the castle.”
Superlative onto. Aevu arcadra “I walk onto the castle”
Superessive. on top of. Aevu arcëdra “I walk on the castle”
Superallative off of. Aevu arcÿdra “ I walk off of the castle”
Supervial~ Aevu arcwdra “I walk along the castle”
Sublative. Aevu arcapta To the bottom of. “I walk to the bottom of the castle’
Subessive beneath, under. Aevu arcëpta “I walk under the castle”
Suballitive from under. Aevu arcÿpta “ I walk from under the castle”
Subvial Aevu arcwpta “I walk along the bottom of the castle”
Interlative to between. Aevu arcafta “I walk to inbewteen the castle(s)”
Interessive inbewteen. Aevu arcëfta “I walk between the castle(s)”
Interallitive from between. Aevu arcÿfta “I walk from between the castle(s)
Intervial Aevu arcwfta “ I walk through the space between the castles..”
Ablateral to the side of. Aevu arcastra “I walk to the side of the castle”
Lateral on the side of. Aevu arcëstra “I walk on the side, by the castle”
allateral. from the side of. Aevu arcÿstra “I walk from the side of the castle.”perlateral Aevu arcwstra “ I walk past the castle.”
Surface Arcatra Arcëtra Arcÿtra Arcwtra
Interior Arcasta Arcësta Arcÿsta Arcwsta
Proximity Arcabra Arcëbra Arcÿbra Arcwbra
top Arcadra Arcëdra Arcÿdra Arcwdra
bottom Arcapta Arcëpta Arcÿpta Arcwpta
between Arcafta Arcëfta Arcÿfta Arcwfta
lateral Arcastra Arcëstra Arcÿstra Arcwstra Motion away Location at Motion towards via
Temporal uses of locative.The locative cases can also be used temporally. In noun of events or processes such as a concert, the locative cases take on the temporal sense. Take the word for “war”: Varsta. Vystra. Farsta. Farska. Vlarsca.
Ablative: Vlarscatra. Since, after, from the end of the war.
Essive: Vlarscëtra During the entire war, from start to finish.
Allative: Vlarscÿtra Until the war, until the beginning of the war. Advial. Vlarscwtra. Before, though and after the war.
Ellative. Vlarscasta from the beginning of the war. Since the start of the war.
Inessive. Vlarscësta During the war, in the war.
Illitive. Vlarscÿsta Until the end of the war. Up until the end of the war.Invial Vlarscwsta on and off throughout the war.
Apudlative Vlarscabra Since about the time of the war
Apudessive Vlarscëbra sometimes during the war
Apudallative Vlarscÿbra until about the time of the war.Apudvial Vlarscwbra. Around the war sometime.
Superlative Vlarscadra Since the height if the war, the climax of the war.
Superessive Vlarscëdra During the climax of the war.
Superallitive Vlarscÿdra Until the height of the war.Supervial Vlarscwdra past the height of the war.
Sublative Vlarscapta Since the low point of the war.
Subessive Vlarscëpta During the low point of the war
Suballative Vlarscÿpta Until the low point of the war
Subvial Vlarscwpta through the low point of the war
Interlative Vlarscafta since between the war(s)
Interessive Vlarscëfta between the war(s)
Intercalative Vlarscÿfta until between the war(s)Intervial Vlarscwfta Through both wars.
Ablateral Vlarscastra since before and after the war
Lateral Vlarscëstra Past the war
Allateral Vlarscÿstra until the start of the war and after the end of itPerlateral. Vlarscwstra. Despite the war.
Derivation and word formation.
Size, scope, value and emotional attachment
Dimunitive -uph-Denotes the entity is smaller, cuter, more endearing.
Valno -> Valnuphu “Little horse” “cute little horse” “ colt”Valna -> Valnupha “filly”
Bonacious dimunitive -in-Denotes small size, goodness, and endearment.
Melfa -> Melfina “good girl” “good little girl”
Pejoritive -rush(-) Denotes a wickedness, badness and maliciousness.
Moürshu “wicked boy”Coirursha “that damn dog”
Magnorific -ogm-Denotes a greatness in scope and size.
Valnogma “a magnificent warhorse”Qpomicogma “a huge tome”
-onstraDenotes an intensiveness and greatness but also a sense of dread.
Lylonstra “nightmare”Valdosta “fierce some” warhorse.
Denotes smallness but is neutral in quality.
Valnicci “nag, pony”Qpomicicci - libretto
Honorific- iana -ianus
Vïthra - bright star Vëma - woman Vïthëriana - The sun. Vëmiana - woman of great esteem
Lumë - snow Lawé - rain
Lumëbi - snowflake Laweibi - Raindrop
Qpulna - A swath of grass Sanxa - sandQpulnibi - a blade of grass Sanxibi - grain of sand
-ër -iér -ella?The agentive endings signify someone who does an action, the affixes are usually attached to verb stems but adjectives and nouns can also be modified.
Lumnër - Lover , someone who loves
Lÿlër / Lÿliér - Dreamer-ër and -iér are dialectical variants but both can be used.
Lumnèlla - Lovess, some female who lovesLÿlèlla - dreamess
Munëër - someone who makes something good or well.
Valniér- someone who takes care of horses.
The passive agentive marked someone who is the object of a passive construction. The English suffix “-ee” as in Employee is roughly analogous.
Lumnumnir - Lovee, He who is loved, beloved.Lumnumnèlla She who is loved. Beloved girl.
Lÿlumnir He who is dreamt of.Lÿlumnèlla She who is dreamt of.
This marks someone who is both the doer and object of an action, I.E. a reflexive one.
Lÿlumër - He who dreams of himself.Lÿlumyella She who dreams of herself.
Lumnumër He who loves himselfLumnumylla She who loves herself.
-uvdir -uvdella?This ending marks that the person is both the doer of an action to someone else and that that same action is returned by that other person.
Lumnuvdir He who loves and is in return loved.
Lumnuvdella She who loves and is loved.
Lÿluvdir He who dreams and is dreamt ofLÿuvdella She who loves and is dreamt of
-us -ius -ianaThese agentive endings are identical in meaning as those above however their usage differs. These endings hold more esteem and are used in situations not of casual reference but rather are used as personal names, titles, bynames, aliases, and ceremonial spell words.
Lumnius- He that doth love. Lumniana She that doth love.
Lÿlius He that doth dreamLÿliana She that doth dream
-estu -endoa? -enta
Lÿlestu He that of himself some dreameth. Lÿlendoa/ Lÿlenta She that is dreamt of, both dialectical variations.
Lÿlemnüs He that doth of himself dream.Lumnemnüs He that doth herself love.
Lÿlemnala She that of herself doth dreamLumnemnala She that of herself doth love
Lÿlumëaëmnüs He that doth dream and is of himself dreamt by one/some Lumnumëaëmnüs He that loveth and is himself lov’d
Lÿlumifta She that dreameth and is of herself dreamt Lylumivda She that loveth and is herself lov’d
Affixes of semantic meaning
This designates the location, country, or realm with a certain characteristic, by extension it can be used as a situation.
Gwelqporia - Land of the Gwelqp peoples
Valnoira - Land of Horses
Lumoria - The moonlit night sky.Lumnoria - All matters related to love
-ëèn Something from that place
Valnorëèn - something from Valnoria, Valnorian in characteristic
Aldélnëèn - Language of Aldéa.
Alnëèn - Language of AlnëaAlnëènus - Person from Alnëa.
-ethica place for
Lawéthica - rain room, shower
Qpomicethica - bookstore
Agethica - cafeteriaMwndethica - sleeping chamber
-ëmica ism, domain, realm
Valnëmica - equestrianism
Cnovëmica - knighthood
Arnëmica - kingdomValnëmicus - equistrianist
-Elp- a group or bunch of something
Valnelpa A horse herdBalvelpa A handful
-orl- the result or realization of something
Lylorla - the sum of something that is dreamt. A dream a vision.Tolcorla - building, something which has been built.
-ifima bearer of something
Palnifima - apple bearer, apple tree
Cwetifima ring bearerThornthifima- sword bearer, squire/page.
-ocla the race or kind of something
Cloivocla - humanity
Thontocla - mankind
Valnocla - horse kind, equines. Alnëocla - Alneans
-anthus -anthia spawn or offspring
Fuclanthus - son of fuclus
Cysianthus - son of CysiusVelentanthia - daughter of Velento
Possessive encliticsThese particles can stand in for possessive pronouns, it shows by who something is owned by.
First person :-vi -vi -bi Dual, abstractive, partitive, paucal, permultive. -ti -ëa -mpi -shi -mpaoi
Valnavi - My horse
Valnabi - Our horse (inclusive)Valnaviti - Our horse (exclusive)
-di -qpi -ci
Valnadi - Your horse (informal)
Valnaqpi - Thy horse (formal, honorific)
Valnaci- Your horse (plural)
-li -zi -tci
Valnali - His horse
Valnazi - Her horse
Valnacti - it’s horse
-wi -hi -phi -nwi pwi mnë thni shni
Valnawi - This person here’s horse
Valnahi - that person there’s horse
Valnaphi- That person yonder’s horse
Valnanwi- whose horse?
Valna pwi- The horse who X
Valnamnë- Nobody’s horse. (this is an alternative to the abbessive case)
Valnathni - Someone’s horse
Valnashni- Anyone’s horse
Valnathi - their horse
The numbers can also be applied, Valnazimpi - Some of the females’ horse.
The noun itself can also appear in any number .
Valnaethi - their horses.Valnampathniti - Some of the horses of two of the others.
Semantic prefixesThese prefixes alter the semantic meaning of the word, mainly by adding new elements. The prefixes function almost as separate words by adding new semantic information.
V Re-dra-? Ird-? Id-?
VN Un- Arb? An- in-
Amthontos - creature, humanoid creature
Ammanna - Unwater. Poisen water, evil water.
N Non- nëc- Nëcvalna - Non-horse
N Good ü-Üvalna - Good horse
N Bad ar-Arvalna - Bad horse
Before mel- Elm- Elmnwulthium- Foresight
Against- ac-Acvelo- running away from
N Opposite andï- dar- ard- Andïvalna - Antiequine
N V Dis- sread out cel- elc-
Perfect vel- Elv-Elvalamoë - Perfect tree
Half- Ledi- Eldi- ??Eldithontus- Half-man demi-man
Olmthontos- All men
Retro- eqpl-Elqpnwulthium- retrospection
Ex- Erc- Rec-Ercvelto- ex-friend
Arch- Cï-Cidesco - archpreist
Pseudo- hego- olg-olgnwellu - false eye
Honorific w- wl- wo-
Ouvalna- O Horse!Ouvitheriana - O sun!
Nobelific Oa-Oavitheriana- O noble sun!
