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Alnean

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Overview

SettingEdit

... Alean is a language spoken on the Hysperian Pennisinula, as well as across the continent of Avlopa. It's culture venerates, horses and water, is animistic, with strong esteem to thought, reason, emotion, individuality, and creativity. It is a highly inflected language making distinctions between grammatical gender and grammatical sex, a wide range of cases and pluralities, verb moods, tenses, aspects as well as important semanto-syntactic distinctions. The basic word order is VSO with change in word order having intricate changes in focal expessions. The phonotactic structure is very unconstrained, with complex consonate clusters, however the nucleus of a syllable must be a vowel.  

Basic GrammarEdit

... Pronunciation.

P T B D F V S Z H L M N all as in English
C is always hard as in ‘cat’ never like ’cell’
G always hard like ’guitar’ never like ’gel’ 
Ph- as in whew. By putting the two lips close together and blowing.
Th- as in Thick, Thin, Aether, Breath
qp-as in this, that, either, and breathe.
Sh- as in English.
Tc- as it caTS. A TS sound.
Dz- as in suDZ a DZ sound.
Ch- as in English, tsh.
R - sometimes as the R’s in Irish dialects, sometimes rolled. When rolled specifically it will be written as Rr.
y- as in Yes. w- when in front of a vowel like in will.

Vowels:
a- as in father.
o- as in omen. Try not to round your lips as much.
u- as in stool.
i - as in machine.
è- as in bet
é- as in bait.
ÿ- as in the word ‘eye’
ï- as in the word ‘eye’
ü- and in the word ‘you’
w- when in front of a consonant  is as ‘eu’ in French or ‘moon’ in Celtic dialects.
Ai- as in ‘eye’
Aë- as in ‘eye’
Oi- as in oyAu- as in ‘ow’


Nouns
















Principles: Gender and animacy.

Nouns are either animate or inanimate and animacy is not morphologically marked.

Inanimate nouns cannot be the subject of a verb that precludes thought or conscious doing. The inanimate pronoun is Mu.

Animate nouns include people, animals and living things or things that are perceived as having a spirit, such as the wind, celestial bodies, water, trees, or even certain rocks. The pronouns Ru, Zoa, and Tcu can stand in for an animate noun depending on its gender, masculine, feminine or neuter, respectively.

There are three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. The gender of inanimate nouns is determined solely by the letter the noun ends with.

-a and -ë are feminine
-o and -u are masculine-é and  consonants are neuter.  

Adjectives and pronouns agree with nouns in their gender. (along with number and case)

Animate nouns usually have a default gender assigned to them. Vlumnu Vitheriana, Valna, Alomë. For animate nouns that don’t really have biological sex, the default is almost always used but can be changed if one wishes to attribute a specific quality to something like a tree. Alomo might be “ The old man tree.”  For creatures that do have biological sex, the default is used when one does not know of it its sex and once it is learned the appropriate ending can be attached.

So since horses are matriarchic animals the default is feminine. 

Valna “horse/mare”
Valno/Valnu “Stallion” Valn, Valnid “Gelding”

The distinction between adding an -o or -u is arbitrary but -u does suggest a more personal/emotional connection to the being.

Verbs agree with animate nouns in gender but they do not agree with inanimate. Inanimate nouns take the masculine third person form of verbs.




Number.Alnëèn nouns can be inflected for eight numbers, the default unmarked singular,  the plural, the dual, the trial, the tertiary, the partive plural, permultive, paucal, and the collective-abstractive.

Plural formation. This number is used for more than one object, it can fulfill the duties of all the other numbers, in some dialects has replaced the other numbers, however when expressible, the other numbers are always used in the standard dialect.  It is the most irregularly formed of the numbers but it is generally formed by adding -i to the end.


Singular Plural
Valna (horse) Valnaë (horses)
Nelebu (tiny bird) Nelebi  (tiny birds)
Arno (king) Arnoë (kings)
Alomë (tree) Alomü (trees)Languel Langwelni (tongues)

 


Nouns ending in -n simply add -i

“wolf” Lopien-> Lopieni

Epenthesis sometimes occurs.

“sheep” Vathen-> Vathni

Nouns ending in -s sometimes drop the s and add -I

“man” Thontos-> Thontoi 


Dual

The dual is used for any entity of which there are two. Common uses are for body parts but anything that occurs in the singular has a dual form which is used if there is a pair of them. It is formed by adding -t- between the root and the final vowel or by ablaut.


Singular Dual
Valna Valnau
Arno Arnuo Arnue
Nelebu Nelebui
Alomë AlomituaLangwel Langwelta


Tertiary
-t- +pluralThe tertiary is simply the plural of the dual, it is used for two pairs of an entity or four. It began in poetry with the old dual form of Voi Balvita (two hands) being pluralized to Voiti Balvitae (our four hands, both our two hands) and quickly expanded into colloquial use.   


Singular Tertiary
Valna Valnitae
Arno Arnitoi
Nelebu Nelebiti
Alomë AlomitaeLangwel Langweltae


Trial
-thr-The trial is used for three of an object. -thr- This number is found in the very oldest forms of the language and have continued to prosper very likely due to the religious, superstitious and ceremonial significance of things that come in threes.


Singular Trial
Valna Valnithra
Arno Arnithro
Nelebu Nelebithru
Alomë AlomithraVulthnar Langwelthra


Partive plural.
-mp-
This number is used for a smaller group of a larger whole, ‘part of’ “some of” “some” “a group of” etc.
“Aivonli Nelebumpu” - Some of the birds flew away (but not all).
When a characteristic is only known for the partial group and not the group at large a different construction is sued, mainly the indefinite article ’o’ with a plural form as in “O nelebi aivonli” - At least some (of the) birds flew away but what they all did is uncertain.


Singular Partive plural
Valna Valnampa
Arno Arnompo
Nelebu Nelebumpu
Alomë AlomampaLangwel Lanwelmpa


Permultive.
-mp- +plural
This is the plural of the partive plural, it is used for a great number of an entity. “lots of” Tons” “many” “a bunch of”
“Scelostampae” A great many grasshoppers. This number is only used for a great number of smaller divisible entities and cannot be used for a high quantity of a single entity such as water. 


Singular Permultive
Valna Valnampae
Arno Arnompoi
Nelebu Nelebimpi
Alomë AlomampaeLangwel Lanwelmpae


Paucal
-ish-This is used for a few of or a small number of an entity. Translations can include “ a few” “not many” “scarcely any” “hardly any” “only a few” “a small number of”


Singular Paucal
Valna Valnisha
Arno Arnisho
Nelebu Nelebishu
Alomë AlomishëVulthnar Langwelsha


Collective-abstractive
This has two uses, it either is used for a great many of an entity that is too many to count, such as hair, or is applied to abstract ideas that have no number, such as love.
“Polima” - a hair “Polimae”- Hairs “Polimia” - Hair
“Lumnia” -love
“Roamia” -Bravery“Valnia” - Horses, Horse-kind, the realm of horses, the abstract essence of horses.


Singular Collective-abstractive
Valna Valnia
Arno Arniu
Nelebu Nelebiu
Alomë AlomëaVulthnar Langwelia




















Case. Nominative is the default unmarked case, used for the subject of verbs, the argument of copulas and simple reference. The vocative is formed by simply lengthening all the vowels and in some cases epenthesize vowels in-between the consonants.   Valna -> Vâlânâ

Accusative.
Used for the direct object of verbs.
Add -r after o- or a-And -th after everything else.

Nwelli moëu valnor - the boy sees the horse.Nwelli valno moëuth- The horse sees the boy.


Sing nom Sing acc. Plr. nom Plr. acc
Valna Valnar Valnae Valnaeth
Arno Arnor Arnoi Arnoith
Nelebu Nelebuth Nelebi Nelebith
Alomë Alomëth Alomü AlomüthVulthnar Langwelth Vulthnarni Langwelnith


Dative.
Used for the indirect object of a verb.
As -s after -a and -i-ès

Acli moëu palnar valnoès. - The boy gives an apple to the horse.

There is sometimes a special use of the dative vs. the accusative. If the direct object of a verb is particularly effected by the verb, if it is the patient, or changes state, then it will always be marked by the accusative case. But if the object is a theme of the verb, does not change state or is not effect by the verb, than sometimes this is marked by the dative.

Lumni moëu melfas- The boy loves the girl but she doesn’t know.Lumni moëu melfar - The boy loves the girl and she knows.


Sing nom Sing dat Plr nom Plr dat
Valna Valnas Valnae Valnaes
Arno Arnos Arnoi Arnois
Nelebu Nelebus Nelebi Nelebis
Alomë Alomës Alomü AlomüsVulthnar Langwelès Vulthnarni Langwelnis


Genitive.
The genitive denotes a close association between it and its compliment, including the possessive below. Generally the uses of the English word “Of” which cannot be used with the English ending of “-’s” Its meaning can denote origin, material, source, topic of or any other close association between it and its head. Certain verbs also take the genitive as part of their argument.
 
Possession
       Alienable Alienable possession is most often expressed through the possessive case, at times, the genitive may be used, but this is looked down upon. 

       InalienableInalienable possession, either through a strong association, ultimate ownership, etc. is expressed through the genitive.

Cnovum lescoa arnio - The knight’s crest of the king. Istiummi Moüio - The existence of the boy, the boy’s existence.


       RelationshipAny sort of relationship, particularly at the modifier level, can be expressed through the genitive.

O mÿmia mëanaëa - a smile of happinessO qpomica lumnaëa - A book of love

Composition
        Substance
           Calba alomëon - A wall of trees           Cwulfa Sëxëo - a soup of fish

   Elements
      o Awènu nelebion - a flock of birds       

Origin
     E Cloivu Arthianio - People of the world
 
Reference/ content      Ludia Vnoaëa - A story about the stars

Description       O moëu üvanaëa munaëa - A boy of good heart.        




Sing nom Sing gen Plr nom Plr gen
Valna Valnaya Valnae Valnion
Arno Arnio Arno Arnion
Nelebu Nelebio Nelebu Nelebion
Alomë Alomëo Alomë AlomionVulthnar Langwelio Vulthnarni Langwelion




Possessive
The possessive is similar in distribution to the so-called Saxon genitive of the English
“-’s”  It denotes the owner of something. As in “E Arnum thornthu” The King’s sword. Meaning the King owns it or possesses it. When the possessive-declined noun follows the head noun, it can have a looser more complimental meaning. “E Vlumnu Lumniam” -Love’s wind or the Wind of love. 

Sing nom Sing poss Plr nom Plr poss
Valna Valnam Valnae Valnaem
Arno Arnum Arnoi Arnoim
Nelebu Nelebum Nelebi Nelebim
Alomë Alomëm Alomü AlomümVulthnar Langwelm Vulthnarni Langwelnim


Possessed This case marks something that is possessed, it is not always obligatory however, it is used to clarify ambiguity, and also has some extra uses.

To make a distinction of something that is claimed or unclaimed.
O valna - A horse, which could either be claimed or unclaimed, nothing is known either way O valnala - A horse that is claimed, that is to say, mounted, or being ridden or used.

To clarify the relationship of ownership.

Qpomica Arnio - A book about the king (genitive)
Qpomica Arnum - The king’s book (possessive)
Qpomicala Arnum - A book of the king’s Voes o qpomicala arnum arthianio - I have a book about the world that is the king’s. 

The essence of the verb “to have” can be represented by this case.
Zum o vieltola - She has a boyfriend. (lit. ‘her own boyfriend)
Ocqpomicala vlomu - I want to have that bookThornthula vu- I have a sword.

To reinforce possession.
Zum valna - Her horse
Zum Valnala - Her own horseValnaya vonya - My own horse of mine

To clarify dual possession.
Ormëlavi rws - My hear is his, my heart which is his. (Heart-possessed-possessive enclitic 1st. Sg.  Third person dative.)