Humbleific oe-Oevalna - o humble horse
Want twa-?Twamanna - desired water
Need mën-Mënmanna- necessary water, needed water
fear Ëf-Ëfdrecu - Fiercesome dragon
Love ém- Émcloivu- beloved person
Hate ag-Agcloivu - hated person
Fierce car- arc-Arccnovu- The formidable knight
Beautiful ova- üva- üv- ülv-Ülvmelfa- beautiful girl
For the purpose/sake of bi- ib- om- oth-
Othvalna- For the purpose of my horseIbvalnuva- For the good of my horse
Accidetal al-Alcnovu- Accidental knight
Intentional oem-Oemishtia - intentional harm
Intensive as- is- ma- ym- Ïmnwaullu- stare intently
What na- navalna - which horse? What horse? What is the horse?
When në- nëvlarma - which war? When was the war? When is the war?
Why nÿ- nÿvalna - why that horse?
Who nu- nuthonto -which man? Who is that man?
Where nei- neiarca which castle? Where is that castle?
How nau- naurelta -which method? How?
How much no- novlogni? How much blood? How many néo- néocloivu how many people?
How far noa-How soon nio-
Affixes for noun formation from other parts of speech.
These affixes change other parts of speech into nouns.
Adjective type 2 to Noun. * for more info on type 1 and type 2 adjective forms, refer to the adjective section.
This denotes that the degree of the adjective is being formed into the noun. As in sun-> sunny -> sunniness
Neos? Neosa? Reccneosa Reccneoza Reccneos
Mëanna - Joyous
Mëanelthia - Joyfulness - the state of being joyous, joyousness as a conditionMëanneosa - Joyfulness- the amount that something was joyous.
A -> N
A literal transference of an adjective to a noun. Sad-> sorrowMuna, Muneos, Munelthia?
Adv. -> N Althielthia Althielmia
V -> N See verb section.
Other -> N
Miau,- butMiu-fi - a “but”, the word ‘but’
Vaë- intensifierVaë-fi - a “vaë” , the word ‘vaë’
This is the definite form of the article, for uses refer to use section.
Ë - The
Used before a noun
-mi -TheUsed as a suffix to the noun
Ë valna - the horseË arthiana - The earth
Valnami - the horseArthianami - the earth
The indefinite form of the adjective.O - An
O valna - A horseO arthiana - An earth
Valnium - A horse
Arthianium -an earth
Valnado- a horseArthianado- an earth
There are no grammatical rules that dictate the use of one form over the other, rather the use is up to the speaker, usually chosen on phonological bases.Phonological preferences come in two forms
1.) Elision2.) Consonant harmony
The pronominal article form is preferred by default.
1. If the preceding word ends in a front vowel, é, í, ë, -aë, oi, oë, etc., then the suffixed form -mi is preferred. Occasionally, if the preceding word ends in an -a, then the suffix form will be used to avoid confusion with a plural or second person plural ending on the previous word. For the indefinite article, the suffixes are rarely used, if an -o ends the previous word extra rounding usually separates the two vowels.
Nwellio O mÿda - a glance of the eye
But occasionallyNwellio mÿdium/ Nwellio mÿdado
a. when the follow word starts with an A- or an O- or an U-
Valnumi Ulta -the friendly/easy horse
Valnami Althëna- the true horseValnomi Olm - all the stallions
b. When the noun is in the accusative case and the following word starts with a liquid, the suffix is used. Sometimes when the following word ends with another sonorant or even any consonant, the suffix is used. If the accusative noun is in the final position there is also a tendency to use the suffixed form.
Ë valnar recla → Valnamith Recla -the fiery horse
Order of casesThe article suffix comes last after all the cases except for the accusative -th and the dative -s and the possessive -m
Valnumami- the good horseValnamis - to the horse
Sometimes a noun is marked with more than one case. This is extremely rare, but if the cases are divided into several categories, we find this order.
The genitives, instrumental
Accusative, dative, locative, comitive, incomitive
The use of the articles is to control topicalization.When a new subject is being introduced to the speech, the indefinite article is used. When the speaker has already marked the noun with the indefinite, the definite is used from that point forth.
O Nelcar nwallu, ë nelca “mniaou” ficma leptcivois. - I saw a cat, the cat greeted me with a “meow.”
The definite article is also used if the speaker assumes the listener is already familiar with the topic. Also if the speaker wishes to respond to something the listener has just said, he will use the definite article. After one or two markings of this though, usually no article is used. No article is used sometimes in general statements about general entities, but the suffix -ium also is found in this context.
The Syntax of nouns
Pronouns are inflected for:Masculine/feminine/neuter, inclusive/exclusive, humblific/normal/honorific, number, case.
Masculine: for animate entities that are ‘male’
Feminine: for animate entities that are ‘female’Neutral: a rare form. This is used when the speaker either wants their gender to be omitted from the discourse, or when they don’t identify with either of the two sexes above. Castrati, priests of certain castes, people of the ‘two-spirit’ culture, who identify themselves as a third gender all may use this for themselves. Once the speaker has sued this form to refer to themselves then the 2nd person or 3rd person neutral pronouns can be safely used. If the sex of the subject is not known, this form is also used. In the 3rd person, animate nouns have tcu, so anyone who uses a neutral form for themselves, whose sex is not known, or for geldings or neutered animals, take this form. The inanimate 3rd person form is Mu, this is for any idea or entity that has no sex and is not alive. Mu by itself shows up rarely, mostly as a verbal object enclitic -mo and as an elision device before the 3rd person copula ‘I’ making ‘m’I.’
Inclusiveness: this is only found in the first person.
Inclusive: the speaker is including the listener into the group referred to. “we and you as well”Exclusive: The speaker does not include the listener into the group referred to. “We but not you”
Normal: Simple unmarked form
Humble: This is a sort of diminutive form of the pronoun, used to humble oneself in the company of superiors, also used when eliciting pity.
Honorific: This form is used to refer to those in special position in society. Becoming rarer and rarer as society becomes more egalitarian in spirit. The first person forms are almost never used.
Polite: This form is used when being polite to a stranger.Intimate: This form is used for friends and family.
A note on the polite and intimate forms, the qpu forms used to be an honorific, and used to show esteem for someone, in this way, it became common to refer to loved ones in this honorific sense, and in the same way it became common to use the intimate form with strangers to show friendliness. There now is really no most common form to use with close ones and strangers. If you feel esteem for the person, use qpu, if you feel friendliness or intimacy in an everyday frankness, then use Du.
singular Plural(incl.) Plural(excl.)
♂ ♀ ø ♂ ♀ ø ♂ ♀ ø
1st person Vu Vë Vèn Blu Bloa blèn Vitu Vita Vitè
1st person humble Viphu Vipha viphè Bliphu Blipha Viphti
1st honorific üvou üvoa üvèl üblou übloa üviti
2nd person polite qpu qpoa qpèc Cu Coa Cèl
2nd person intimate Du Doa dèc Cu Coa Cèl
2nd person honorific ündos ündoa ündoi ündaë3rd person Ru Zoa tcu/mu Thu Thoa thèl
Other forms or ‘persons’ are:
4th person Proximate: Wu, Woa- This person here Wë, Waë plural
5th person Opposed: Hu, Hoa- That person there Hë Haë plural
6th person Distal: Phu, Phoa- that person way over there Phë, phaë plural
7th person Interrogative: Nu?- Who?
8th person Referential: Pwi- that person who x
9th person Null: Mnü- Mnë- No one, nobody
10th person Indefinite: Thnu- Thnë- Someone
11th person Shu- Shoa- Anyone12th person Total: Olmu- Olma- Everyone
Number:Only persons 1-6 can be marked for number. They’re plural forms are already listed, the other numbers follow the paradigm of Vu, Vë and Vèn.
Dual: Bliti, blita, blitè, note that the singular dual is the exclusive plural, the 1st person plural dual is the inclusive dual. The other persons take the singular pronoun form as their root.
Trial: Vithri, Vithra, Vithrè
Tertiary: Bliti, blitaë, blitni
Partitive: Vumpu, Vumpa, Vumpè
Permultative: Vumpi, Vumpaë, Vumpni
Paucal: Vushu, Vusha, VushèCollective/abstractive: Vëum, Vëa, Veul
Case follows the paradigm of Vu and Vë, the neutral forms only exist in the nominative.
Accusative: Vo, Va
Dative: Voes, Vÿss
Genitive: Vio, Vaëa
Possessive: Vum, Vëm
Attributive: Vonya, Vonya
Possessed: Vola, Vala
Abbessive: Voï, Voï
Benefactive: Vuva, vuva
Causal: Vux Vëx
Translative: vuncu vunca
Distributive: Vimbu, Vimba
Comitive: Vun, Vën
Incomitive: Vums, vams
Ablative: Vatru, Vatra,
Allateral: Vÿstra/u per lateral: Vwstra/u
Rarely used passive pronouns are used to denote that the subject is the recipient of a passive verb. The sense also denotes a sense of irreversibility or regret.
Vurlu nwelli,- I was seen by him Vurlu nwellumnu,- I was seen. Vurlu Nwalthmi. - I was seen. These forms are all found, but very rarely, normally the simple verb form is used.
Vumnu - myself Vumna myself ♀
Reciprocal - marks reciprocal action.Vuftu, Vufta - each other, one another.
Mark that one is the doer of an action.
Viu -by me - viaViu Newline - You are seen by me
IntensiveAdds emphasis that it is the referent being spoken of.
♂Vuëxi - I myself♀Vuaxi
Verbal pronouns.These pronouns function as verbs.
Ovu - I♂do
Oqpe- You do
Oqpea- You ♀do
Oli- He does
Ozi- She does
Obloi- We do
Ocaë- You all do
Othau- They do
Omni- No one doesEtc.
Auvu- I did
Auqpe- You did
Auli- He didEtc.
Ivisu- I will
Iqpise- you will
Ilisi- He willEtc.
Oivu- If I didEtc.
Austvu- I causedEtc.
Oviscu- I want to doEtc.
Singular Dual Plural Partive Plural
This Oco/ Ocno Octo Ecne/ Icni Ompo
That Loco/Locno Locto Lecne/ Licni Lompo
Yon Doco/Docno Docto Decne/ Dicni Dompo
None Roco/Rocno Rocto Recne/ ricni Rompo
Some Voco/Vocno Vocto Vecne/ vicni Vompo
Any Thoco/Thocno Thocto Thecne/thicni Thompo
All Olmno Olndo ----- Olmpo
Which? Noco/Nocno? Nocto? Nicni? Nompo?