Sing nom Sing Poss’d Plr nom Plr Poss’d
Valna Valnil, Valnala Valnae Valnael
Arno Arnil Arnolo Arnoi Arnoil
Nelebu Nelebul Nelebulu Nelebi Nelebil
Alomë Alomëël Alomü AlomülVulthnar Langwelil Vulthnarni Langwelnil


AbbessiveThe abbessive is the opposite of the possessed form. It is used in the negative forms of the sentences above, and to clarify that something is unclaimed.

O valnowï nwellu - I see a horse which is wild or unclaimed by anyone.Rwm Ormëwï mnüm/shum - his heart isn’t anyone’s/ His hear is no one’s 



Sing nom Sing abbs Plr nom Plr abbs
Valna Valnowï Valnae Valnïoï
Arno Arnowï Arnoi Arnoioï
Nelebu Nelebuwï Nelebi Nelebiwï
Alomë Alomüwï Alomü AlomüwïVulthnar Langwelowï Vulthnarni Langwelnowï


Attributive.The attributive simple conveys a loose association. In pronouns the case is used for adjective forms such as mine, yours, his, etc. in English. It is also used in titles.

Alvnius mlumianya - Alvnius the blue moon


Sing nom Sing attr Plr nom Plr attr
Valna Valnanya Valnae Valnÿnya Vulnanyae
Arno Arnonya Arno Arnoinya Arnonyae
Nelebu Nelebunya Nelebu Nelebinya Nelebinyae
Alomë Alomënya Alomü Alomünya AlomünyaeVulthnar Langwelnya Vulthnarni Langwelnyae



BenefactiveThe benefactive is used to show that the entity is benefited by something, or that something good resulted. “for” or “for the sake of”. Certain verbs take this case as an argument but in any case where the entity is seen as benefiting from either another noun, a condition, or an action, the generative can be used.

Lumnu oco melfinuva - I love this fair girl. (and she likes it)

Acliumo arnuva- I will give it for the king. (either to the king or the giving of it benefit’s the king), to combine the two senses it is possible to make a construction such as Acliumo Arnuvas

The benefactive of purpose shows the intention or design of something.Qpomica  mëbluvia - Books for children         

Sing nom  Plr nom 
Valna Valnuva Valnae Valnuvae
Arno Arnuva Arnoi Arnuvae
Nelebu Nelebuva Nelebi Nelebuvae
Alomë Alomüva Alomü AlomüvaeVulthnar Langweluva Vulthnarni Lanweluvae




Malefactive
The malefactive is the same as the benefeactive except it is used to express that the entity is worse off and that a condition is bad for it.
Raushté melfuvnaë  - You hate the girlDrecuth Nwellupsi cnovuvnaë - The knight say the dragon, and suffered from it.

Sing nom  Plr nom 
Valna Valuvnae Valnaë Valnuvnÿna
Arno Aruvnae Arnoi Aruvnÿna
Nelebu Nelebuvnae Nelebi Nelebuvnÿna
Alomë Alomüvnae Alomü AlomüvnÿnaVulthnar Vulthnuvnae Vulthnarni Vulthnuvnÿna



Causal
Denotes the circumstances, situation or cause of something. Certain verbs also take this as an argument.
Nae olo valnax - he is not here because of the horse.Fystumni drecix - He is afraid because of the dragon

It also denotes natural cause. Something which is inanimate and has no will of its own performing an action will not take the nominative case but rather, the causal.

Carscax thontor fympsti - A rock crushed a man. 


Sing nom  Plr nom 
Valna Valnax Valnae Valnaëx
Arno Arnox Arnoi Arnoix
Nelebu Nelebux Nelebi Nelebix
Alomë Alomëx Alomü AlomüxVulthnar Vulthnax Vulthnarni Vulthnarnix


Instrumental
The instrumental case marks an entity as the means of something, a tool or purpose might be marked in this case.
Thorthnucma Fysti - He fought with a sword, by means of a sword, using a sword.
It also identifies the agent in passive verbs.Nwallthumni melfucma - He was seen by the girl.

Sing nom  Plr nom 
Valna Valnucma Valnae Valnucmae
Arno Arnucma Arnoi Arnucmae
Nelebu Nelebucma Nelebi Nelebucmae
Alomë Alomücma Alomü AlomücmaeVulthnar Vulthnucma Vulthnarni Vulthnucmae


Distributive
A rarely used case that denotes that denotes that something goes to every single entity.Similar to the word “per”

Cnovui Valnimba - Two knights to every horse.

Sing nom  Plr nom 
Valna Valnimba Valnae Valnibae
Arno Arnimbo Arnoi Arnimboi
Nelebu Nelebimbu Nelebi Nelebimbi
Alomë Alomimbë Alomü AlomimbüVulthnar Vulthnimba Vulthnarni Vulthnimbae


Translative
This case is used for when something is being transformed into another state or being. O cnovunco aispi - he’s become a knight. This case is used only for nouns.

Sing nom  Plr nom 
Valna Valnunca Valnae Valnuncae
Arno Arnunco Arnoi Arnuncoi
Nelebu Nelebuncu Nelebi Nelebunci
Alomë Alomuncë Alomü AlomuncüVulthnar Vulthnunca Vulthnarni Vulthnuncae


Comitive
The comitive is used to mean that the entity accompanies the head, “with” “in company of” “in the presence of” “along with” are all possible translations.Aevu voi Valnan vu - I walk with my horse

Sing nom  Plr nom 
Valna Valnan Valnae Valnÿn
Arno Arnon Arnoi Arnoin
Nelebu Nelebun Nelebi Nelebin
Alomë Alomën Alomü AlomünVulthnar Vulthnan Vulthnarni Vulthnÿn


Incomitive
The incomitive is the opposite of the comitive and is used to mean that it is absent. “without”Agiscu ë moëums - I want to eat without the boy

Sing nom  Plr nom 
Valna Valnams Valnae Valnÿms
Arno Arnoms Arnoi Arnoims
Nelebu Nelebums Nelebi Nelebims
Alomë Alomëms Alomü AlomümsVulthnar Vulthnams Vulthnarni Vulthnÿms


Comparative case. This is a special case used for comparative constructions with adjectives. It holds the meaning of “Than x”
-wèl-
Valnwela - Than a horse
Vÿxiwr valnwelo vu - I am stronger than a horse.
Or simply  Vïx vio, Valnwelo - My strength, beyond a horse. 


Locative cases. 
The locative cases are used to show the location, position, or movement of an object, each case combines two elements, directionality, which shows whether the motion is towards, away from, or still, and position, which shows where by an object the meaning is. The order of the elements is: NOUN ROOT-DIRECTIONALITY THEMATIC VOWEL-POSTION CONSONATE CLUSTER-GENDER/NUMBER

 Directionality:
Ablative
movement away from, an object, the thematic vowel -a- marks the ablative.
Essive
Movement is still, it means the action is ‘at’ the location. The vowel is -ë-
Lative
Movement towards the object. -ÿ-
PerlativeMovement happens via, or through an object.  The thematic vowel is -w-

Position:
Surface, touching the object.   -tr-
Interior, inside of the object     -st-
Proximity, near, or around the object.  -br-
Top/Superior, on top of an object     -dr-
Bottom/Sub, under or at the bottom of an object.  -pt-
Between/Intra, the action happens between an object  -ft-Lateral, on the side of an object. -str-

By combining these elements we can construct a complete locative case.Take the word Arca, “fort, castle”

Ablative From. Aevu arcatra -  “I walk from the castle.”
Essive At. Arcëtra vu -  “ I’m at the castle.” 
Allative To. Aevu arcÿtra-      “I walk to the castle”
Advial  Aevu arcwtra   “ I walk through the castle”
Ellative. Out of . Aevu arcasta “ I walk out of the castle”
Inessive.  Inside. Arcësta vu - “I’m in the castle.”
Illitive. Into. Aevu arcÿsta - “ I walk into the castle.”
Invial~ Aevu arcwsta “I walk through the inside of the castle”
Apudlative. Towards. Aevu arcabra  “ I walk towards the castle”
Apudessive. Around, nearby. Aevu arcëbra “I walk near the castle”
Apudallitive. Away from.Aevu arcÿbra “I walk away from the castle”
Apudvial~ Aevu arcwbra “I walk throughout the castle.”
Superlative onto. Aevu arcadra “I walk onto the castle”
Superessive. on top of.  Aevu arcëdra “I walk on the castle”
 Superallative off of.  Aevu arcÿdra “ I walk off of the castle”
Supervial~ Aevu arcwdra “I walk along the castle”
Sublative. Aevu arcapta To the bottom of. “I walk to the bottom of the castle’
Subessive beneath, under. Aevu arcëpta “I walk under the castle”
Suballitive from under. Aevu arcÿpta “ I walk from under the castle”
Subvial Aevu arcwpta “I walk along the bottom of the castle”
Interlative to between. Aevu arcafta “I walk to inbewteen the castle(s)”
Interessive inbewteen. Aevu arcëfta “I walk between the castle(s)”
Interallitive from between. Aevu arcÿfta “I walk from between the castle(s)
Intervial Aevu arcwfta “ I walk through the space between the castles..”
Ablateral to the side of. Aevu arcastra “I walk to the side of the castle”
Lateral on the side of. Aevu arcëstra “I walk on the side, by the castle”
 allateral. from the side of. Aevu arcÿstra “I walk from the side of the castle.”perlateral Aevu arcwstra “ I walk past the castle.”

Surface Arcatra Arcëtra Arcÿtra Arcwtra
Interior Arcasta Arcësta Arcÿsta Arcwsta
Proximity Arcabra Arcëbra Arcÿbra                    Arcwbra
top Arcadra Arcëdra Arcÿdra Arcwdra
bottom Arcapta Arcëpta Arcÿpta Arcwpta
between Arcafta Arcëfta Arcÿfta Arcwfta
lateral Arcastra Arcëstra Arcÿstra Arcwstra Motion away Location at Motion towards via


Temporal uses of locative.The locative cases can also be used temporally. In noun of events or processes such as a concert, the locative cases take on the temporal sense. Take the word for “war”: Varsta. Vystra. Farsta. Farska. Vlarsca.

Ablative: Vlarscatra.  Since, after, from the end of the war. 
Essive: Vlarscëtra During the entire war, from start to finish.
Allative: Vlarscÿtra Until the war, until the beginning of the war. Advial. Vlarscwtra. Before, though and after the war.

Ellative. Vlarscasta  from the beginning of the war. Since the start of the war.
Inessive. Vlarscësta  During the war, in the war.
Illitive. Vlarscÿsta  Until the end of the war. Up until the end of the war.Invial Vlarscwsta   on and off throughout the war.


Apudlative   Vlarscabra  Since about the time of the war
Apudessive Vlarscëbra sometimes during the war
Apudallative Vlarscÿbra until about the time of the war.Apudvial Vlarscwbra. Around the war sometime.

Superlative Vlarscadra    Since the height if the war, the climax of the war.
Superessive Vlarscëdra During the climax of the war.
Superallitive Vlarscÿdra Until the height of the war.Supervial Vlarscwdra past the height of the war.

Sublative Vlarscapta Since the low point of the war.
Subessive Vlarscëpta During the low point of the war
Suballative Vlarscÿpta Until the low point of the war
Subvial Vlarscwpta through the low point of the war
 
Interlative     Vlarscafta  since between the war(s)
Interessive      Vlarscëfta   between the war(s)
Intercalative Vlarscÿfta  until between the war(s)Intervial Vlarscwfta Through both wars.

Ablateral Vlarscastra since before and after the war
Lateral Vlarscëstra Past the war
Allateral Vlarscÿstra until the start of the war and after the end of itPerlateral. Vlarscwstra. Despite the war.



Derivation and word formation.      

  Size, scope, value and emotional attachment

Dimunitive -uph-Denotes the entity is smaller, cuter, more endearing.

Valno -> Valnuphu “Little horse” “cute little horse” “ colt”Valna -> Valnupha “filly”

Bonacious dimunitive -in-Denotes small size, goodness, and endearment.

Melfa -> Melfina “good girl” “good little girl”

Pejoritive -rush(-) Denotes a wickedness, badness and maliciousness.

 Moürshu “wicked boy”Coirursha “that damn dog”


Magnorific -ogm-Denotes a greatness in scope and size.

Valnogma “a magnificent warhorse”Qpomicogma “a huge tome”

-onstraDenotes an intensiveness and greatness but also a sense of dread.

Lylonstra “nightmare”Valdosta “fierce some” warhorse.


Micritive icci
Denotes smallness but is neutral in quality.
Valnicci “nag, pony”Qpomicicci - libretto

Honorific- iana -ianus

Vïthra - bright star                           Vëma - woman       Vïthëriana - The sun.                       Vëmiana - woman of great esteem


Singulative- ibi
Lumë - snow                   Lawé - rain
Lumëbi - snowflake        Laweibi - Raindrop
Qpulna - A swath of grass  Sanxa - sandQpulnibi - a blade of grass  Sanxibi -  grain of sand


Agentive endings
-ër -iér -ella?The agentive endings signify someone who does an action, the affixes are usually attached to verb stems but adjectives and nouns can also be modified.

Masculine
Lumnër - Lover , someone who loves
Lÿlër / Lÿliér - Dreamer-ër and -iér are dialectical variants but both can be used.

Feminine.
Lumnèlla - Lovess, some female who lovesLÿlèlla - dreamess

Munëër - someone who makes something good or well.

Valniér- someone who takes care of horses.

Passive agentive
-umnir -umnella?
The passive agentive marked someone who is the object of a passive construction. The English suffix “-ee” as in Employee is roughly analogous.
Lumnumnir - Lovee, He who is loved, beloved.Lumnumnèlla She who is loved. Beloved girl.

Lÿlumnir He who is dreamt of.Lÿlumnèlla She who is dreamt of.

Reflexive agentive
-umër -umyella?
This marks someone who is both the doer and object of an action, I.E. a reflexive one.
Lÿlumër - He who dreams of himself.Lÿlumyella She who dreams of herself.

Lumnumër He who loves himselfLumnumylla She who loves herself.


Reciprocal agentive
-uvdir -uvdella?This ending marks that the person is both the doer of an action to someone else and that that same action is returned by that other person.

Lumnuvdir He who loves and is in return loved.
Lumnuvdella She who loves and is loved.
 
Lÿluvdir  He who dreams and is dreamt ofLÿuvdella She who loves and is dreamt of

Eponymous agentive
-us -ius -ianaThese agentive endings are identical in meaning as those above however their usage differs. These endings hold more esteem and are used in situations not of casual reference but rather are used as personal names, titles, bynames, aliases, and ceremonial spell words.

Lumnius- He that doth love. Lumniana She that doth love.

Lÿlius He that doth dreamLÿliana She that doth dream

Passive agentive
-estu -endoa? -enta
Lÿlestu He that of himself some dreameth.  Lÿlendoa/ Lÿlenta She that is dreamt of, both dialectical variations.

Reflexive agentive
-emnüs -emnala
Lÿlemnüs He that doth of himself dream.Lumnemnüs He that doth herself love.

Lÿlemnala She that of herself doth dreamLumnemnala She that of herself doth love

Reciprocal agentive
-mëaëmnüs -ümufta?

Lÿlumëaëmnüs He that doth dream and is of himself dreamt by one/some Lumnumëaëmnüs He that loveth and is himself lov’d

Lÿlumifta  She that dreameth and is of herself dreamt  Lylumivda She that loveth and is herself lov’d

Affixes of semantic meaning

-oria land
This designates the location, country, or realm with a certain characteristic, by extension it can be used as a situation.
Gwelqporia - Land of the Gwelqp peoples
Valnoira - Land of Horses
Lyloria- Dreamscape
Lumioria- Snowscape
Lumoria - The moonlit night sky.Lumnoria - All matters related to love

 -ëèn  Something from that place
Valnorëèn - something from Valnoria, Valnorian in characteristic
Aldélnëèn - Language of Aldéa.
Alnëèn - Language of AlnëaAlnëènus - Person from Alnëa.

-ethica place for
Lawéthica - rain room, shower
Qpomicethica - bookstore
Agethica - cafeteriaMwndethica - sleeping chamber

-ëmica  ism, domain, realm
Valnëmica - equestrianism
Cnovëmica - knighthood
Arnëmica - kingdomValnëmicus - equistrianist

-Elp- a group or bunch of something
Valnelpa A horse herdBalvelpa A handful


-orl- the result or realization of something
Lylorla - the sum of something that is dreamt. A dream a vision.Tolcorla - building, something which has been built.

-ifima bearer of something
Palnifima - apple bearer, apple tree
Cwetifima ring bearerThornthifima- sword bearer, squire/page.

-ocla  the race or kind of something
Cloivocla - humanity
Thontocla - mankind
Valnocla - horse kind, equines. Alnëocla - Alneans

-anthus -anthia spawn or offspring
Fuclanthus - son of fuclus
Cysianthus - son of CysiusVelentanthia - daughter of Velento

Possessive encliticsThese particles can stand in for possessive pronouns, it shows by who something is owned by.

First person :-vi -vi -bi    Dual, abstractive, partitive, paucal, permultive.   -ti  -ëa -mpi -shi -mpaoi
Valnavi - My horse
Valnabi - Our horse (inclusive)Valnaviti - Our horse (exclusive)

-di -qpi -ci
Valnadi - Your horse (informal)
Valnaqpi - Thy horse (formal, honorific)
Valnaci- Your horse (plural)
-li -zi -tci
Valnali - His horse
Valnazi - Her horse
Valnacti - it’s horse
-wi -hi -phi -nwi pwi mnë thni shni
Valnawi - This person here’s horse
Valnahi - that person there’s horse
Valnaphi- That person yonder’s horse
Valnanwi- whose horse?
Valna pwi- The horse who X
Valnamnë- Nobody’s horse. (this is an alternative to the abbessive case)
Valnathni - Someone’s horse
Valnashni- Anyone’s horse
Valnathi - their horse
The numbers can also be applied, Valnazimpi - Some of the females’ horse.

The noun itself can also appear in any number .

Valnaethi - their horses.Valnampathniti - Some of the horses of two of the others.


Semantic prefixesThese prefixes alter the semantic meaning of the word, mainly by adding new elements. The prefixes function almost as separate words by adding new semantic information.

V Re-dra-? Ird-? Id-?

 VN Un- Arb? An- in-
Am
Amthontos - creature, humanoid creature
Ammanna - Unwater. Poisen water, evil water. 

N Non- nëc- Nëcvalna - Non-horse

N Good ü-Üvalna - Good horse

N Bad ar-Arvalna - Bad horse

Before mel- Elm- Elmnwulthium- Foresight

 Against- ac-Acvelo- running away from

N Opposite andï- dar- ard- Andïvalna - Antiequine

N V Dis- sread out  cel- elc-

Mis- irr-

Perfect  vel- Elv-Elvalamoë - Perfect tree


Half- Ledi- Eldi- ??Eldithontus- Half-man demi-man

All  olm-
Olmthontos- All men
Retro- eqpl-Elqpnwulthium- retrospection

Ex- Erc- Rec-Ercvelto- ex-friend

Arch- Cï-Cidesco - archpreist

Pseudo- hego- olg-olgnwellu - false eye

Honorific w- wl- wo-
Ouvalna- O Horse!Ouvitheriana - O sun!

Nobelific  Oa-Oavitheriana- O noble sun!

Humbleific  oe-Oevalna  - o humble horse

Want twa-?Twamanna - desired water

Need mën-Mënmanna- necessary water, needed water

fear Ëf-Ëfdrecu - Fiercesome dragon

 Love ém- Émcloivu- beloved person

Hate ag-Agcloivu - hated person

 Fierce car- arc-Arccnovu- The formidable knight

Beautiful ova-  üva- üv- ülv-Ülvmelfa- beautiful girl

For the purpose/sake of   bi- ib- om- oth-
Othvalna- For the purpose of my horseIbvalnuva- For the good of my horse

Accidetal al-Alcnovu- Accidental knight

Intentional oem-Oemishtia - intentional harm

Intensive as- is- ma- ym- Ïmnwaullu- stare intently


Interrogative prefixes
N
What  na-     navalna - which horse? What horse? What is the horse?
When në- nëvlarma - which war? When was the war? When is the war?
Why  nÿ- nÿvalna - why that horse?
Who nu- nuthonto -which man? Who is that man?
Where nei- neiarca which castle? Where is that castle?
How nau- naurelta -which method? How?
How much no- novlogni? How much blood?  How many néo-  néocloivu how many people?

V
How far  noa-How soon nio-



Affixes for noun formation from other parts of speech.
These affixes change other parts of speech into nouns.
Adjective type 2 to Noun. * for more info on type 1 and type 2 adjective forms, refer to the adjective section.
-Neos 
This denotes that the degree of the adjective is being formed into the noun. As in sun-> sunny -> sunniness
Neos? Neosa? Reccneosa Reccneoza Reccneos
Mëana- Joy
Mëanna - Joyous
Mëanelthia - Joyfulness - the state of being joyous, joyousness as a conditionMëanneosa - Joyfulness- the amount that something was joyous.


A -> N 
A literal transference of an adjective to a noun. Sad-> sorrowMuna, Muneos, Munelthia? 


Adv. -> N Althielthia Althielmia


V -> N See verb section.

Other -> N
-fi
Miau,- butMiu-fi - a “but”, the word ‘but’

Vaë- intensifierVaë-fi - a “vaë” , the word ‘vaë’

Definiteness

Definite article

This is the definite form of the article, for uses refer to use section.

Ë - The
Used before a noun
-mi   -TheUsed as a suffix to the noun

Ë valna - the horseË arthiana - The earth

Valnami - the horseArthianami - the earth

Indefinite article
The indefinite form of the adjective.O - An

O valna - A horseO arthiana - An earth

-ium/do

Valnium - A horse
Arthianium -an earth
Valnado- a horseArthianado- an earth

Position
There are no grammatical rules that dictate the use of one form over the other, rather the use is up to the speaker, usually chosen on phonological bases.Phonological preferences come in two forms

1.) Elision2.) Consonant harmony

The pronominal article form is preferred by default.

1. If the preceding word ends in a front vowel, é, í, ë, -aë, oi, oë, etc., then the suffixed form -mi is preferred. Occasionally, if the preceding word ends in an -a, then the suffix form will be used to avoid confusion with a plural or second person plural ending on the previous word.  For the indefinite article, the suffixes are rarely used, if an -o ends the previous word extra rounding usually separates the two vowels.

Nwellio O mÿda - a glance of the eye
But occasionallyNwellio mÿdium/ Nwellio mÿdado


2.
a. when the follow word starts with an A- or an O- or an U-
Valnumi Ulta -the friendly/easy horse
Valnami Althëna- the true horseValnomi Olm - all the stallions

b. When the noun is in the accusative case and the following word starts with a liquid, the suffix is used. Sometimes when the following word ends with another sonorant or even any consonant, the suffix is used. If the accusative noun is in the final position there is also a tendency to use the suffixed form.

Ë valnar recla → Valnamith Recla -the fiery horse



Order of casesThe article suffix comes last after all the cases except for the accusative -th and the dative -s and  the possessive -m

Valnumami- the good horseValnamis - to the horse

Sometimes a noun is marked with more than one case. This is extremely rare, but if the cases are divided into several categories, we find this order.

root 
Benefactive, malafactive
Distributed
The genitives, instrumental
Accusative, dative, locative, comitive, incomitive
Causal. 

Occurrence.
The use of the articles is to control topicalization.When a new subject is being introduced to the speech, the indefinite article is used. When the speaker has already marked the noun with the indefinite, the definite is used from that point forth.

O Nelcar nwallu, ë nelca “mniaou” ficma leptcivois. - I saw a cat, the cat greeted me with a “meow.”