That which Poco/Pocno Pocto Pecne/picni PompoSimilar to this Moco/Mocno Mocto Mecne/Micni Mompo
Location Direction to Direction from Via
Here Olo Odo Obo Orro
There Lolo Lodo Lobo Lorro
Yonder Dolo Doqpo Dobo Dorro
Nowhere Rolo Rodo Robo Rorro
Somewhere Volo Vodo Vobo Vorro
Anywhere Tholo Thodo Thobo Thorro
Everywhere Olmlo Oldo Olbo Olro
Where? Nolo? Nodo? Nobo? Norro?
That where Polo Podo Pobo PorroLike that place Molo Modo Mobo Morro
Singular Dual Plural Partive Plural
This one Ono Onto Ini/ene Onpo
That one Lono Lonto Lini lene Lonpo
Yon one Dono Donto Dini dene Donpo
None/nothing Rono Ronto Rini rene Ronpo
Something Vono Vonto Vini vene Vonpo
Anything Thono Tonto Tini Tene Tonpo
Everything Olmno Olnto
Which one? Nono? Nonto? Nini? nene? Nonpo?
One which Pono Ponto Pini pene PonpoLike that one Mono Monto Mini mene Monpo
Vial Rational Orthal
This way Omo This reason Otho This method Ozo
That way Lomo That reason Lotho That method Lozo
Yon way Domo Yon reason Dotho Yon method Dozo
Allways Olmo All reasons Oltho All methods Olzo
No way Romo No reason Rotho No method Rozo
Someway/ somehow Vomo Some reason Votho Some method Vozo
Anyway Thomo Any reason Thoqpo Any method Thozo
How? Nomo? Which reason? Notho? Which method? Nozo?
how Pomo for Potho That way PozoLike that way Momo Like for that Motho Like that way Mozo
Oto At this time
Loto At that time
Doto At that time long ago, long from now
Roto Never/ at no time
Olto At all times/ Always
Noto? What time?
Poto That time whichMoto Like that time
Imithia Day after tomorrow
Timral Day before yesterday
Rétha On no day
qpéthia Any day
Nétha? Which day?
Pwétha On the day thatMétha Like that day
Auxiliary demonstratives and quantifiers.
A certain Püta
The other pwéthëa
One or the other Piathiati
Any thiun, thono, thia thios
Some Duo, Tholme, Vwé
Many Occa, Aÿta
Few Spitci, Michda
Single Itox, Isien
Alone Lëmwë Vëmwë Mëvo
Whole Poltha Oltha Olcla
Half OlpcoOnly Visso
Pia, Anda One Pï-
Nwemë Two Nwï-
Rupso Three Psï-
Otco Four Cti-
Poisca Five Pois-
Fëxa Six Fix-
Slesta Seven Stï-
Apta Eight Pti-
Nëvro Nine Vrni-
Thalnto Ten Tli-
Psithalnto Thirteen thnirupso
Ctithalnto Fourteen thniotco
Poisthalnto Fifteen thniposca
Fixthalnto Sixteen thnifëx
stïthalnto Seventeen thnislesta
Ptithalnto Eighteen thniapta
Vrnithalnto Nineteen thninëvro
Nwïithalnto Twenty ctithnipia
Calto One hundred
Nwïcalto Two hundred Nwïclapia two hundred and one
Senco Thousand Scni
Banlo Ten thousand
Tarcto A hundred thousand
Relimw a million
Twice nwemiel Etc.
Firstly Andaniel Secondly
PositionAdjectives usually found on either side of the noun they modify, however in a noun phrase, the article comes first, as in English.
Ë cwëpla valno - the swift horse
OrË valno cwëplo - The swift horse, the horse that is swift.
The adjective’s position is determined on its function, either It is a complement to a noun or a modifier.
Compliments come before the noun and do not agree in number, case or gender. The gender ending on the adjective is usually he default, usually the feminine, in some dialects the agreement for gender is polar, meaning that the adjective will end in the gender ending opposite of the noun. A compliment adjective is simply adding information about the noun, imbuing it with a certain quality.
Modifier acting adjective follow the noun and do agree for number, case and gender. This use is for highlighting the quality or making the modified noun distinctive from other nouns of its type.
In English the ‘Spanish teacher’ has two meanings, either a teacher who teaches Spanish, which Spanish would be acting as a compliment, or a teacher who is Spanish, which would be acting as a modifier.
In Italian ‘Il Alighieri inferno’ Is Dante’s inferno, with Aligieri acting as compliment.But “Il inferno Alighieri” suggest that Dante had rivals who made their own Infernos.
Ë mëvana melfae - the beautiful girlsË melfae mëvanae - The girls who were beautiful as opposed to otherwise.
Ë lafla moëu melfaemith mëvanaeth qpusci - The kind boy likes the girls who are beautiful.
As a matter of style however, when there are multiple adjectives, it is considered best to place them equally before and after the noun, and agreement is not necessary unless the modifier sense is needed.
A big red old book. - O reccna qpomica osta aucma
Main adjective form
Default pronominal position
Adjectives are formed in several ways. 1 Core Adjective: Words whose root form is adjective.
Muna- GoodLuclu- Cool
2 Participles: Words derived from verbs and derivate into adjective form. See verb section
3 Literal nominal adjectives. Adjectives formed from nouns.4 Abstract nominal adjectives: Also formed from nouns
3: These forms literally transfer the noun into an adjective form. -na
Sun- solar Vïthëriana (root form Vïthëra) - Vïthërna
Sleep- somnial Mwndëa - Mwndona
History- Historic Tarvëa - Tarvnëa Red the color- Red Recca - Reccna
4: these forms suggest a characteristic from the noun is present but not the literal sense of the noun/
Sun- Sunny, bright, cheerful Vïthëriana- Vïthërèltha
Sleep - Sleepy Mwndëa - Mwndèlèth
History - Historical Tarvëa - TarvelethRed - Mostly red - Rèccèth
-na vs. -eth -eleth -esca -eltha
Adjectives can be inflected for comparative, superlative, equalitive, intensive, sufficial Surplus, hemial, interrogative, demonstrative proximate and distal, and degree. While most of them have a negated form as well.
Lÿlinass / Lÿlass - not oneiric
For adjectives ending in the -n- form, or a root ending in n -ilass is added. Muna - munilass- not good
Armo- warm Armlass - not warm
Üthna - right, just üthnilass - unjustMandelstam - sleepy Mwndelthlass - not sleepy
For nouns ending in -l or another coronate, the nass form is used.
Reccnass- Not redLÿlinass - not oneiric
ComparativeThis form is used to show that something is more so of a quality than something else, or that it is comparatively more so in general.
Lÿlona- oneiric, dreamlikeLÿliwr - more oneiric
Mëanna happyMëanniwr- happier
Üthniwr more justMwndelthwr sleepier
The negative form of the comparative, meaning less of a quality.-imor / inor
Lÿlimor - Less oneiric
Reccimor - less happy
Mëannimor- less happy,
Armnor - less warm
üthnilor - less justMwndethnor - less sleepy
This form is most of a quality, also denotes an extreme level of the quality.
Lÿlixima - most oneiricMutëmo - cute Mtëmiximo - cutest
Armiximo - warmest
Üthnixima - Most justMwndethiximo - sleepiest
The negetive form of the superlative, the least of a quality.
Lÿlenon - Least oneiricReecenon - least red, not red at all
Armenon - least warm
üthnengon - least justMwndelthenon - least sleepy
This form shows that its quality is equal to that of another entity.
Lÿlaqpos - As oneiric
Mëanaqpos- as happy Reccaqpos- just as red
Üthnaqpos - as just
Amraqpos - as warmMwndethlaqpos - as sleepy
Negative equalitiveThe opposite of the form above
Lÿlinoss - not as oneric
Mëannoss - not as happy
Reccnoss - not as red
Armnoss - not as warm
Üthnnoss - not as just
Mwndelthnoss - not as sleepy
Lÿlëba - too oneiric
Mëanëba - too happy
Reccëba - too red
Üthnëba - too just
Armëba - too warmMwndelthëba - too sleepy
Lÿlamba - Not oneiric enough
Mëanamba -not happy enough
Reccamba -not red enough
Üthnamba -not just enough
Armamba -not warm enoughMwndelthamba - not sleepy enough
Ülÿloma - oneiric enough
Üreccuma - Red enough
Ümëanuma - happy enough
Ülarmoma - warm enough
Ülüthnoma - just enoughÜmwndelthoma - sleepy enough
Not too much
Amlÿlëba - Not too oneiric
Amreccëba - Not too red
Ammëanëba - not too happy
Amarmëba - not too warm
Amüthnëba - Not too justAmmwndelthëba- Not too sleepy
Oclÿlona - This oneric
Ocmëanna - This happy
Ocreccna- this red
Ocarmo - This warm
Ocüthno - this justOcmwndeltha - this sleepy
Ollÿlona - That oneiric
Olmëanna - That happy
Olreccna - that red
Olarmo - that warm
Olüthno - That justOlmwndeltha- that sleepy
Naulÿlona? - How oneiric?
Naumëanno - how happy?
Naureccna- How red?
Nauarmo- How warm?
Nauiuthno - How just?Naumwndeltha - How sleepy?
Lÿlollo - So oneiric
Mëanolla - So happy
Reccolla - So red
Armolla- So warm
Üthnollo - so justMwndeltholla - So sleepy
Olmlÿlona - Pure dream
Olmmëanna - completely happy
Olmreccna - Pure red
Olmarmo - completely warm
Olmüthno- All justOlmmwndeltha - Completely exhausted
Alplÿlonu - Half oneiric
Alpreccno -half red
Alpmëano- half happy
Alparmo - lukewarm
Alpüthno - half justAlpmwndeltha- Half sleepy
Derivation and word formation
Lÿlëènt - Dreamable
Nwellëènt - visible
Reccëent - able to be red
Armëènt - able to be warmed
Mëannëènt - Able to be made happy
Üthnëènt - Able to be made just, justifiableMwndelthëent - Able to become sleepy
Lÿlioc - Dream prone
Armioc - Prone to be warm
Reccioc - often red
Mëanioc- Often happy, jovial, apt to happiness
Üthnioc- prone to being justMwndelthioc - Apt to be sleepy
Lÿlazma - dreamful
Reccazma - Full of red, completely red
Üthnazma- Full of justice
Armazma - really warm
LessnessLÿlasnae - dreamless
Something from somewhere
Arthëèno - TerranAlnëèno - Alean
That which must be V’d
Lÿlévëss - Must be dreamedLÿlëfsi -Should be dreamed
Lÿlisca - dreamlike
Valnisca - horseish
Valneth - horsy
Lÿleth - dreamyLÿlelcta
V -> A see verb section
N-> A See first section
Adv. -> A -n-?Misc. -> A Mau-fi-na
Althënisnu- It seems true. Armisno- It seems warm.
Adjectives can also be marked for verbal attributes such as tense, aspect, and mood, but not voice, or person however. To understand these terms, please see the verb section.
Althëna- trueAlthënalthta- It was true.
Althëna- trueAlthënissi- It will be true (no gender marking)
-ucn-Althënucno - It has been true
-icn-Althënicno - It will have been true.
-acn-Althënacno - it had been true
Similarly take the adjective stem and then attach the mood or aspect infixes, attaching -n- where possible and then add the gender endings.
Athën-ulf-n-o -> Althënulfno- It has to be true
Adjectives can behave like nouns in the same way as in English when one speaks of “the poor” or “The brave and the bold”. -s or -nos -nossa♀
Althënos- The true one. Reccnos- The red one.
Another way is:
Althënius ♂ - he who is true
Althënua♀ - she who is trueAlthënien -ø - that which is true
Adverbs modify verbs or adjectives. There are adverbs of time, manner, and degree. Adverbs of degree and time are treated in the next section, they do not inflect and function similarly to prepositions and other particles of speech. Those that inflect, adverbs of manner, are treated here.
Adverbs of manner are taken from nouns, adjectives or verbs. -ëèl sometimes spellt -ièl or -iel Is the simple affix you attach.
Valniel - horsily, like a horse, as a horse would, equinely.
Lÿliel - dreamily
Recciel - redly
Cwëpiel - swiftlyNwelliel- seeingly
The -iel affix almost acts as a particle, it can be added to other parts of speech which are already inflected.
Valnariel- A horse having been the patient of an action.Nwallthiscuruliel- Having wanted to see him, I
For these complicated forms the particle ’fi’ also performs the same function.
Cwëpiel arcëstami aevenu fi valnatroli ro nwelleu thëntu. - Having quickly walked into the castle, I though I might have seen him on his horse.
For other uses of Fi see section
Comparison: All the forms of comparison and degree available to adjectives are also available for adverbs.
Aevu cwëpielwr - I walk more quickly.Etc.
Verbs are inflected for Person, sex, number, negation, voice, tense, aspect and mood.The bare verb form, the infinitive, ends in -o
Lÿlo- to dream
Mwndo- to sleep
Aevo- to walkNwello- to see
There are two sexes, Masculine and feminine. There are three main persons, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. In groups of mixed sexes, masculine governs.
1st Lÿlu ♂I dream Lÿloi We dream
2nd Lÿlé ♂You dream Lÿlaë You all dream3rd Lÿli ♂He dreams Lÿlau They dream
1st Lÿla ♀I dream Lÿloiá We♀ dream
2nd Lÿleá ♀You dream Lÿlaëá ♀ Y’all dream3rd Lÿliá ♀She dreams Lÿlaua They♀ dream
The extra person can be expressed through prefixes.:
Oclÿli - This man dreams / this thing dreams Oclÿlau - These dream. Oclÿliá - This women dreams
Ollÿli - That man dreams / That thing dreams
Ophlÿli - Yon man dreams / yon thing dreams
Nulÿli? - Who dreams?
Othlÿli - Someone dreams
Oslÿli - Anyone dreams
Olmlÿlau - Everyone dreamsOlmlÿlanau - Nobody dreams
1st Lÿlanaü ♂I don’t dream Lÿlanoi We don’t dream
2nd Lÿlanïé/Lÿlané ♂You don’t dream Lÿlanÿs None of you dream3rd Lÿlanai ♂He doesn’t dream Lÿlanau They don’t dream
1st Lÿlanaya ♀I don’t dream Lÿlanoiá ♀We don’t dream
2nd Lÿlaneá ♀You don’t dream Lÿlanÿza ♀ None of you dream3rd Lÿlanaia ♀She doesn’t dreams Lÿlanaua ♀They don’t dream
The difference between The first and third person negated forms is in the syllable of stress. The first person is Lÿlánaya whereas the third person is Lÿlanaiá.
Number. Singular and plural are the most common sued, but also the same number that effect nouns, dual, trial, tertiary, paucal, permultive, partive, and abstractive also occur.
Dual inclusive Dual exclusive Tertiary incls. Tertiary excs.
♀Lÿliteá - ♂Lÿlitae
♀Lÿlitiá - ♂Lÿlitau♀Lÿlitaua -
Negative Dual inclusive Negative Dual exclusive Tertiary incls. Tertiary excs.
♀Lÿlaniteá - ♂Lÿlanitae
♀Lÿlanitiá - ♂Lÿlanitau♀Lÿlanitaua -
Trial inclusive Trial exclusive Paucal inclsv. Paucal excls
♀Lÿlithrea - ♂Lÿlishé
♀Lÿlithria - ♂Lÿlishi♀Lÿlishia -
Trial inclusive Trial exclusive Paucal inclsv. Paucal excls
♀Lÿlithrea - ♂Lÿlanishé
♀Lÿlanithria - ♂Lÿlanishi♀Lÿlanishia -
Partive inclusive Partive exclusive Permultive inclusive Permultive exclusive
♀Lÿlumpéa - ♂Lÿlumpae
♀Lÿlumpia - ♂Lÿlumpi♀Lÿlumpia -
Partive inclusive Partive exclusive Permultive inclusive Permultive exclusive
♀Lÿlanïmpéa - ♂Lÿlanïmpae
♀Lÿlanïmpia - ♂Lÿlanïmpi♀Lÿlanïmpia -
Abstractive inclusive Abstractive exclusive
3rd ♂Lÿlanuimisi♀Lÿlanuimisia -
Voice. There are three voices: Active, passive, reflexive and reciprocal.
Active: the doer does something to someone else, or the verb is intransitive.
Passive: the action is being done to the doer. I see vs. I am seen
Reflexive. The doer and the recipient of action are the same. I see myself. I wash myself, etc. Reciprocal. Two doers both do the same thing to each other. I see and am Seen.
Passive singular Passive plural
♀Lÿlumniá -♂ Lÿlumnau♀ Lÿlumnaua
Negative Passive singular Negative Passive plural
♀Lÿluzniá -♂ Lÿluznau♀ Lÿluznaua
Reflexive singular Reflexive plural
3rd ♂Lÿlumi Lÿlumwi
♀Lÿlumiá Lÿlumwiá -♂ Lÿlumyau♀ Lÿlumyaua
Negative Reflexive singular Negative Reflexive plural
3rd ♂Lÿlugni Lÿlugni
♀Lÿlugniá Lÿlugniá -♂ Lÿlugnau♀ Lÿlugnaua
Reciprocal singular Reciprocal plural
♀Lÿluftiá -♂ Lÿluftau♀ Lÿluftaua
Negative Reciprocal singular Negative Reciprocal plural
♀Lÿluvniá -♂ Lÿluvnau♀ Lÿluvnaua
Future:This tense is obviously used for actions that will take place in the future. It is usually marked with -is- after the root.
Future singular Future Plural
1st +♂Lÿliu - ♂Lÿlaniu
+♀Lÿlisa - ♀Lÿlanisa ♂Lÿlioi - ♂Lÿlanioi
♀Lÿlioia - ♀Lÿlanioia
2nd +♂Lÿlié -♂Lÿlanié
+♀Lÿlisea - ♀ Lÿlanisea ♂Lÿlisae -♂Lÿlanisae
3rd +♂Lÿlisi -♂Lÿlanisi
+♀Lÿlisia -♀Lÿlanisia ♂Lÿliau -♂Lÿlaniau♀Lÿlisaua - ♀Lÿlanisau
Future singular passive Future Plural passive
1st +♂Lÿlimnu -♂Lÿliiznu
+♀Lÿlimna - ♀Lÿlizna ♂Lÿlimnoi - ♂Lÿlznoi
♀Lÿlimnoia - ♀Lÿliznoia
2nd +♂Lÿlimné -♂Lÿlizné
+♀Lÿlimnea -♀Lÿlznea ♂Lÿlimnae -♂Lÿliznÿ
3rd +♂Lÿlimni -♂Lÿlizni
+♀Lÿlimnia -♀Lÿliznia ♂Lÿlimnau -♂Lÿliznau♀Lÿlimnaua - ♀Lÿliznaua
Future singular reflexive Future Plural reflexive
1st +♂Lÿlimyu - ♂Lÿlignu
+♀Lÿlimya - ♀Lÿligna ♂Lÿlimioi - ♂Lÿlignoi
♀Lÿlimoia - ♀Lÿlignoia
2nd +♂Lÿlimwé -♂Lÿligne
+♀Lÿlimwea - ♀ Lÿlignea ♂Lÿlimwae -♂Lÿlignae
3rd +♂Lÿlimwi -♂Lÿligni
+♀Lÿlimwia -♀Lÿlignia ♂Lÿlimiau -♂Lÿlignau♀Lÿlimiaua - ♀Lÿlignaua
Future singular reciprocal Future Plural reciprocal
1st +♂Lÿliftu - ♂Lÿlivnu
+♀Lÿlifta - ♀Lÿlivna ♂Lÿliftoi - ♂Lÿlivnoi
♀Lÿliftoia - ♀Lÿlivnoia
2nd +♂Lÿlifté -♂Lÿlivné
+♀Lÿliftea -♀ Lÿlivnea ♂Lÿliftae -♂Lÿlivnae
3rd +♂Lÿliftisi -♂Lÿlivni
+♀Lÿliftia -♀Lÿlivnia ♂Lÿliftau -♂Lÿlivnau♀Lÿliftaua -♀Lÿlivnaua
Additional numbers:Taking the ROOT+tense+voice construction you can then add the auxiliary numbers and person endings, for example
Lÿl-I-mn-ui Root-future-passive-masculine dual
Once again the number endings are:
Dual inclusive:-ui, -aui Dual/tertiary exclusive: -it-
-Trial: -ithr- Paucal: -ish- Partive: -mp- permultive: -ïmp- Abstractive: -im-
Past tenseThe past tense is used for actions that obviously took place in the past. This is formed in a somewhat complex manner of ablaut where the verb root vowel systematically shifts to denote the past tense. However a simpler mode is also used. This is the infix of -ath- which behaves exactly as in the future -is-. So that Lÿlisi - “He will dream” and Lilith “he Dreamt.” correspond. Also in the same way the theme tense vowel can be shifted with complex voices. Lÿlumnu - I am dreamt of Lÿlimnu I will be dreamt of Lÿlamnu _ I was dreamt of. Verbs with bisyllabic or trisyllabic roots use this regular form of past tense formation.
If the verb root has one syllable of a CVC- structure than it follows this paradigm:
-a- changes to -> -au-
-au- -w--oi- -é-
So for examples
Gloss present Past
To dream Lÿlo Loltho
To love Lumno Lamno
To smile Mëmo Mumtho
to sleep Mwndo Moindo
To make Morno Mwrntho
To lie Thromo Thrémtho
To burn Moiro Mwrtho/Mérthp
To fall Dwemdo Dwëmdo
To wash Mléro Mlÿro
To sail Dalio Daulio
To tie Tivo TèvqpoTo scream Svauso Svÿstho
Immediate past tense
This tense is used for when an action occurred immediately before speaking.