The definite article is also used if the speaker assumes the listener is already familiar with the topic. Also if the speaker wishes to respond to something the listener has just said, he will use the definite article. After one or two markings of this though, usually no article is used. No article is used sometimes in general statements about general entities, but the suffix -ium also is found in this context.

The Syntax of nouns
CompoundsBlending

Pronouns


Pronouns















Personal pronouns
Pronouns are inflected for:Masculine/feminine/neuter, inclusive/exclusive, humblific/normal/honorific, number, case.

Grammatical sex:
Masculine: for animate entities that are ‘male’
Feminine: for animate entities that are ‘female’Neutral:  a rare form. This is used when the speaker either wants their gender to be omitted from the discourse, or when they don’t identify with either of the two sexes above. Castrati, priests of certain castes, people of the ‘two-spirit’ culture, who identify themselves as a third gender all may use this for themselves. Once the speaker has sued this form to refer to themselves then the 2nd person or 3rd person neutral pronouns can be safely used. If the sex of the subject is not known, this form is also used. In the 3rd person, animate nouns have tcu, so anyone who uses a neutral form for themselves, whose sex is not known, or for geldings or neutered animals, take this form. The inanimate 3rd person form is Mu, this is for any idea or entity that has no sex and is not alive. Mu by itself shows up rarely, mostly as a verbal object enclitic -mo and as an elision device before the 3rd person copula ‘I’ making ‘m’I.’

Inclusiveness: this is only found in the first person.
Inclusive: the speaker is including the listener into the group referred to. “we and you as well”Exclusive: The speaker does not include the listener into the group referred to. “We but not you”

Politeness:
Normal: Simple unmarked form
Humble: This is a sort of diminutive form of the pronoun, used to humble oneself in the company of superiors, also used when eliciting pity.
Honorific: This form is used to refer to those in special position in society. Becoming rarer and rarer as society becomes more egalitarian in spirit. The first person forms are almost never used.
Polite: This form is used when being polite to a stranger.Intimate: This form is used for friends and family.

A note on the polite and intimate forms, the qpu forms used to be an honorific, and used to show esteem for someone, in this way, it became common to refer to loved ones in this honorific sense, and in the same way it became common to use the intimate form with strangers to show friendliness. There now is really no most common form to use with close ones and strangers. If you feel esteem for the person, use qpu, if you feel friendliness or intimacy in an everyday frankness, then use Du.


                                                 singular                           Plural(incl.)              Plural(excl.)
                                             ♂       ♀       ø               ♂         ♀         ø           ♂        ♀       ø
1st person                             Vu      Vë    Vèn           Blu       Bloa    blèn      Vitu Vita Vitè   
1st person humble                Viphu Vipha viphè       Bliphu   Blipha            Viphti
1st honorific                         üvou üvoa  üvèl            üblou     übloa               üviti
2nd person polite                  qpu     qpoa  qpèc         Cu  Coa   Cèl                   
2nd person intimate              Du      Doa   dèc           Cu Coa  Cèl       
2nd person honorific            ündos ündoa                  ündoi ündaë3rd person                             Ru      Zoa   tcu/mu      Thu   Thoa   thèl

Other forms or ‘persons’ are:

4th person Proximate: Wu, Woa-  This person here    Wë, Waë plural
5th person Opposed: Hu, Hoa-  That person there        Hë Haë plural
6th person Distal: Phu, Phoa- that person way over there  Phë, phaë plural
7th person Interrogative: Nu?- Who?
8th person Referential: Pwi- that person who x
9th person Null: Mnü- Mnë- No one, nobody
10th person Indefinite: Thnu- Thnë- Someone
11th person  Shu- Shoa- Anyone12th person Total: Olmu- Olma- Everyone

Number:Only persons 1-6 can be marked for number. They’re plural forms are already listed, the other numbers follow the paradigm of Vu, Vë and Vèn.

Dual: Bliti, blita, blitè, note that the singular dual is the exclusive plural, the 1st person plural dual is the inclusive dual. The other persons take the singular pronoun form as their root.
Trial: Vithri, Vithra, Vithrè
Tertiary: Bliti, blitaë, blitni
Partitive: Vumpu, Vumpa, Vumpè
Permultative: Vumpi, Vumpaë, Vumpni
Paucal: Vushu, Vusha, VushèCollective/abstractive: Vëum, Vëa, Veul

Case follows the paradigm of Vu and Vë, the neutral forms only exist in the nominative.

Accusative: Vo, Va
Dative: Voes, Vÿss
Genitive: Vio, Vaëa
Possessive: Vum, Vëm
Attributive: Vonya, Vonya
Possessed: Vola, Vala
Abbessive: Voï, Voï
Benefactive: Vuva, vuva
Malefactive: Vuvnai
Causal: Vux Vëx
Instrumental: Vucma
Translative:  vuncu vunca
Distributive: Vimbu, Vimba
Comitive: Vun, Vën
Incomitive: Vums, vams
Ablative: Vatru, Vatra,
Essive:  Vëtra/u
Allative: Vÿtra/u     
Advial:  Vwtra/u  
Ellative: Vasta/u
Inessive.:  Vësta/u
Illitive:  Vÿsta/u 
Invial: Vwsta/u
Apudlative: Vabra/u 
Apudessive: Vëbra/u
Apudallitive: Vÿbra/u
Apudvial: Vwbra/u
Superlative: Vadra/u
Superessive: Vëdra/u
 Superallative:  Vÿdra/u
Supervial: Vwdra/u
Sublative: Vapta/u
Subessive: Vëpta/u
Suballitive: Vÿpta/u
Subvial: Vwpta/u
Interlative: Vafta/u
Interessive: Vëfta/u
Interallitive: Vcÿfta/u
Intervial: Vwfta/u
Ablateral: Vastra/u
Lateral: Vëstra/u
 Allateral: Vÿstra/u per lateral: Vwstra/u

Special forms:

Passive
Rarely used passive pronouns are used to denote that the subject is the recipient of a passive verb. The sense also denotes a sense of irreversibility or regret.
Vurlu Vurla
Vurlu nwelli,- I was seen by him Vurlu nwellumnu,- I was seen. Vurlu Nwalthmi. - I was seen. These forms are all found, but very rarely, normally the simple verb form is used.   

Reflexive

Vumnu - myself Vumna myself ♀

Reciprocal - marks reciprocal action.Vuftu, Vufta - each other, one another.

Agentive
Mark that one is the doer of an action.
Viu -by me - viaViu Newline - You are seen by me

IntensiveAdds emphasis that it is the referent being spoken of.

♂Vuëxi - I myself♀Vuaxi

Verbal pronouns.These pronouns function as verbs.

Ovu - I♂do
Ova- I♀do
Oqpe- You do
Oqpea- You ♀do
Oli- He does
Ozi-  She does
Obloi- We do
Ocaë- You all do
Othau- They do
Omni- No one doesEtc.

Auvu- I did
Auqpe- You did
Auli- He didEtc.

Ivisu- I will
Iqpise- you will
Ilisi- He willEtc.

Oivu- If I didEtc.

Austvu- I causedEtc.

Oviscu- I want to doEtc.


Demonstrative pronouns
 
 Singular Dual  Plural Partive Plural
This Oco/ Ocno Octo Ecne/ Icni Ompo
That Loco/Locno Locto Lecne/ Licni Lompo
Yon Doco/Docno Docto Decne/ Dicni Dompo
None Roco/Rocno Rocto Recne/ ricni Rompo
Some Voco/Vocno Vocto Vecne/ vicni Vompo
Any Thoco/Thocno Thocto Thecne/thicni Thompo
All Olmno Olndo ----- Olmpo
Which? Noco/Nocno? Nocto? Nicni? Nompo?
That which Poco/Pocno Pocto Pecne/picni PompoSimilar to this Moco/Mocno Mocto Mecne/Micni Mompo



Locative

 Location Direction to Direction from Via
Here Olo Odo Obo Orro
There Lolo Lodo Lobo Lorro
Yonder Dolo Doqpo Dobo Dorro
Nowhere Rolo Rodo Robo Rorro
Somewhere Volo Vodo Vobo Vorro
Anywhere Tholo Thodo Thobo Thorro
Everywhere Olmlo Oldo Olbo Olro
Where? Nolo? Nodo? Nobo? Norro?
That where Polo Podo Pobo PorroLike that place Molo Modo Mobo Morro


Unit

 Singular Dual Plural Partive Plural
This one Ono Onto Ini/ene Onpo
That one Lono Lonto Lini lene Lonpo
Yon one Dono Donto Dini dene Donpo
None/nothing Rono Ronto  Rini rene Ronpo
Something Vono Vonto Vini vene Vonpo
Anything Thono Tonto Tini Tene Tonpo
Everything Olmno Olnto  
Which one? Nono? Nonto? Nini? nene? Nonpo?
One which Pono Ponto Pini pene PonpoLike that one Mono Monto Mini mene Monpo


Vial

 Vial  Rational  Orthal
This way Omo This reason Otho This method Ozo
That way Lomo That reason Lotho That method Lozo
Yon way Domo Yon reason Dotho Yon method Dozo
Allways Olmo All reasons Oltho All methods Olzo
No way Romo No reason Rotho No method Rozo
Someway/ somehow Vomo Some reason Votho Some method Vozo
Anyway Thomo Any reason Thoqpo Any method Thozo
How? Nomo? Which reason? Notho? Which method? Nozo?
how Pomo for Potho That way PozoLike that way Momo Like for that Motho Like that way Mozo


Temporal

Oto At this time
Loto At that time
Doto At that time long ago, long from now
Roto Never/ at no time
Olto At all times/ Always
Voto Sometimes
Thoto Anytime
Noto? What time?
Poto That time whichMoto Like that time


Hodernal

Détha Today
üthia Tomorrow
Imithia Day after tomorrow
Elva Yesterday
Timral Day before yesterday
Rétha On no day
Olmétha Everyday
Véithia Someday
qpéthia Any day
Nétha? Which day?
Pwétha On the day thatMétha Like that day


Auxiliary demonstratives and quantifiers.


A certain           Püta
Another    Alco
Only     Lëthwa 
Whichever    üdothio 
One     Pia
The other    pwéthëa
Neither     Niqpela
Either     qpella
Both     Dopta
One or the other   Piathiati
Whether    Numa
Hence     
Any     thiun, thono, thia thios
All     Olm
Some     Duo, Tholme, Vwé
Every     Zëmo
Many     Occa, Aÿta
Few     Spitci, Michda
Most     Auclo
More     qpmau
None     Nolmé
Single     Itox, Isien
Alone     Lëmwë Vëmwë Mëvo
Only     Luthnë
Whole     Poltha Oltha Olcla
Half     OlpcoOnly     Visso


Numerals

Pia, Anda   One           Pï-
Nwemë      Two           Nwï-
Rupso        Three         Psï-
Otco           Four          Cti-
Poisca        Five          Pois-
Fëxa           Six           Fix-
Slesta         Seven       Stï-
Apta          Eight         Pti-
Nëvro        Nine          Vrni-
Thalnto      Ten           Tli-
Aufwi        Eleven     
Falwa        Twelve
 Psithalnto Thirteen           thnirupso
 Ctithalnto Fourteen thniotco
 Poisthalnto Fifteen             thniposca
 Fixthalnto Sixteen             thnifëx
 stïthalnto Seventeen         thnislesta
 Ptithalnto Eighteen         thniapta
 Vrnithalnto Nineteen           thninëvro
 Nwïithalnto  Twenty     ctithnipia
  Psïthnalto Thirty
 Ctithnalto Forty
 poisthnalto Fifty
 Fixthnalto Sixty
 Stïthnalto Seventy
 ptithnalto Eighty
 vrnithnalto Ninety
 Calto One hundred
 Nwïcalto Two hundred Nwïclapia two hundred and one
 Senco Thousand Scni
 Banlo Ten thousand
 Tarcto A hundred thousand
 Relimw a million 

  Once Andiel
  Twice nwemiel   Etc.


  First Andana
  Second  Nwemana
 Firstly Andaniel Secondly 

  Single Andumo
  Pair Nwemulo
  Trio rupsumo
  
  Prefixes
    One half



Adjectives















PositionAdjectives usually found on either side of the noun they modify, however in a noun phrase, the article comes first, as in English.

Ë  cwëpla valno  - the swift horse
                   OrË valno cwëplo - The swift horse, the horse that is swift.

The adjective’s position is determined on its function, either It is a complement to a noun or a modifier.

Compliments come before the noun and do not agree in number, case or gender. The gender ending on the adjective is usually he default, usually the feminine, in some dialects the agreement for gender is polar, meaning that the adjective will end in the gender ending opposite of the noun. A compliment adjective is simply adding information about the noun, imbuing it with a certain quality.

Modifier acting adjective follow the noun and do agree for number, case and gender. This use is for highlighting the quality or making the modified noun distinctive from other nouns of its type.

In English the ‘Spanish teacher’ has two meanings, either a teacher who teaches Spanish, which Spanish would be acting as a compliment, or a teacher who is Spanish, which would be acting as a modifier.

In Italian ‘Il Alighieri inferno’ Is Dante’s inferno, with Aligieri acting as compliment.But “Il inferno Alighieri” suggest that Dante had rivals who made their own Infernos.

Ë mëvana melfae - the beautiful girlsË melfae mëvanae - The girls who were beautiful as opposed to otherwise.

Ë lafla moëu melfaemith mëvanaeth qpusci - The kind boy likes the girls who are beautiful.

 As a matter of style however, when there are multiple adjectives, it is considered best to place them equally before and after the noun, and agreement is not necessary unless the modifier sense is needed.

  A big red old book. - O reccna qpomica osta aucma


Main adjective form
Default pronominal position
Adjectives are formed in several ways.  1 Core Adjective:  Words whose root form is adjective.

Calca- Black
Muna- GoodLuclu- Cool

 2 Participles: Words derived from verbs and derivate into adjective form.  See verb section

3 Literal nominal adjectives. Adjectives formed from nouns.4 Abstract nominal adjectives: Also formed from nouns

3: These forms literally transfer the noun into an adjective form. -na
Sun- solar                   Vïthëriana (root form Vïthëra) - Vïthërna
Sleep- somnial            Mwndëa  - Mwndona
History- Historic         Tarvëa - Tarvnëa  Red the color- Red       Recca    -  Reccna

4: these forms suggest a characteristic from the noun is present but not the literal sense of the noun/
Sun- Sunny, bright, cheerful Vïthëriana- Vïthërèltha
Sleep - Sleepy Mwndëa - Mwndèlèth
History - Historical Tarvëa - TarvelethRed - Mostly red - Rèccèth

 -na vs. -eth -eleth -esca -eltha

Adjectives can be inflected for comparative, superlative, equalitive, intensive, sufficial Surplus, hemial, interrogative, demonstrative proximate and distal, and degree. While most of them have a negated form as well.

Negative form
Lÿlona- oneiric
Lÿlinass / Lÿlass - not oneiric
For adjectives ending in the -n- form, or a root ending in n -ilass is added. Muna - munilass- not good

Armo- warm   Armlass - not warm
Üthna - right, just   üthnilass - unjustMandelstam - sleepy   Mwndelthlass - not sleepy

For nouns ending in -l or another coronate, the nass form is used.
Reccnass- Not redLÿlinass - not oneiric


ComparativeThis form is used to show that something is more so of a quality than something else, or that it is comparatively more so in general.

Lÿlona- oneiric, dreamlikeLÿliwr - more oneiric

Mëanna  happyMëanniwr- happier

Armiwr Warmer
Üthniwr more justMwndelthwr sleepier

Negative comparative
The negative form of the comparative, meaning less of a quality.-imor / inor

Lÿlimor - Less oneiric
Reccimor - less happy
Mëannimor- less happy,
Armnor - less warm
üthnilor - less justMwndethnor - less sleepy

Superlative
This form is most of a quality, also denotes an extreme level of the quality.
-ixim-
Lÿlixima - most oneiricMutëmo - cute   Mtëmiximo - cutest

Armiximo - warmest
Üthnixima - Most justMwndethiximo - sleepiest


Negative superlative
The negetive form of the superlative, the least of a quality.
-enon
Lÿlenon - Least oneiricReecenon - least red, not red at all

Armenon - least warm
üthnengon - least justMwndelthenon - least sleepy


Equalitive
This form shows that its quality is equal to that of another entity.
-aqpos
Lÿlaqpos - As oneiric
Mëanaqpos- as happy Reccaqpos- just as red

Üthnaqpos - as just
Amraqpos - as warmMwndethlaqpos - as sleepy


Negative equalitiveThe opposite of the form above

Lÿlinoss - not as oneric
Mëannoss - not as happy
Reccnoss - not as red
Armnoss - not as warm
Üthnnoss - not as just
Mwndelthnoss - not as sleepy 


Too much
Lÿlëba - too oneiric
Mëanëba - too happy
Reccëba - too red
Üthnëba - too just
Armëba - too warmMwndelthëba - too sleepy

Not enough
Lÿlamba - Not oneiric enough
Mëanamba -not happy enough
Reccamba -not red enough
Üthnamba -not just enough
Armamba -not warm enoughMwndelthamba - not sleepy enough

Enough
Ülÿloma - oneiric enough
Üreccuma - Red enough
Ümëanuma - happy enough
Ülarmoma - warm enough
Ülüthnoma - just enoughÜmwndelthoma - sleepy enough

Not too much
Amlÿlëba - Not too oneiric
Amreccëba - Not too red
Ammëanëba - not too happy
Amarmëba - not too warm
Amüthnëba - Not too justAmmwndelthëba- Not too sleepy

Proximate
Oc-
Oclÿlona - This oneric
Ocmëanna - This happy
Ocreccna- this red
Ocarmo - This warm
Ocüthno - this justOcmwndeltha - this sleepy

Distal
Ol-
Ollÿlona - That oneiric
Olmëanna - That happy
Olreccna - that red
Olarmo - that warm
Olüthno - That justOlmwndeltha- that sleepy

Interrogative
Nau-
Naulÿlona? - How oneiric?
Naumëanno - how happy?
Naureccna- How red?
Nauarmo- How warm?
Nauiuthno - How just?Naumwndeltha - How sleepy?

Modal
-ol-
Lÿlollo - So oneiric
Mëanolla - So happy
Reccolla - So red
Armolla- So warm
Üthnollo - so justMwndeltholla - So sleepy

whole
Olmlÿlona - Pure dream
Olmmëanna - completely happy
Olmreccna - Pure red
Olmarmo - completely warm
Olmüthno- All justOlmmwndeltha - Completely exhausted

Hemical

Alplÿlonu - Half oneiric
Alpreccno -half red
Alpmëano- half happy
Alparmo - lukewarm
Alpüthno - half justAlpmwndeltha- Half sleepy

Derivation and word formation

Semantic affixes

Ability
-ëènt
Lÿlëènt - Dreamable
Nwellëènt - visible
Reccëent - able to be red
Armëènt - able to be warmed
Mëannëènt - Able to be made happy
Üthnëènt - Able to be made just, justifiableMwndelthëent - Able to become sleepy

Proneness,  -tive
-ioc
Lÿlioc - Dream prone
Armioc - Prone to be warm
Reccioc - often red
Mëanioc- Often happy, jovial, apt to happiness
Üthnioc- prone to being justMwndelthioc - Apt to be sleepy

Fullness
-azma
Lÿlazma - dreamful
Reccazma - Full of red, completely red
Üthnazma- Full of justice
Armazma - really warm
 
LessnessLÿlasnae - dreamless


Locative-ese

Something from somewhere
-Ëèna
Arthëèno - TerranAlnëèno - Alean



That which must be V’d
Lÿlévëss - Must be dreamedLÿlëfsi -Should be dreamed


-like simulative

Lÿlisca - dreamlike
Valnisca - horseish
Valnelcta- Horsyish
Valneth - horsy
Lÿleth - dreamyLÿlelcta

V -> A see verb section
N-> A See first section
Adv. -> A -n-?Misc. -> A Mau-fi-na

Perceptory

Althënisnu- It seems true. Armisno- It seems warm.


Tense

Adjectives can also be marked for verbal attributes such as tense, aspect, and mood, but not voice, or person however. To understand these terms, please see the verb section.

Past’ -altht-

Althëna- trueAlthënalthta- It was true.

Future
-issi
Althëna- trueAlthënissi- It will be true (no gender marking)

Perfect
-ucn-Althënucno - It has been true

Future perfect
-icn-Althënicno - It will have been true.

Pulperfect
-acn-Althënacno - it had been true

Similarly take the adjective stem and then attach the mood or aspect infixes, attaching -n- where possible and then add the gender endings. 

Athën-ulf-n-o -> Althënulfno- It has to be true

Substantive adjectives
Adjectives can behave like nouns in the same way as in English when one speaks of “the poor” or “The brave and the bold”. -s or -nos -nossa♀


Althënos- The true one. Reccnos- The red one.

Another way is:

Althënius ♂  - he who is true
Althënua♀ - she who is trueAlthënien -ø - that which is true



Adverbs















Adverbs modify verbs or adjectives. There are adverbs of time, manner, and degree. Adverbs of degree and time are treated in the next section, they do not inflect and function similarly to prepositions and other particles of speech. Those that inflect, adverbs of manner, are treated here.

Adverbs of manner are taken from nouns, adjectives or verbs. -ëèl sometimes spellt -ièl or -iel Is the simple affix you attach.

Valniel - horsily, like a horse, as a horse would, equinely.
Lÿliel - dreamily
Recciel - redly
Cwëpiel - swiftlyNwelliel- seeingly

The -iel affix almost acts as a particle, it can be added to other parts of speech which are already inflected.

Valnariel- A horse having been the patient of an action.Nwallthiscuruliel- Having wanted to see him, I

For these complicated forms the particle ’fi’ also performs the same function.
 Cwëpiel arcëstami aevenu fi valnatroli ro nwelleu thëntu. - Having quickly walked into the castle, I though I might have seen him on his horse.

For other uses of Fi see section

Comparison: All the forms of comparison and degree available to adjectives are also available for adverbs.

Aevu cwëpielwr - I walk more quickly.Etc.


Verbs















Verbs are inflected for Person, sex, number, negation, voice, tense, aspect and mood.The bare verb form, the infinitive, ends in -o

Lÿlo- to dream
Mwndo- to sleep
Aevo- to walkNwello- to see



There are two sexes, Masculine and feminine. There are three main persons, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. In groups of mixed sexes, masculine governs.


 Sn.  Pl. 
1st Lÿlu ♂I dream Lÿloi We dream
2nd Lÿlé ♂You dream Lÿlaë You all dream3rd Lÿli ♂He dreams Lÿlau They dream


 Sn.  Pl. 
1st Lÿla ♀I dream Lÿloiá We♀ dream
2nd Lÿleá ♀You dream Lÿlaëá ♀ Y’all dream3rd Lÿliá ♀She dreams Lÿlaua They♀ dream


The extra person can be expressed through prefixes.:

Oclÿli - This man dreams / this thing dreams     Oclÿlau - These dream. Oclÿliá - This women dreams

Ollÿli - That man dreams / That thing dreams
Ophlÿli -  Yon man dreams / yon thing dreams
Nulÿli? - Who dreams?
Othlÿli - Someone dreams
Oslÿli - Anyone dreams
Olmlÿlau - Everyone dreamsOlmlÿlanau - Nobody dreams

Negation:

 Sn.  Pl. 
1st Lÿlanaü ♂I don’t dream Lÿlanoi We don’t dream
2nd Lÿlanïé/Lÿlané ♂You don’t dream Lÿlanÿs None of you  dream3rd Lÿlanai ♂He doesn’t dream Lÿlanau They don’t dream


 Sn.  Pl. 
1st Lÿlanaya ♀I don’t dream Lÿlanoiá ♀We don’t dream
2nd Lÿlaneá ♀You don’t dream Lÿlanÿza ♀ None of you dream3rd Lÿlanaia ♀She doesn’t dreams Lÿlanaua ♀They don’t dream

The difference between The first and third person negated forms is in the syllable of stress. The first person is Lÿlánaya whereas the third person is Lÿlanaiá.