üslollthu - I just dreamt Üslÿlathu
The action occurred today:
OcthlolthuOcthlÿlathu- I dreamt today
The action occurred yesterday
Olglolthu- I dreamt last nightOlglÿlathu
The action will occur tomorrow
Üth-Üthliliu - I will dream tomorrow
The action took place in the remote past, long ago
Armlolthu - Long ago I dreamtArmlÿlathu -
Long from now the action will occur
Arm-Armlÿliu - Long from now, I will dream
This is for actions that were going to take place in the past.
Imlolthu- At that time, I was going to dreamImlÿlathu
This is for action that will still take place in the future
Im-Imlÿliu - By then I’ll be going to dream
For negation simply attach -(a)--nai- to the end of the root.
Lollth-nai-u= Lollthnaü - I did not dreamMoindanai- He did not sleep
Similarly, simply add the voice stems to the past root.
Lollthamnu - I was dreamt ofAlthough Lÿlamnu works just as well.
For general actions that take place from time to time and no particular reference point.
-niLÿluni - I dream, I dream occasionally, sometimes I dream, I am known to dream.
Meaning the action is continuous, ongoing, is in the process of happening.
-èn-Lÿlènu- I’m dreaming
Denotes that the action is about to take place. That it will do so soon.
Lÿlèvzu - I’m about to dream
Denotes the action has just started.
Lÿlerdu - I’ve begun to dreamLÿlernu
Denotes the action is finishing.
Lÿlugdu- I’m finishing dreaming, I’m just coming out of a dreamLollthugdu - I’ve finished dreaming
Denotes that the agent is putting effort into attempting to perform the action.
Lÿluntu- I’m trying to dream. Lÿluspu
Is used for when the action was taking place in the past but was not necessarily completed at the time when something else happened.
Lÿlomecu - I was dreaming whenLÿlomcu- I was in a dream
Is used for when the action takes place habitually, often or out of habit.
Phoë- Phoëlÿlu- I often dream
Denotes that the action will stop.Lÿludnu- I’m quitting dreaming.
This denotes that the action did not take place but that it was very close to doing so.Lÿlacnu- I almost dreamt.
Denotes the action will stop and then resume again.Lÿludwu- I’m taking a break from dreaming.
Denotes that the action is resuming again from an inactive state.Umlÿlunru- I’m starting to dream again
Denotes that the action will take place for an extended time.Lÿluphmu - I dream for a while
Denotes the action will continue past expectations.Oëlÿlenu- I dream on and on
Denotes the action will complete itself many separate times in succession. Oëlÿluntu - I dream again and again.
Used for when the action takes place many many times all in succession.
ë Rocma lacski - The fire sparked.ë Rocma oëlacskini - The fire sparkled.
Denotes that the action is very practiced and familiar to the agent.
Oëlÿlauxu- I certainly know what it is to dream.
Denotes the action accidentally took place.Lÿlauchu- I accidentally dream
Emphasizes that the agent did in fact intend to perform the action. Lÿloblu- I mean to dream.
Denotes that the action could not be avoided fully, or that there is an irreversibility to the action and that it lies outside of the agents control. Lÿluphlu - I can’t help but dream
Denotes and emphasizes an intensity to the actions.
Lÿlauxu - Lÿlaullu- I dream!
For additional inflexion the order of classes goes as follows:
ROOT + aspect+ tense vowel+ voice+/- neg+person.
So, Lÿlaullamnnaü - I certainly was not dreamt of very much!
MoodMoods add certain connotations to the semantic value of the verb.
The subjunctive mood denotes that the certainty, validity, veracity, is not certain or is questionable.
-er- infix.In the first person masculine it is marked as:
Lÿleu- I might dreamLÿlera- I ♀might dream
Verbs of belief that take another action as their argument usually trigger the subjunctive.
Thenu me lÿleri - I think he dreams. I think he might dream.
Any verbs of belief, or hearsay will trigger this.
Denotes that the agent has the ability to perform the action.
-op-Lÿlopu- I can dream
This is used when on verb is held to be conditional, such as if the action takes place, than something else will arise.-oips-
Lÿloipsu- If I dream.
Lawénoipsi velisinu- If it rains, I will not go.
Denotes that the action is the cause for something else.-ux-
Lÿluxu- Because I dream.
Suggests a suggestion that an action could take place.-oz-
Lylozu- Let’s dream!
Mo nwellozé- Why don’t go you see it?
Denotes that the action is desired.-isc-
Lÿliscu- I want to dream.
Denotes that the action might potentially take place if another condition were true.-erm-
Lÿlermu - I would dream.Mwndoispu lÿlermu- If I slept, I would dream.
Denotes the subject has a need for the action to take place.Im-root-uct-
Imlÿluctu- I need to dream.
Denotes the subject is hoping that the action will take place.-dami
Lÿludami-I hope I dream. I hope to dream.
Denotes that it is probable that the action takes place.-erom-
Lÿlerom - I probably do dream.Lÿleromi- He probably does dream.
Denotes that the agent has a sort of obligation to perform the action.-ucl-
Lÿluclu- I should dream. I ought to dream.
Set up a simulation of a hypothetical situation were the action might have been performed. -oigwen-
Lÿloigwenu - Suppose I dream. Ok, say that I dream.
Denotes that the agent was forced into performing the action.-austr-
Lÿlaustru - I am forced to dream.
Denotes that the subject caused the object to perform the action.-aust-
Ro Lÿlaustu - I cause him to dream. I make him dream. Lÿlaumnu- I am made to dream. (passive)
JussiveDenotes that the subject pleads that the action take place.
Olÿlovbu- I pray to dream. I plead to dream. Please dream. Rum Olÿlovbu - I pray he dreams.
Is used to ask if the action takes place.-ti
Lÿluti? - Do I dream?
Denotes that the action must take place. -ulf-
Lÿlulfu-I must dream
Denotes that the action is good and that it is a privilege that it takes place. ü-root-uml-
Ülÿlumlu- I get to dream.
Denotes that the subject allows the object to perform an action.-usm-
Ro Lÿlusmu- I let him dreamLÿlumnusmu- I’m allowed to dream (passive), I may dream.
Denotes that the action is a burden to the subject.-ucr-
Lÿlucru- I have to dream, and it sucks.
Denotes that the agent will attempt to perform the action.Pr
Lÿlupru- I try to dream.
This denotes that the subject helps the object to perform and action.-ufm-
Lÿlufmu- I help to dream.
Ro Lÿlufmu - I help him dream
ImperativeThe imperative mood is used in commands and orders, it has only 2nd and 3rd person forms.
Alÿlaha- Dream! (used to say to females)
Alÿlahae- Dream all of you!
Alÿlahaea- Dream all of you females!
Alÿlahi- He shall dream! Alÿlahia- She shall dream!
Alÿlisa- You will dream then!Etc.
VeracityThe amount of truth the speaker puts into his phrase can be marked as such.
Vaë Lÿlu- I really dream, I dream! I certainly dream. I contest I dream.
Lÿlu- I dream. I state it as a fact.
Lÿleu- I might dream. It may be truth.
Lylufi- It is said that I dream. Hearsay.
Lylanaüfi- It is said that I do not dream
Lylenaü- I might not dream.
Lalanaü- I do not dream.Lÿlanaü vae - I do not dream!
Multiple moods and their order.It is possible to compound the different affixes into quite complex verb forms. While simple compounding is quite common, the more complex forms are usually broken down into several separate words, however, the complex verb forms while rare in speech are found in writing, and sometimes in song and poetry, the most complex forms, often for comedic effect.
Lollthumnopniscareu - I might not have needed to have wanted to have been unable to have been undreamt of.
In English the order of the elements is of course: Agent-veracity-tense-volitive-potential-voice-root
But in Alnëèn the order here is: Root-voice-potential-volitive-tense-veracity-agent
Even longer more ridiculous forms can be constructed.
Lollthamnanaiphmanaiclaproscoipseritea. -If you two girls might have wanted to be able to try not to keep being undreamt of over and over.
Which can be broken down as:
ROOT+tense+voice+negation.+aspect+V’(try)+potential+volitive+conditional+subjunctive+dual+2nd person+feminineLollth -a-mn- anai-phm-anai-cla-pr-o-sc-oips-er-it-e-a
The basic rule to the order of affixes is such:
Non-finite forms:Non-finite forms of verbs are verb forms without marking for tense, person, etc. Rather the behave like other parts of speech.
Infinitive:The infinitive is a verb for that symbolizes the abstract idea of an action, it is not a noun and does not mark for number or case, it stands on its own. The “To do something” is its approximation in English.
They do not represent any of the verb's arguments (as employer and employee do).
They are not inflected to agree with any subject They cannot serve as the only verb of a declarative sentence. They are used with auxiliary verbs.
These forms can be used in matrix clauses where the subject and tense are the same.
I Want to dream - Vlomu LÿloI know I saw (it). - Iscu nwello
I believe I like (it) - Vunu qpusco
They can be used as subjects: Lÿlo va muno - To dream is good. Infinitives have no gender, adjectives set to agree with them can take any ending.
They are also used in constructions such as
I asked him to come with me.- Ludqpiuro vum velo
I want you to come- Vlomuro velo
Infinitives are formed simply by adding an -o to the end of a stem instead of the person endings, with as many affixes as desired. Some common forms are given here.
Lÿlo - To dream
Lÿlumno - To be dreamt of
Lÿlumyo- To dream of oneselfLÿlufto-To dream and be dreamt of
Lolltho/Lÿlatho- To have dreamt
Lollthumno- to have been dreamt of
Lollthumyo- To have dreamt of yourselfLollthufto- to have dreamt and to have dreamt of yourself
Lÿliso-To dream sometime in the future
Lÿlimno-to be dreamt of sometime in the future
Lÿlimyo- To ream of yourself sometime in the futureLÿlifto-To dream and be dreamt of sometime in the future
Lÿlunto-To have dreamt
Lÿlumnicno-To have been dreamt of
Lÿlumicno-To have dreamt of oneselfLÿlufticno-To have dreamt and been dreamt of
The prefix Or- denotes the negative form
Orlÿlo - To not dream
The gerund is used as an action noun, it can be inflected with all the features of nouns. It is formed with the prefix o- and the ending -io
Olylio- dreamingOrolÿlio - not dreaming
So one might use the gerund as:
I like dreaming- qpuscu olÿlior
Or Qpum olÿlio vëthonumnaustu - Your dreaming makes me wonder.