Number. Singular and plural are the most common sued, but also the same number that effect nouns, dual, trial, tertiary, paucal, permultive, partive, and abstractive also occur.


 Dual inclusive Dual exclusive Tertiary incls. Tertiary excs.
1st ♂Lÿlui
♀Lÿlaui ♂Lÿlitu
♀Lÿlitwa ♂Lÿlitoi
♀Lÿlitoia ♂

2nd ♂Lÿlité
♀Lÿliteá - ♂Lÿlitae
♀Lÿlitaea -
3rd ♂Lÿliti
♀Lÿlitiá - ♂Lÿlitau♀Lÿlitaua -


 Negative Dual inclusive Negative Dual exclusive Tertiary incls. Tertiary excs.
1st ♂Lÿlanui
♀Lÿlanaui ♂Lÿlanitu
♀Lÿlanitwa ♂Lÿlantoi
♀Lÿlanitoia ♂

2nd ♂Lÿlanité
♀Lÿlaniteá - ♂Lÿlanitae
♀Lÿlantiaea -
3rd ♂Lÿlaniti
♀Lÿlanitiá - ♂Lÿlanitau♀Lÿlanitaua -


 Trial inclusive Trial exclusive Paucal inclsv. Paucal excls
1st ♂Lÿlithru
♀Lÿlithra ♂Lÿlithroi
♀Lÿlithroia ♂Lÿlishu
♀Lÿlisha ♂Lÿlishoi
♀Lÿlishoia
2nd ♂Lÿlithré
♀Lÿlithrea - ♂Lÿlishé
♀Lÿlishéa -
3rd ♂Lÿlithri
♀Lÿlithria - ♂Lÿlishi♀Lÿlishia -

 Trial inclusive Trial exclusive Paucal inclsv. Paucal excls
1st ♂Lÿlanithru
♀Lÿlanithra ♂Lÿlanithroi
♀Lÿlanithroia ♂Lÿlanishu
♀Lÿlanisha ♂Lÿlanishoi
♀Lÿlanishoia
2nd ♂Lÿlanithré
♀Lÿlithrea - ♂Lÿlanishé
♀Lÿlanishéa -
3rd ♂Lÿlanithri
♀Lÿlanithria - ♂Lÿlanishi♀Lÿlanishia -


 Partive inclusive Partive exclusive Permultive inclusive Permultive exclusive
1st ♂Lÿlumpu
♀Lÿlumpa ♂Lÿlumpoi
♀Lÿlumpoia ♂Lÿlÿmpu
♀Lÿlÿmpa ♂Lÿlÿmpoi
♀Lÿlÿmpoia
2nd ♂Lÿlumpé
♀Lÿlumpéa - ♂Lÿlumpae
♀Lÿlumpaëa -
3rd ♂Lÿlumpi
♀Lÿlumpia - ♂Lÿlumpi♀Lÿlumpia -


 Partive inclusive Partive exclusive Permultive inclusive Permultive exclusive
1st ♂Lÿlanïmpu
♀Lÿlanïmpa ♂Lÿlanïmpoi
♀Lÿlanïmpoia ♂Lÿlanÿmpu
♀Lÿlanÿmpa ♂Lÿlanÿmpoi
♀Lÿlanÿmpoia
2nd ♂Lÿlanïmpé
♀Lÿlanïmpéa - ♂Lÿlanïmpae
♀Lÿlanïmpaëa -
3rd ♂Lÿlanïmpi
♀Lÿlanïmpia - ♂Lÿlanïmpi♀Lÿlanïmpia -


 Abstractive inclusive Abstractive exclusive
1st ♂Lÿlanuimiu
♀Lÿlanuimia ♂Lÿlanuimoia
♀Lÿlanuimoëá
2nd ♂Lÿlanuimié
♀Lÿlanuimiá -
3rd ♂Lÿlanuimisi♀Lÿlanuimisia -


Voice. There are three voices: Active, passive, reflexive and reciprocal.

Active: the doer does something to someone else, or the verb is intransitive.
Passive: the action is being done to the doer. I see vs. I am seen
Reflexive. The doer and the recipient of action are the same. I see myself. I wash myself, etc. Reciprocal. Two doers both do the same thing to each other. I see and am Seen.


 Passive singular Passive plural
1st ♂Lÿlumnu
♀Lÿlumna ♂Lÿlumnoi
♀Lÿlumnoia
2nd ♂Lÿlumné
♀Lÿlumneá ♂Lÿlumnaë
♀Lÿlumnnaea
3rd ♂Lÿlumni
♀Lÿlumniá -♂ Lÿlumnau♀ Lÿlumnaua


 Negative Passive singular Negative Passive plural
1st ♂Lÿluznu
♀Lÿluzna ♂Lÿluznoi
♀Lÿluznoia
2nd ♂Lÿluzné
♀Lÿluznneá ♂Lÿluznaë
♀Lÿluznaea
3rd ♂Lÿluzni
♀Lÿluzniá -♂ Lÿluznau♀ Lÿluznaua


  Reflexive singular Reflexive plural
1st ♂Lÿlumyu
♀Lÿlumya ♂Lÿlumyoi
♀Lÿlumyoia
2nd ♂Lÿlumwé
♀Lÿlumweá ♂Lÿlumwaë
♀Lÿlumnwaea
3rd ♂Lÿlumi Lÿlumwi
♀Lÿlumiá Lÿlumwiá -♂ Lÿlumyau♀ Lÿlumyaua


 Negative Reflexive singular Negative Reflexive plural
1st ♂Lÿlugnu
♀Lÿlugna ♂Lÿlugnoi
♀Lÿlugnoia
2nd ♂Lÿlugné
♀Lÿlugneá ♂Lÿlugnaë
♀Lÿlugnaea
3rd ♂Lÿlugni Lÿlugni
♀Lÿlugniá Lÿlugniá -♂ Lÿlugnau♀ Lÿlugnaua


  Reciprocal singular Reciprocal plural
1st ♂Lÿluftu
♀Lÿlufta ♂Lÿluftoi
♀Lÿluftoia
2nd ♂Lÿlufté
♀Lÿlufteá ♂Lÿluftaë
♀Lÿluftaea
3rd ♂Lÿlufti
♀Lÿluftiá  -♂ Lÿluftau♀ Lÿluftaua


 Negative Reciprocal singular Negative Reciprocal plural
1st ♂Lÿluvnu
♀Lÿluvna ♂Lÿluvnoi
♀Lÿluvnoia
2nd ♂Lÿluvné
♀Lÿluvneá ♂Lÿluvnaë
♀Lÿluvnaea
3rd ♂Lÿluvni
♀Lÿluvniá  -♂ Lÿluvnau♀ Lÿluvnaua


Tense:

Future:This tense is obviously used for actions that will take place in the future. It is usually marked with -is- after the root.


 Future singular Future Plural
1st +♂Lÿliu       -  ♂Lÿlaniu
+♀Lÿlisa      - ♀Lÿlanisa ♂Lÿlioi   -  ♂Lÿlanioi
♀Lÿlioia    - ♀Lÿlanioia
2nd +♂Lÿlié          -♂Lÿlanié
+♀Lÿlisea     - ♀ Lÿlanisea ♂Lÿlisae     -♂Lÿlanisae
♀Lÿlisaea     -♀Lÿlanisaea
3rd +♂Lÿlisi        -♂Lÿlanisi
+♀Lÿlisia      -♀Lÿlanisia ♂Lÿliau       -♂Lÿlaniau♀Lÿlisaua     - ♀Lÿlanisau



 Future singular passive Future Plural passive
1st +♂Lÿlimnu      -♂Lÿliiznu
+♀Lÿlimna      - ♀Lÿlizna ♂Lÿlimnoi   -  ♂Lÿlznoi
♀Lÿlimnoia    - ♀Lÿliznoia
2nd +♂Lÿlimné         -♂Lÿlizné
+♀Lÿlimnea    -♀Lÿlznea ♂Lÿlimnae     -♂Lÿliznÿ
♀Lÿlimnaea     -♀Lÿliznÿza
3rd +♂Lÿlimni        -♂Lÿlizni
+♀Lÿlimnia     -♀Lÿliznia ♂Lÿlimnau       -♂Lÿliznau♀Lÿlimnaua     - ♀Lÿliznaua


 Future singular reflexive Future Plural reflexive
1st +♂Lÿlimyu       -  ♂Lÿlignu
+♀Lÿlimya      - ♀Lÿligna ♂Lÿlimioi   -  ♂Lÿlignoi
♀Lÿlimoia    - ♀Lÿlignoia
2nd +♂Lÿlimwé          -♂Lÿligne
+♀Lÿlimwea     - ♀ Lÿlignea ♂Lÿlimwae     -♂Lÿlignae
♀Lÿlimwaea     -♀Lÿlignaea
3rd +♂Lÿlimwi        -♂Lÿligni
+♀Lÿlimwia      -♀Lÿlignia ♂Lÿlimiau       -♂Lÿlignau♀Lÿlimiaua     - ♀Lÿlignaua


 Future singular reciprocal Future Plural reciprocal
1st +♂Lÿliftu       -  ♂Lÿlivnu
+♀Lÿlifta      - ♀Lÿlivna ♂Lÿliftoi   -  ♂Lÿlivnoi
♀Lÿliftoia    - ♀Lÿlivnoia
2nd +♂Lÿlifté          -♂Lÿlivné
+♀Lÿliftea     -♀ Lÿlivnea ♂Lÿliftae     -♂Lÿlivnae
♀Lÿliftaea    -♀Lÿlivnaea
3rd +♂Lÿliftisi        -♂Lÿlivni
+♀Lÿliftia      -♀Lÿlivnia ♂Lÿliftau       -♂Lÿlivnau♀Lÿliftaua     -♀Lÿlivnaua


Additional numbers:Taking the ROOT+tense+voice construction you can then add the auxiliary numbers and person endings, for example

Lÿl-I-mn-ui Root-future-passive-masculine dual

Once again the number endings are:
 Dual inclusive:-ui, -aui  Dual/tertiary exclusive: -it-
-Trial: -ithr- Paucal: -ish- Partive: -mp- permultive: -ïmp- Abstractive: -im-     

Past tenseThe past tense is used for actions that obviously took place in the past. This is formed in a somewhat complex manner of ablaut where the verb root vowel systematically shifts to denote the past tense. However a simpler mode is also used. This is the infix of -ath- which behaves exactly as in the future -is-. So that Lÿlisi - “He will dream” and Lilith “he Dreamt.” correspond. Also in the same way the theme tense vowel can be shifted with complex voices. Lÿlumnu - I am dreamt of Lÿlimnu I will be dreamt of  Lÿlamnu _ I was dreamt of. Verbs with bisyllabic or trisyllabic roots  use this regular form of past tense formation.

If the verb root has one syllable of a CVC- structure than it follows this paradigm:


Present                                  Past
-a-  changes to ->  -au-
-è-     -ë-
-é-     -ÿ-
-ë-     -u-
-o-     -oi- 
-I-     -è-
-u-     -a-
-w-     -oi-
-ÿ-     -o-     
-au-     -w--oi-     -é-

So for examples
Gloss  present  Past
To dream         Lÿlo  Loltho
To love Lumno  Lamno
To smile Mëmo  Mumtho
to sleep Mwndo Moindo
To make Morno  Mwrntho
To lie  Thromo Thrémtho
To burn Moiro  Mwrtho/Mérthp
To fall  Dwemdo Dwëmdo
To wash Mléro  Mlÿro
To sail  Dalio  Daulio
To tie  Tivo  TèvqpoTo scream   Svauso  Svÿstho


Immediate past tense
This tense is used for when an action occurred immediately before speaking.
üs-
üslollthu - I just dreamt Üslÿlathu

Hodiernal
The action occurred today:
Octh-
OcthlolthuOcthlÿlathu- I dreamt today


Hestiernal
The action occurred yesterday
Olg-
Olglolthu- I dreamt last nightOlglÿlathu

Cotiernal
The action will occur tomorrow
Üth-Üthliliu - I will dream tomorrow


Remote past
The action took place in the remote past, long ago
Arm-
Armlolthu - Long ago I dreamtArmlÿlathu -

Remote future
Long from now the action will occur
Arm-Armlÿliu - Long from now, I will dream

Future-in-the-past
This is for actions that were going to take place in the past.
Im-
Imlolthu- At that time, I was going to dreamImlÿlathu

Future-in-the-future
This is for action that will still take place in the future
Im-Imlÿliu - By then I’ll be going to dream

For negation simply attach -(a)--nai- to the end of the root.
Lollth-nai-u= Lollthnaü - I did not dreamMoindanai- He did not sleep

Similarly, simply add the voice stems to the past root.
Lollthamnu - I was dreamt ofAlthough Lÿlamnu works just as well.

Aspect
Perfect
Generic/aorist
For general actions that take place from time to time and no particular reference point.
-niLÿluni - I dream, I dream occasionally, sometimes I dream, I am known to dream.


Progressive
Meaning the action is continuous, ongoing, is in the process of happening.
-èn-Lÿlènu- I’m dreaming

Prospective
Denotes that the action is about to take place. That it will do so soon.
-evz-
Lÿlèvzu - I’m about to dream
Lÿlevnu
Inceptive
Denotes the action has just started.
-erd-
Lÿlerdu - I’ve begun to dreamLÿlernu

Terminative
Denotes the action is finishing.
-gd-
Lÿlugdu- I’m finishing dreaming, I’m just coming out of a dreamLollthugdu - I’ve finished dreaming


Conative
Denotes that the agent is putting effort into attempting to perform the action.
Lÿluntu-  I’m trying to dream. Lÿluspu


Imperfect
Is used for when the action was taking place in the past but was not necessarily completed at the time when something else happened.
Lÿlomecu - I was dreaming whenLÿlomcu- I was in a dream

Habitual
Is used for when the action takes place habitually, often or out of habit.
Phoë- Phoëlÿlu- I often dream

Cessative
Denotes that the action will stop.Lÿludnu- I’m quitting dreaming.


Defective
This denotes that the action did not take place but that it was very close to doing so.Lÿlacnu- I almost dreamt.

Pausative
Denotes the action will stop and then resume again.Lÿludwu- I’m taking a break from dreaming.

Resumptive
Denotes that the action is resuming again from an inactive state.Umlÿlunru- I’m starting to dream again


Delminitive
Denotes that the action will take place for an extended time.Lÿluphmu - I dream for a while

Protractive
Denotes the action will continue past expectations.Oëlÿlenu- I dream on and on

Iteritive
Denotes the action will complete itself many separate times in succession. Oëlÿluntu - I dream again and again.

Frequentive
Used for when the action takes place many many times all in succession.
ë Rocma lacski - The fire sparked.ë Rocma oëlacskini - The fire sparkled.

Experiential
Denotes that the action is very practiced and familiar to the agent.
Oëlÿlauxu- I certainly know what it is to dream.
Accidental
Denotes the action accidentally took place.Lÿlauchu- I accidentally dream

Intentional
Emphasizes that the agent did in fact intend to perform the action. Lÿloblu- I mean to dream.

Insurpessive
 Denotes that the action could not be avoided fully, or that there is an irreversibility to the action and that it lies outside of the agents control. Lÿluphlu - I can’t help but dream

Intensive.
Denotes and emphasizes an intensity to the actions.
Lÿlauxu - Lÿlaullu- I dream!

For additional inflexion the order of classes goes as follows:

ROOT + aspect+ tense vowel+ voice+/- neg+person. 

So, Lÿlaullamnnaü - I certainly was not dreamt of very much!

MoodMoods add certain connotations to the semantic value of the verb.

Subjunctive
The subjunctive mood denotes that the certainty, validity, veracity, is not certain or is questionable.
-er- infix.In the first person masculine it is marked as:

Lÿleu- I might dreamLÿlera- I ♀might dream

Verbs of belief that take another action as their argument usually trigger the subjunctive.

Thenu me lÿleri - I think he dreams. I think he might dream.

Any verbs of belief, or hearsay will trigger this.

Potential
Denotes that the agent has the ability to perform the action.
-op-Lÿlopu- I can dream

Conditional
This is used when on verb is held to be conditional, such as if the action takes place, than something else will arise.-oips-

Lÿloipsu- If I dream.

Lawénoipsi velisinu- If it rains, I will not go.

Causal
Denotes that the action is the cause for something else.-ux-

Lÿluxu- Because I dream.


Cohortive
Suggests a suggestion that an action could take place.-oz-

Lylozu- Let’s dream!

Mo nwellozé- Why don’t go you see it?


Volitive
Denotes that the action is desired.-isc-

Lÿliscu- I want to dream. 

Would
Denotes that the action might potentially take place if another condition were true.-erm-

Lÿlermu - I would dream.Mwndoispu lÿlermu- If I slept, I would dream.


Need
Denotes the subject has a need for the action to take place.Im-root-uct-

Imlÿluctu- I need to dream.

Hope
Denotes the subject is hoping that the action will take place.-dami

Lÿludami-I hope I dream. I hope to dream.

Probable
Denotes that it is probable that the action takes place.-erom-

Lÿlerom - I probably do dream.Lÿleromi- He probably does dream.


Ought
Denotes that the agent has a sort of obligation to perform the action.-ucl-

Lÿluclu- I should dream. I ought to dream.

Presumptive
Set up a simulation of a hypothetical situation were the action might have been performed. -oigwen-

Lÿloigwenu - Suppose I dream. Ok, say that I dream.


Forced
Denotes that the agent was forced into performing the action.-austr-

Lÿlaustru - I am forced to dream.

Causative
Denotes that the subject caused the object to perform the action.-aust-

Ro Lÿlaustu - I cause him to dream. I make him dream. Lÿlaumnu- I am made to dream. (passive)

JussiveDenotes that the subject pleads that the action take place.

o-root-ovb-

Olÿlovbu- I pray to dream. I plead to dream. Please dream. Rum Olÿlovbu - I pray he dreams.

Inquisitive
Is used to ask if the action takes place.-ti

Lÿluti? - Do I dream?


Necessative
Denotes that the action must take place. -ulf-

Lÿlulfu-I must dream

Recipientive
Denotes that the action is good and that it is a privilege that it takes place. ü-root-uml-

Ülÿlumlu- I get to dream.

permissive
Denotes that the subject allows the object to perform an action.-usm-

Ro Lÿlusmu- I let him dreamLÿlumnusmu- I’m allowed to dream (passive), I may dream.

Necessative
Denotes that the action is a burden to the subject.-ucr-

Lÿlucru- I have to dream, and it sucks.

Try
Denotes that the agent will attempt to perform the action.Pr

Lÿlupru- I try to dream.

Adiuval
This denotes that the subject helps the object to perform and action.-ufm-

Lÿlufmu- I help to dream.

Ro Lÿlufmu - I help him dream


ImperativeThe imperative mood is used in commands and orders, it has only 2nd and 3rd person forms.


Alÿla- Dream! 
Alÿlaha- Dream! (used to say to females)
Alÿlahae- Dream all of you!
Alÿlahaea- Dream all of you females!
Alÿlahi- He shall dream! Alÿlahia- She shall dream!

Future.

Alÿlisa- You will dream then!Etc.


VeracityThe amount of truth the speaker puts into his phrase can be marked as such.

Vaë Lÿlu- I really dream, I dream! I certainly dream. I contest I dream.
Lÿlu- I dream. I state it as a fact.
Lÿleu- I might dream. It may be truth.
Lylufi- It is said that I dream. Hearsay.
Lylanaüfi- It is said that I do not dream
Lylenaü- I might not dream.
Lalanaü- I do not dream.Lÿlanaü vae - I do not dream!


Multiple moods and their order.It is possible to compound the different affixes into quite complex verb forms. While simple compounding is quite common, the more complex forms are usually broken down into several separate words, however, the complex verb forms while rare in speech are found in writing, and sometimes in song and poetry, the most complex forms, often for comedic effect.

Lollthumnopniscareu - I might not have needed to have wanted to have been unable to have been undreamt of.

In English the order of the elements is of course: Agent-veracity-tense-volitive-potential-voice-root

But in Alnëèn the order here is: Root-voice-potential-volitive-tense-veracity-agent

Even longer more ridiculous forms can be constructed.

Lollthamnanaiphmanaiclaproscoipseritea. -If you two girls might have wanted to be able to try not to keep being undreamt of over and over.  

Which can be broken down as:

ROOT+tense+voice+negation.+aspect+V’(try)+potential+volitive+conditional+subjunctive+dual+2nd person+feminineLollth -a-mn- anai-phm-anai-cla-pr-o-sc-oips-er-it-e-a

The basic rule to the order of affixes is such:

((((((((ROOT+tense)voice/negation)tense/negation)Aspect/negation/degree/intent)V’/mood/negation/degree/intnent)mood)verity)subject/number)

Non-finite forms:Non-finite forms of verbs are verb forms without marking for tense, person, etc. Rather the behave like other parts of speech.

Infinitive:The infinitive is a verb for that symbolizes the abstract idea of an action, it is not a noun and does not mark for number or case, it stands on its own. The “To do something” is its approximation in English.

They do not represent any of the verb's arguments (as employer and employee do).
They are not inflected to agree with any subject They cannot serve as the only verb of a declarative sentence.  They are used with auxiliary verbs.

These forms can be used in matrix clauses where the subject and tense are the same.

I Want to dream - Vlomu LÿloI know I saw (it). - Iscu nwello

I believe I like (it) - Vunu qpusco

They can be used as subjects:   Lÿlo va muno - To dream is good. Infinitives have no gender, adjectives set to agree with them can take any ending.

They are also used in constructions such as

I asked him to come with me.- Ludqpiuro vum velo

I want you to come- Vlomuro velo


Infinitives are formed simply by adding an -o to the end of a stem instead of the person endings, with as many affixes as desired. Some common forms are given here.
present
Lÿlo - To dream
Lÿlumno - To be dreamt of
Lÿlumyo- To dream of oneselfLÿlufto-To dream and be dreamt of

past
Lolltho/Lÿlatho- To have dreamt
Lollthumno- to have been dreamt of
Lollthumyo- To have dreamt of yourselfLollthufto- to have dreamt and to have dreamt of yourself


Lÿliso-To dream sometime in the future
Lÿlimno-to be dreamt of sometime in the future
Lÿlimyo- To ream of yourself sometime in the futureLÿlifto-To dream and be dreamt of sometime in the future

Lÿlunto-To have dreamt
Lÿlumnicno-To have been dreamt of
Lÿlumicno-To have dreamt of oneselfLÿlufticno-To have dreamt and been dreamt of

The prefix Or- denotes the negative form

Orlÿlo - To not dream

Gerund:
The gerund is used as an action noun, it can be inflected with all the features of nouns. It is formed with the prefix o- and the ending -io

Olylio- dreamingOrolÿlio - not dreaming

So one might use the gerund as:
I like dreaming- qpuscu olÿlior
Or Qpum olÿlio vëthonumnaustu - Your dreaming makes me wonder. 


Verbal noun
The verbal noun is very similar to the action noun, the gerund above. However it is used for the result of the activity, some sort of more physical reality rather than an abstract one. -itpo

Lylipto- A dreaming, A dreaming session
Prodvipto- A run.Nwellipto- A look.