The verbal noun is very similar to the action noun, the gerund above. However it is used for the result of the activity, some sort of more physical reality rather than an abstract one. -itpo
Lylipto- A dreaming, A dreaming session
Prodvipto- A run.Nwellipto- A look.
Supine:The supine is used for construction explaining the purpose or goal of an action
Vëlthu lÿliwn- I came to dream, I came in order to dream, I came so that I might dream
Simply attach -iwn to the end of the stem
Lÿlopiwn- In order to be able to dream
Orlÿliwn - Not in order to dreamLÿlanaiwn- In order to not dream.
In the future, the sense means that the action is scheduled to happen, is supposed to happen, or perceived to be about to happen.
Thëntu vuvnaë thÿstisiwn- I thought I was about to die.
Participle:Participles are either adjectival or adverbial, they serve as verbal adjectives or verbal adverbs. The prefix Or- signifies if it is affirmative or negative.
Lÿlélta zoa- She is dreaming. She is in the state of dreaming.Afroia drecumi mwndélto- Beware the sleeping dragon.
Present active participle
Lÿlélto - Orlÿlélto
Lolthno Lollucno -Orlolthno Orlollucno
Future perfect passive
Future perfect reflexive
Future perfect reciprocalLÿlifticno -Orlÿlifticno
Verbal abverbialsThese are used as adverbs.
He came smiling. - Vëlthi mëmiel
Reflexive: LÿlumielReciprocal: Lÿluftiel
Reflexive: LollthumielReciprocal: Lollthuftiel
Reflexive: LÿlimielReciprocal: Lÿliftiel
Reflexive: LÿlumüntielReciprocal: Lÿluftuntiel
Reflexive: LollthamielReciprocal: Lollthnaftiel
Reflexive: LÿlimicnielReciprocal: Lÿlifitcniel
AgentivesThese operate like the adjectives, but mean “the one who is Xing”
Lÿlius - The dreaming one. The person who is dreaming. I hate the man you love- Rum lumniuth raushtu.
Active: ♂Lÿlius ♀Lÿlua/Lÿlana ø Lÿlien
Passive: ♂Lÿlumnius ♀Lÿlumnua ø Lÿlumnien
Reflexive: ♂Lÿlumüs ♀Lÿlumüa øLÿlumyenReciprocal: ♂Lÿluftius ♀Lÿluftua.Lÿluftana øLÿluftien
Active: ♂Lollnius ♀ Lolnua ø lolnien
Passive: ♂Lolumnius ♀Lolumnua ø lolumnien
Reflexive: ♂Lolumüs ♀Lolumüa ø lolumyenReciprocal: ♂Loluftius ♀Loluftua øLoluftien
Active: ♂Lÿlisius ♀Lÿlisua øLÿlisien
Passive: ♂Lÿlimnius ♀Lÿlimnua ø Lÿlimnien
Reflexive: ♂Lÿlimüs ♀Lÿlimüa øLÿlimyenReciprocal: ♂Lÿliftius ♀Lÿliftua øLÿliftien
Active: ♂Lÿluntius ♀Lÿluntana Lÿluntua øLÿluntien
Passive: ♂Lÿlumnicnius ♀Lÿlumnicnua øLÿlumnicnien
Reflexive: ♂Lÿlumicnius ♀Lÿlumicnua øLÿlumicnienReciprocal: ♂Lÿlufticnis ♀Lÿlufticnua øLÿlufticnien
Active: ♂Lolthnius ♀Lolthnua øLolthnien
Passive: ♂Lolthumnius ♀Lolthumnua øLolthumnien
Reflexive: ♂Lolthumüs ♀Lolthumüa øLolthumyenReciprocal: ♂Lolthuftius ♀Lolthuftua øLolthuftien
Active: ♂Lÿlicnius ♀Lÿlicnua øLÿlicnien
Passive: ♂Lÿlimnicnius ♀Lÿlimnicnua øLÿlimnicnien
Reflexive: ♂Lÿlimicnius ♀Lÿlimicnua øLÿlimicnienReciprocal: ♂Lÿlifticnius ♀Lÿlifticnua øLÿlifticnien
The prefixes add a certain connotation to the verbs they modify. Re-Ird-
Irdlÿlu- I dream again, I dream over, I re-dream I resomnitize.
Un- ArbArblÿlu - I Undream it
Good ü-Ülÿlu - It is good that I dream.
N Bad ar-Arlÿlu- It is bad that I dream
Before mel- Elm- Elmlÿlu- Before I dream
Against- ac-Acvelo- running away from
V Dis- spread out cel- elc-Elcmothu- I collect
Irrlÿlu- I misdreamI dream wrongly
Perfect vel- Elv-Elvlÿlu- I dream perfectly
Half- Ledi- Eldi- Eldilÿlu- I half dream
Retro- eqpl-Elqpvelo - to go back.
Pseudo- hego- olg-Olglÿlu - I pretend to dream
fear Ëf-Ëflÿlu- I dream and am frightened by this.
Love ém- Émlÿlu- I lovingly dream
Hate ag-Aglÿlu- I begrudgingly dream
Fierce car- arc-Arclÿlu- I fiercely dream
Beautiful ova- üva- üv- ülv-Ülvlÿlu- I dream and it is beautiful.
For the purpose/sake of bi- ib- om- oth-Iblÿlu- To the sake of my dreamin
Intensive as- is- ma- ym-
Ïmnwaullu- stare intentlyÏmlÿlu- to have mad visions.
What na- nalÿlu? _ what do I dream of?
When në- nëlÿlu?- When do I dream?
Why nÿ- nÿlÿlu?- why do I dream?
Who nu- nulÿli? -Who dreams?
Where nei- neilÿlu? - Where do I dream?
How nau- naulÿlu? - How do I dream?
How much no- nolÿlu? - How much do I dream?
How many néo- néilÿlau? How many people dream?
How far noa- noavelu? - how far am I coming?How soon nio- nioveliu? How soon will I come?
The copula is the verb “to be”. It is irregular.Oano - To be
1st ♂Au♀ Aua ♂ Moi, ♀Moim
2nd ♂Os ♀Ossa ♂dos ♀dossa 3rd ♂Ï m’ï l’ï ♀ aëla ♂Lant ♀Lanta
The affixations are formed in these manners.
Atu- ♂dual Ata ♀dual Moitu Moita - inclusive dual
Auttaë dual ♀
Auëu abstractive ♂Auëa abstractive ♀
Ascu - volitive - I want to be
Aopu- I can be
Aistu - I become
Oipsu - If I am Eur- Were I, I might be
Moiscu - We want to be
Ossté - You two areOssce - You want to be
Ospe - You can be
Ospse - If you are
Ïsci- He wants to be.
The other tenses work the same way as regular verbs only without extra affixes to mark tense.
FutureIsto - To be in the future
PastIclo - To have been in the past
PerfectOnto - To have been
Pluperfect.Uicno- To have had been.
Í - Is a simple copula that does not mark for tense or person nor any thing else. It is simply a particle that denotes that the case is such.
Ocvanla Muna í - That horse is good.
Issi in the same way is the future, it simple implies that the speech is referenced for the future.
Issi Lÿlu - I will dreamË valno mëano issi - The horse will be happy
Attha - Is the same but for the past.
Some of the moods have their own words as well.
Lÿlu oppo- I can dream
Erre- subjectiveOipsel- conditional
Nouns -> verbs
There are two ways.
The regular way to form a verb from a noun is with the infix -cwe-Valnicwu- I horse. I ride a horse.
The other way is to change the vowel stem.
Verb stem -> noun
A -> ëo Dalio- to sail Dueliu- Sail boat
È->ie thèno- to think Thienta - Thought
É->uo Miléro- to wash Miluorua- Cleansing
Ë->éo Mëmo- to smile méomë - a smile
O->eu Thromo- to lie Threumo- a lie
I->èi Tivo- to tie Teívo - A tie
U->w Lumno - to love Lwmnëa - Love
W->oé Mwndo- to sleep Moindia- Sleep
Ÿ->aë Lÿlo- to dream Laëlia- A dream.
Au->oa svausco- to scream Svoascë- a screamOi->ue moiro- to burn Mueria- inferno
Noun to verb
A -> i.e. Valna- horse Vielno- to ride a horse
The above paradigm when used on the vowels of verbs convert the verb to an adjective.Regular verb to adjective formation can be achieved with the infinitive plus -na/no
Nwellona- visual. Although much more frequently the participles are used or the adjective is converted from the noun.
Vâ- Marks the topic of the sentence. Also used to mark entire clauses.
Valnaë vâ qpuscu- As for horses, I like them.
He told me how much he hated the girl you love.
Ë melfa pwi lumné lu raushtoneossali vâ, ludqpivoës.
The. Girl. Which. love+2ndperson/masculine. Possessive. Hate+adj.+ness+3rdperson possessive. Topic. Told+3rd person masculine+1st person dative masculine.
This is the coordinator that is used after the main verb and begins a new cluase as an argument. It is not the ‘that’ that’s used in the sense of “the person THAT I saw’
Vunu mé velisi- I believe that he will come.
Fëanu mé nwellopiuqpo- I hope I will see you.
Pwi- This is a form of the referential pronoun, meaning that, or which.
Lumnuza pwi thenu muno í - I love her, which I think is good.
Fi- sort of verbal quotations.
Lumnuqpoa fi pwëthti - He said “I love you”
It can also be used to denote hearsay.
Faunthi fi - It is said that he did it.
It can also be used to denote multiple verb actions.
Vnotifi, mëmifi, mëanicwifi. - He lives, smiles and is happy.
It can also be inflected with any of the cases leaving the main noun caseless.
Valno fith qpuscu - I live horses.
This is usually used with proper nouns from other languages.
New York fith lumnu- I love New York.
It can also be used to make an entire clause a sort of adverbial formation.
Hating the man I once loved, I sought to love anew. - raushtu ë thontor pwi lamnu fi umlumnanriscu moila.
Aboard Importsi on/in
About Dendwé lative
Absent Nÿsni from
Above Swanda supressive
Across Wosso near
Against Coshca surface
Along Thosti surface
Alongside Ipsnaya surface
Amid Cwic in
Among üen in
Around Rolua near
Astride Lasidé, feno near
At Dan Dand
Before Mielli near
By Pel Pem pi pe
During zau refne
Like Mesne leki
Of Ou lon loa lu
On Be bea bo
Present Uleusu uclusu
Plus Pelnt, pelnc, flene
Then Loé Loc
Via iux, lux
With mo, coe, twelm
According to Chauctenni
Ahead of Anthel
Along with Thostimo
As for Azdoe
As per Pomco
As to Nathul
Aside from Iciÿel
Close to Ecleth
Far from Roune
Near to Romwe
Next to Binel
Outside of Fwaxa
Owing to Welbes
Prior to Mielmi
Regardless of Iziÿné
Subsequent to Wipicte
As far as Aromié
By means of Taldo
In case of Imcwae
In front of Amielti
In lieu of Ilsh
In place of Awero
In spite of Shnircte
Apart from Sperfa
This side of Clepi
That side of Olclepi
Straight Trun? Trunel. mythwa
Above Swindi wenn
Around the corner Dortu
In the presence of Imzandiun
In the power of Imvasca
Right up to Aswarth
Diagonal to RoituThanks to Dannoi
Prepositions of TimePrepositions of discourse
Adverbs of Time
Back then Pluoa
At that time Ocpelcwa
Long ago Qporweilya
Once upon a time Denicwalicwa
Way back then Plucwo
Way off from now Cuol
Almost never Parel
Not very often
All the time
Today Detha , Octhia
The Day after tomorrow Imithia
The day before yesterday Temral
On that day Pothia
What day? Nathia?
Which Day? Netha?
No day Retha
Any day qpothia
Finally Lipa Mylli Myna
Just Dë Cabba Capta
Sometimes Thonel Thonec Thoneie
Daily Dethalf? Olmthiel
Immediately Hwec Micwal
Over Elo Vnele
Right now Almnolt
From now on Nowama
Long ago Orocna
Once upon a time Denicwalicaw
Here After Impiel
By and By Imiel
Forever Mÿcwenel moemanna
For forever more Moemannamo
Evermore MümowaEverlastingly Mondamiel
Adverbs of degree
More Onra Vmau
Most Onï Vmï
Too Fwae fae sae
Very Vau, Vae
Far Rowna Vmar
Full Faunna Fonna
Not quite numbe
Wisely Lÿntea Lyntiel
Well Alwa dü
Maybe Mulne, folba
Else lewOtherwise Andriel
Conjunctions, coordinators and phrases of discourse
But Miau, mio, mia, Cuuw
Or Cwï , lur, foi, bwa, fue,
Nor Froi, nroi
For Hëx Peym üv üvi
So Cala, Lo,
As Baus, Zol, loz,
If Lae, të , lex,
Before Maelli, mwelli, mieli
So far as Hÿthré
Now that Nwoltil
In order to/that Pruvoé
Even though Mÿccmwa
Only if Pielï
Whether or not Nÿthenae
Even if Lÿmwa
In case of Sethiamé
As if Nathie, cwetsh, chasti
So that Cwové
As long as Alÿga
In as much as Ichite
Until now Oltielli
For example Clepsuva
So too Omu, umu
Of course ÿmbé
Still Incu aqpmes
For instance Prolxé
On the contrary Anthïé
Further more Tompé
On the other hand Balvimi Althiu
Then again ëthësë
In fact Alëstrié , Delroé
So far Olfoé
Even if Can it be that Copuia va?
Diction particles and interjections.
question Cva? Ti
Explanation request Lo?
Memory confirmation Fué?
Verity exclamation iau
Topic changer dü
Agreement request me Vocative. yoë
Word orderChanging the word order does not change the meaning of a sentence as it would in English, rather it simply changes the focus of a sentence, that is what the speaker wishes to emphasize. The basic word order is VOS. That is Verb, object, subject.
In copulative sentences the verb is normally at the end. In fact it is usually left out entirely, and the pronoun is all that’s used.
Rowa au- I am brave.Rowa vu- I’m brave.
Mëanno vu - I’m happyMëanno au- I’m happy
In the case above sometimes both are used at once to separate vowel barriers.
Mëanno au -> Mëanno vu au -> Mëanno v’au.
Similarly mu ï -> M’ï and ru ï -> L’ï
When a tense other than the present is used than the copula is normally used.
Mëanno clu- I was happy.
But since tense can also be marked in the adjective then,
Mëannalthto vu - I was happy.
There can sometimes be a different sense in the two uses. Since au is tensed it suggest it may be a temporary condition.
Mëanno v’au- I am happy now. I am happy but I was not before. I’m in a happy mood right now.
Mëanno vu- I’m a happy person. My situation is happy.
In the third person the order is determined by the focus.
The boy is brave- Rowa l’ï moëumi - brave is the boyIt is the boy who is brave. - ë moëu rowa l’ï
Theodor is a boy - O moëu thëodor ï
Theodor is a boy. - O moëu l’ï thoedorIt’s Theodor who is a boy- Thëodor o moëu l’ï
In a non copula verb sentence the verb usually comes first.
Nwallthu o valnor - I saw a horse.
Although usually left out sometimes the subject pronoun shows up at the end. Nwellthu o valnor vu- I saw a horse.
Of course if it is to be emphasized that it was one and no other who did the action that that element occurs first.
Vu nwallthu o valnor - It was me who saw a horse.
If the object was effected in a real way than it occurs first, or simply to emphasize.
O valnor nwallthu - I saw a horse and nothing else. I saw a horse and it noticed, it was frightened by me.
To strengthen the above meaning sometimes a passive verb with an accusative subject is used.
O valor nwellamnivoës - A horse was seen by me, and it was frightened by this, or it noticed, or was effected by this.
The general rule is that the object proceeds the subject if it is in someway effected by the action.
Lumni moëumi melfar- The boy loves the girl. (but she doesn’t know, or care.)Lumni melfar ë moëu- The boy loves the girl and she knows.
Sometimes this distinction is further made by the use of the dative versus the accusative case.
Lumni melfas ë moëu - The girl does not knowLumni melfar ë moëu - The girl does know.
In noun phrases relative noun phrases can also be constructed as such.
The girl I love- ë lumnu melfaThe horse who kicked the knight- ë cnovuth acsèstri valno
Of course the other way is - ë melfa pwi lumnuË valno pwi cnovuth ascèstri
Pwi vs. pono
Pwi is used directly after the noun, pono is used in isolation and can be inflected for gender and number.
I don’t like the horse who kicked the knight, who hurting me, I wish also to hurt.Qpuscaü valnomith pwi cnovuth acsestri, pono ishti vuvnaë, ishtiscuro muu.
In sentences with indirect objects the order is determined by whichever is more interesting or important to the sentence.
Aucliá thornthuqp roës- She gave the sword to him. The sword is the main idea here.Aucliá roës thornthuqp - She gave him the sword. The sword was already mentioned but it is revealed that she gave it to him.
Similarly adverbs occur where their importance is needed.
Ormëel aucliá thornthuqp roës - KINDLY- she gave him the sword. Aucliá ormëel thornthuqp roës - She kindly gave him the sword.
There are many ways to construct the same meanings in complex sentences.
As he clutched his sword, which was his father’s before his, Azmorl thinks of home.
Mothani thornthulith pwi clë opagam maeli ronya, theni Azmorl molmëo.
Azmorl rum ronya maeli opagam clë thornthulith mothani fi molmëo thèni.
She kindly gives the sword to the green knight on the horse.
Aucliá ormëel ë valnatra cnovues vënèthes ë thornthuqp.
Valnatra cnovumis ë thornthuth ormëel aucliá.
Eco ispo asco
Cocro Dolco thenu
Nimo, Dimo, Mino, Mido mindo mwndo
Prafo prafto pravo? Pravdo?
Atytra soar Zelno, Lebno
Micno vnoco? Valdo? Vlardo? Alcu?qpalmo?
Flaro dramo fano?
Macwo Calno momo
Sripso isfo ishfo
Lodio Yudamo mewa=song litali
Devo pwetho pwethco pwethto
Valo Vamo cambo
Cyso Lysto Rovo? Vnoco? Vloro? Vnoto
Hyao haho limlo
To transform, make?
To greatly desire to know
Meno? Menumo? Lorgo? Lorvo? Lorfo? Lortho? lorqpo
“I’ve been wondering”Romelienta
Upper lip Wènsínu
lower lip Çtäusinu
I call Ännò
I beakon Bóndéssò
To brush teeth Dènqidä Égäyo
To bathe Égäio
To wash Lälvò
Alveolar ridge Hëch
To taste Fósò
To nod Pibägò
nose bridge Phémstri
To smell Moiò
A whiff Féfiphä
To stare intensive= look
To gaze intensive+ watch
To peer Stäbimò
To look Bëmò
To show Ädnèlò
To watch Élómò
Whites of the eyes Nwèlccä
To see Nèllò/Nullò
To look intensive=look
To look for Nèlúvò
a vision Üménèlium
To shut your eyes Äcnèläimò
To squint Äcnèllifò
To hear Äcò
To listen Ädiäco
To listen for Äccäimo
To pique your ears Äccuifò
Area between the eyes Zidzo
Facial hair Däuzif
Head hair Polëëma
To comb hair Frittò
Body hair Sif
Braided hair Vländä=braid Vländilima
Blonde hair Óldilima
Red hair Rècthilima
Brown hair Ruscilima
Black hair Cälcilimä
Short hair Snilima
Messy hair Fläshälimä
To cut hair Polëëmiada Sfixo
To shave Hüffò
To consider Ynsicwo
To think about Pilipidò
To ponder Eúcigò
To brood Rälëcro
To think Cócrò
To wonder Vëthónò
To worry Rälämpò
To know Sitsò
To decide Äxisänò
To determine Idimisò
To remember Minimo
To forget Ämwèlò
To memorize cause to remember
To believe Vúnò
For a heart to beat Ormoio
Collar bone Cäflishnu (cäflä colar)
Skin Ditrué Clommä=hide
To kick Äcsistro
To punch Äcpolcò
Bridge of foot Búibúi
Front heel Mèldilmò
Swim Péglò Wogò
Hit Täccò Tästò
Dance Dëdanò Bóibò
To follow Luthisò
Lay down Plúndò
Venus fly trap
A team of horses
To moo Ngoo
Coira Humell coila
To meow Ngeao
To bah Meho
Jenda, Jendu Mwima?
Malmuqpelni (crowned deer)
To stomp Dobsalco
Mista Misca Isca Istica Mwnua Mwvista Vumista Vwmistica
Owa, Uer, Eor, Vytha, Vythena vnoa noe
The north star
Father’s siblings in law
Cousin of father’s brother
Cousin of father’s sister
Cousin of mothers brother
Cousin of mothers sister
BrotherPruqpu? Praqpu? Braqpu? Obraqpos
Swesta Sweesta Ozwezda
DaughterSalima? Alima? Alina?
Salor? Saltros? Tolthro Olthro Dalthro
Grandparents grand children
Be interested in
Utha right Uthlo
Ducco qpucco, qpucto
Cluzbio? Idbo, idufo
Stallion Thorvalnos Tholmos Thorvos
Mare Valna Walma
Colt Valnuphus Omostu
Filly Valnupha Miuenne
A swift horse Delethos
A wild horse Halnithix
A horse for riding Velens
Roan Lommoa? Lommoana? Omobien
Brown horse Ruscalnos
Dapple gray Altsalnos
To breed Melovdo
To ride a horse Vielno
A horse rider Valneus
To keep a horse Egvalnico? Valnuvio?
Horse feed Falicembia
Horse shoe Dobsicluf
Tail Swiffwa flufo?
To neigh Ngeho
To graze Anglo
To kick Acsistro
To rear Ascalo
To trot Afwo
To amble Glemo
To canter Hemuto
To gallop Adasho
To nicker Higiligo
To whinny Hueuho
To charge on a horse Valnithivixo
Throat latch Hwacccha
Point of shoulder Axomsi
Cannon Navla (hilt)
Coronet Nicmi (stair)
Chin groove Anglilosh
Jugular groove Cyscwefe
Saddle Volcna (throne)
horse dung Shafalnsh
Fanioc Lombioc Rasynno (energetic)
AngryClyxazma Clyxno Clyxieth
FaithVynea? Vunea? Vunieth? Vwnium?
FeelingIsnia. Ysnia. Multu? Multiu?
HappyLafna? Lafla? Laflana?
KindMumma? Mumna? Mumla bumdu?
LaughLimlia laughter Lumlo Lumla A laugh
NeedMeno Munium Munia Mwnia Mwnium
Sigh of reliefPhunnoa
Mumba = grave, Mumbethica
Manaithica, Mastitha, Maniva Mavna
Shimo?, Lomco? Lunco? Lucno? ect
Athroa? Throa? Thrumi? Thruspo?
Amnya? Amnia? Vumnoa?
Orb I? u?
Avsethica Avso keep
Dombos, dombu, domba
... That guilty moisture, Ocno snèlthëa morgla
which hovers o’er the sinners’ brow, Pwi acëmëdra ovweli arthmuionmi
and that quicksilver dew sparkling amu locno vnussi üsiphwi stexieni
Which green grass sip of, Pwi qpunui vëneth whwiphi
Both are blissful spells, tau mu üluxë thwervmiForsent by gods as dowries. pocwestantau ë qpolcucmaë volstumaë
The lines of cool lake ë dwelfü luclu ümmëo
Flowing off the down of swan qpufmastru vluemnni swelqpëo
And too the serpent streams amu ë ephuaë elvunaë
Hugging tight the hilly earth breasts cliptiel ambiau plarthmiau dumbecsu
Glimmering both as seas of stars Lrupsumiau spistiau vnoëo The eager giving gods do lend ë qpolci ainliaclini üfolsti
ümanna eOe ümanna
starry milk of gods vnolna lacthi qpolcion
ümanna, eOe ümanna
the blood of mortal wish ë vlarthni loa thystelthu lÿskia
From forth the swollen clouds it falls smolpa lofcastraë dwemdimia
As rain to bathe the earth with silver life Laweuma arthianar egaiwn sissa vnotcma
And the seas which flocks of fish do swim uel loscëstaëmi smëthia sëmëon peglimia
And of feast by birds and bears are made uel üaglomaë nelebix cuthmoin laun
Sweet goddreampt honey aminu qpolclÿlumnthu vmwelnë
Which falls from falls on mountain tops pwi dwemdi flasfatraë omba lu zithlidra
And feeds the hunger of the fields ë logmar fmention blegli
So sweet our godhoney water be olaminu qpmwolcmibi manna L’ïSo golden our priceless dowry olausla bio slectilas volsta i
So, think and savor in your dreaming mind Lomo, athéné we üvmié lÿleni mithcëstaqpi
This cool water which both we drink ocluclu manna pwi calitoiFrom silver glass glasses. Culvatrau sissau crëzduau
Gleaming virtue (Tryno lit. the effort to do the right thing)
Ilyana tryno Ilyana tryno Gleaming Tryno
E lunyea myndo The only thing dear (precious emotionally, sentimentally)E lunyea myndo
E mwnua Ywa The sky so wide
E mwnua Lywa The sky bluish-white
Atotlica syno A tiny thing cobbled together and posted in the groundAtotlica Sypho A tiny thing cobbled together and esteemed
Ilyana Tryno gleaming virtue
Ilayan Tryno gleaming virtue
E lunyea Myndo the only thing dearE lunyea Myndo the only thing dear
O Alnetheccatra brampli valna A horse who tramples through a rose briarElcwi umilna dolpsicli lalna Is leaving behind sweetsmelling hoof prints, I notice with delight/
Moé Isnopauwé Vu mu lëëth
Cu- 2nd person plural nominative pronoun. All you. Used as a vocative here.Léwa- Noun, 'Leaf' feminine inanimate. -ë Nominative Plural
Cu Léwaë - "You Leaves all,"
O - Indefininite article. - 'An'Moëu- Noun, 'Boy' - Masculine animate.
O Moëu - 'A boy'
Dwemdo- Infinitive of 'To Fall uncontrolably or Uncontrolled.'
Dwenmdèno- Progressive Infinitive- 'To be falling uncontrollably or Uncontrolled"Dwemdènaë- Verb, Present tense, Progressive Aspect, 2nd person plural "You all fall uncontrollably" (I.E. the leaves do)
Nèlumu - Adjective "Being adored, cute and elegant." - Singular Masculine nominative ending. (that is it matches the Boy who is Nelumu.)
Fmurtcaë- Adjective "Being dappled or speckled with varied brilliant warm colors, such as a herd of horses, or sparks from a fire. -Plural feminine nominative (it is the leaves which are Fmurtca)
Fi- Quotative adverbial particle. In this case carries the meaning of "being X at the same time as well"Armu- Adjective- "warm" - Sinuglar masculine nominative.
Fi Armu - "While being Warm at the same time (the boy)
Mu- 3rd person singular oblique pronoun, nominative. "it"Mëdra- 3rd person singular inanimate feminine pronoun, superessive. "On top of it"
Mëdraë- 3rd person plural inanimate feminine pronounm superessive. "On top of them" (the Leaves)
Aëvo- Infinitive- "To walk"
Aëvi- Verb, present tense, third person singular, masculine animate. "He Walks"Rw- 3rd person singular animate masculine pronoun, nominative. "He"
Aëvi Rw- "He walks"
Ishtmaë- Adjective- "Being in pain" - feminine plural, nominative. Miau- Conjunction- "But"
Ishtmaë miau- "It's painful but" (its painful to the leaves)
Armélthia- Warmth, singular, nominative, feminine abstractive.
-li- 3rd person masculine singular possessive enclitic. "His"
Armélthialith- Noun, Warmth, singular, feminine abstractive+3rd person masculine animate singular possessive enclitic+ accusative case."His warmth" (The boy's warmth is the object of a verb that has yet to be said"
Moé - Still, Yet, Even so.
Isno- Infinitive- "To feel"
Isnopo- Infinitive potential mood- "to be able to feel."
Isnopau- Verb. present tense, potential mood, 3rd person plural inanimate. "they can feel""Still though, They can feel" (The leaves can feel the warmth of the boy)
Wé - Conjunction- "and" prenclitic
Vu- First person singular masculine animate nominative pronoun. "I"
Mu- As well, too. Lëëth- Antienclitic form of -lith, that is the third person singular masculine animate possessive+accusative enclitic. "his"
Wé Vu mu Lëëth- "And I too (can feel) His (warmth)"
You dappled brilliant leaves tumble down
While a boy cute, while being warm as well
Walks on top of you.
It's painful but
You can still feel his warmth.
As can I.
Dialects: The same text above in the different Alnean dialects.
Alpine/ west mountains
Lomnomi vallietten u->o vu->mi Lomnoth Valnien uet
Co Lëvien Antai Vimortsien Lewien Dwemenaf
Jo Mjeou é Moio Nelmo Fÿthé Armo
Dvemmenai Elo Antai Aivoth Ro
Nelme I ishtma cuuw
Vmorsan Aqpmes Isnof rio Arlemtient
Vilm Ahrm Elnt Wo Saë
Ischtei Mjau Ishtma mI cuuw
Reim Arméltient Rio Armeltient
Aqpmes IsnofElnt Wo Saë
South coast u->y ln-> nn th_> qp
Lynny vy vannaqp Lynnye Vanne vou
Cy Leue Dwyddenei Chy Leue Fimyrse
Ou Muyey Eivy Ou Muyey Nilemy Fy Army Mydra
Dwyddenei M’ae Istui Miuy ytt Isynofou Armélqpia Ryqp
Nilemy Wy Vy My Ryqp
ytt IsynofouWy Vy My Ryqp
Lliumme’myr malnaui L->LL U->iu u->e vu-> myr v_> mutation m Lliummie’dhyr meou
Gue Llieuaui Dhuimninuai Gue Llieuaui Mhuorsiaui
A Mhuau Ae’r Mhuau Niellemau a Hoarmh iun Auim Amp fuoi
Dhuimninuai Ae’r Iusmuai Meou Snopuau Ing Armodh Rua El Myr Snop
Ing SnopuauEl Myr Snop
Vü Lünnem mi vanne u->ü -u-> -em vu-> mi o->e ln->nn Mi Vanna Lunnid vou
Cü Leiba Cü Smürza Leiba Dümmnesi
Oe Mojju Oe Nelme Mojju F'armü Mieidri Ouvid
Dümmnesi Istme Meo Lüm Armlete Snopad Elnt Vü mü poei
Istme MeoLüm Armlete
Vue Leunni mi Vauné u_. ue u->i a-> auI Vauno Leunni voeu
Cue Leiuai Efmuerze Deauemdinay
Au Muai Nilemeu I L'aurme Oin Mai L'eyvi
L’ist Dolrone Mau
Meue Isneupau Armeldie lo ruemEln Vue mue Isneupi
L’ist Dolrone Mau
Armeldie lo ruem
Meue IsneupauEln Vue mue Isneupi
Fi Lömmö di fannt vu-> fi u-> o: ë-> di v_> f Di Fann Lömmi fei
Hi Leiwië Smorziën Tfemtinei
Oe Nelme Moin Si Armme Oevith Of Mei
Da Ist Ishti Mjaü
Tie kann isnen Reiss ArmithUlt Kann Fi
Isht MjaüReiss Armt
Fi lömm di fánn Di fânn Lomm fei
Hi Smortz Laüe Tfeimnungon
ü Nelm ult Ahrm Moy Euft Of Tei
Das Ist Eisht Mjo Tei kann schnop reiss AhrmtUlt Kann fi
Ishti MjauReiss Armt
Fi lömmu di valli di Vallo Lömmi fo
Ci Lièvé Fmorzé Duondené
Eu Moggio Nielimo S'Armi Vem Mé L'oivi
Istimi Istmi mia
Isnoffo Armelca di roIl Fi mio la
Istmi miaArmelca di ro