Supine:The supine is used for construction explaining the purpose or goal of an action

Vëlthu lÿliwn- I came to dream, I came in order to dream, I came so that I might dream

Simply attach -iwn to the end of the stem
Lÿlopiwn- In order to be able to dream
Orlÿliwn - Not in order to dreamLÿlanaiwn- In order to not dream.

In the future, the sense means that the action is scheduled to happen, is supposed to happen, or perceived to be about to happen.

Thëntu vuvnaë thÿstisiwn- I thought I was about to die.


Participle:Participles are either adjectival or adverbial, they serve as verbal adjectives or verbal adverbs. The prefix Or- signifies if it is affirmative or negative.

Adjectival

Lÿlélta zoa- She is dreaming. She is in the state of dreaming.Afroia drecumi mwndélto- Beware the sleeping dragon. 


Present active participle    
+                        -
Lÿlélto -  Orlÿlélto
Present passive
+  -
Lÿlunto-  Orlÿlunto
Present reciprocal
Lÿluftelto -Orlÿluftelto
Present reflexive
Lÿlumielto -Orlÿlumielto
Past participle
Lollno  -Orlollno
Past passive
Lollnto,  -Orlollnto
Past reflexive
Lollumielto -Orlollumielto
Past reciprocal
Lolluftelto -Orlolluftelto
Future participle
Lÿlistmo -Orlÿlistmo
Future passive
Lÿlimnistmo -Orlÿlimnistmo
Future reflexive
Lÿlimistmo -Orlÿlimistmo
Future reciprocal
Lÿliftistmo -Orlÿliftistmo
Perfect participle
Lÿlucno -Orlÿlucno
Perfect passive
Lÿlumnucno -Orlÿlumnucno
Perfect reflexive
Lÿlumücno -Orlÿlumücno
Perfect reciprocal
Lÿluftucno -Orlÿliftucno
Pulperfect participle
Lolthno Lollucno -Orlolthno Orlollucno
Pulperfect passive
Lollthumnucno -Orlollthumnucno
Pulperfect reflexive
Lollthumcno  -Orlollthumcno
Pulperfect reciprocal
Lollthuftucno  -Orlollthuftucno
Future perfect
Lÿlicno  -Orlÿlicno
Future perfect passive
Lÿlimnicno  -Orlÿlimnicno
Future perfect reflexive
Lÿlimicno  -Orlÿlimicno
Future perfect reciprocalLÿlifticno  -Orlÿlifticno

Verbal abverbialsThese are used as adverbs.

He came smiling. - Vëlthi mëmiel


Present
Active: Lÿliel        
Passive: Lÿlumniel
Reflexive: LÿlumielReciprocal: Lÿluftiel

Past
Active: Lollthiel
Passive: Lollthumniel
Reflexive: LollthumielReciprocal: Lollthuftiel

Future
Active: Lÿlisiel
Passive: Lÿlimniel
Reflexive: LÿlimielReciprocal:  Lÿliftiel

Perfect
Active: Lÿluntiel
Passive: Lÿlumnuntiel
Reflexive: LÿlumüntielReciprocal: Lÿluftuntiel

Pulperfect
Active: Lollthniel
Passive: Lollthnamniel
Reflexive: LollthamielReciprocal: Lollthnaftiel

Future perfect
Active: Lÿlicniel
Passive: Lÿlimnicniel
Reflexive: LÿlimicnielReciprocal: Lÿlifitcniel


AgentivesThese operate like the adjectives, but mean “the one who is Xing”

Lÿlius - The dreaming one. The person who is dreaming. I hate the man you love- Rum lumniuth raushtu.

Present
Active:   ♂Lÿlius    ♀Lÿlua/Lÿlana      ø Lÿlien
Passive: ♂Lÿlumnius   ♀Lÿlumnua  ø Lÿlumnien
Reflexive: ♂Lÿlumüs  ♀Lÿlumüa øLÿlumyenReciprocal: ♂Lÿluftius  ♀Lÿluftua.Lÿluftana   øLÿluftien


Past
Active:  ♂Lollnius ♀ Lolnua     ø lolnien
Passive: ♂Lolumnius ♀Lolumnua   ø lolumnien
Reflexive: ♂Lolumüs ♀Lolumüa  ø lolumyenReciprocal: ♂Loluftius ♀Loluftua    øLoluftien

Future
Active:  ♂Lÿlisius ♀Lÿlisua    øLÿlisien
Passive: ♂Lÿlimnius ♀Lÿlimnua  ø Lÿlimnien
Reflexive: ♂Lÿlimüs ♀Lÿlimüa   øLÿlimyenReciprocal: ♂Lÿliftius ♀Lÿliftua   øLÿliftien

Perfect
Active:  ♂Lÿluntius ♀Lÿluntana Lÿluntua øLÿluntien
Passive: ♂Lÿlumnicnius ♀Lÿlumnicnua øLÿlumnicnien
Reflexive: ♂Lÿlumicnius ♀Lÿlumicnua øLÿlumicnienReciprocal: ♂Lÿlufticnis ♀Lÿlufticnua øLÿlufticnien

Pulperfect
Active:  ♂Lolthnius ♀Lolthnua øLolthnien
Passive: ♂Lolthumnius ♀Lolthumnua øLolthumnien
Reflexive: ♂Lolthumüs ♀Lolthumüa øLolthumyenReciprocal: ♂Lolthuftius  ♀Lolthuftua øLolthuftien

Future perfect
Active:  ♂Lÿlicnius ♀Lÿlicnua øLÿlicnien
Passive: ♂Lÿlimnicnius ♀Lÿlimnicnua  øLÿlimnicnien
Reflexive: ♂Lÿlimicnius  ♀Lÿlimicnua    øLÿlimicnienReciprocal: ♂Lÿlifticnius ♀Lÿlifticnua   øLÿlifticnien


Semantic Prefixes
 The prefixes add a certain connotation to the verbs they modify. Re-Ird-

Irdlÿlu- I dream again, I dream over, I re-dream I resomnitize.

  Un- ArbArblÿlu - I Undream it

 
Good ü-Ülÿlu - It is good that I dream.


N Bad ar-Arlÿlu- It is bad that I dream

Before mel- Elm- Elmlÿlu- Before I dream

 Against- ac-Acvelo- running away from


 V Dis- spread out  cel- elc-Elcmothu- I collect

Mis- irr-
Irrlÿlu- I misdreamI dream wrongly

Perfect  vel- Elv-Elvlÿlu- I dream perfectly


Half- Ledi- Eldi- Eldilÿlu- I half dream

Retro- eqpl-Elqpvelo - to go back.


Pseudo- hego- olg-Olglÿlu - I pretend to dream


fear Ëf-Ëflÿlu- I dream and am frightened by this.

 Love ém- Émlÿlu- I lovingly dream

Hate ag-Aglÿlu- I begrudgingly dream

 Fierce car- arc-Arclÿlu- I fiercely dream

Beautiful ova-  üva- üv- ülv-Ülvlÿlu- I dream and it is beautiful.

For the purpose/sake of   bi- ib- om- oth-Iblÿlu- To the sake of my dreamin

Intensive as- is- ma- ym-
Ïmnwaullu- stare intentlyÏmlÿlu- to have mad visions.

Interrogative prefixes

What  na-     nalÿlu? _ what do I dream of?
When në- nëlÿlu?- When do I dream?
Why  nÿ- nÿlÿlu?- why do I dream?
Who nu- nulÿli? -Who dreams?
Where nei- neilÿlu? - Where do I dream?
How nau- naulÿlu? - How do I dream?
How much no- nolÿlu? - How much do I dream? 
How many néo-  néilÿlau? How many people dream?
How far  noa- noavelu? - how far am I coming?How soon nio- nioveliu? How soon will I come?


Copula:
The copula is the verb “to be”. It is irregular.Oano - To be

 Singular plural
1st  ♂Au♀ Aua    ♂ Moi, ♀Moim
2nd  ♂Os ♀Ossa    ♂dos ♀dossa 3rd ♂Ï m’ï l’ï ♀ aëla    ♂Lant ♀Lanta

The affixations are formed in these manners.

Atu- ♂dual Ata ♀dual Moitu Moita - inclusive dual
Authru Trial♂
Autti dual♂
Auttaë dual ♀
Aumpu partive 
Aumpae permultive
Aushu paucal
Auëu abstractive ♂Auëa abstractive ♀

Ascu - volitive - I want to be
Aopu- I can be
Aistu - I become
Oipsu - If I am Eur- Were I, I might be

Etc.

Moiscu - We want to be


Ossté - You two areOssce - You want to be

Ospe - You can be

Ospse - If you are

Ïsci- He wants to be.

Etc.

The other tenses work the same way as regular verbs only without extra affixes to mark tense.

FutureIsto - To be in the future

PastIclo - To have been in the past

PerfectOnto - To have been

Pluperfect.Uicno- To have had been.

Í - Is a simple copula that does not mark for tense or person nor any thing else. It is simply a particle that denotes that the case is such.

Ocvanla Muna í - That horse is good.

Issi in the same way is the future, it simple implies that the speech is referenced for the future.

Issi Lÿlu - I will dreamË valno mëano issi - The horse will be happy

Attha - Is the same but for the past.

Some of the moods have their own words as well. 

Oppo- Can

Lÿlu oppo- I can dream

Erre- subjectiveOipsel- conditional


Word formation.
Nouns -> verbs
There are two ways.
The regular way to form a verb from a noun is with the infix -cwe-Valnicwu- I horse. I ride a horse.

The other way is to change the vowel stem.


Verb stem -> noun                                               
A -> ëo     Dalio- to sail Dueliu- Sail boat
È->ie        thèno- to think  Thienta - Thought
É->uo       Miléro- to wash Miluorua- Cleansing
Ë->éo       Mëmo- to smile   méomë - a smile
O->eu      Thromo- to lie   Threumo- a lie
I->èi    Tivo- to tie Teívo - A tie
U->w   Lumno - to love Lwmnëa -  Love
W->oé Mwndo- to sleep Moindia- Sleep
Ÿ->aë  Lÿlo- to dream   Laëlia- A dream.
Au->oa   svausco- to scream Svoascë- a screamOi->ue moiro- to burn   Mueria- inferno

Noun to verb

A -> i.e. Valna- horse Vielno- to ride a horse
È-> i
É-> ë
Ë->u
O->a
I->oi
U->ÿ
W->é
Ÿ->w
Au->oOi->au

The above paradigm when used on the vowels of verbs convert the verb to an adjective.Regular verb to adjective formation can be achieved with the infinitive plus -na/no

Nwellona- visual. Although much more frequently the participles are used or the adjective is converted from the noun.





Particles.












Vâ- Marks the topic of the sentence. Also used to mark entire clauses.

Valnaë vâ qpuscu- As for horses, I like them.

He told me how much he hated the girl you love.

 Ë melfa pwi lumné lu raushtoneossali vâ, ludqpivoës.

The. Girl. Which. love+2ndperson/masculine. Possessive. Hate+adj.+ness+3rdperson possessive. Topic. Told+3rd person masculine+1st person dative masculine.

Mé- That.
This is the coordinator that is used after the main verb and begins a new cluase as an argument. It is not the ‘that’ that’s used in the sense of “the person THAT I saw’
Vunu mé velisi- I believe that he will come.
Fëanu mé nwellopiuqpo- I hope I will see you. 

Pwi- This is a form of the referential pronoun, meaning that, or which.

Lumnuza pwi thenu muno í - I love her, which I think is good.


Fi- sort of verbal quotations.

Lumnuqpoa fi pwëthti - He said “I love you”

It can also be used to denote hearsay.

Faunthi fi - It is said that he did it.

It can also be used to denote multiple verb actions.

Vnotifi, mëmifi, mëanicwifi. - He lives, smiles and is happy.

It can also be inflected with any of the cases leaving the main noun caseless.

Valno fith qpuscu - I live horses.

This is usually used with proper nouns from other languages.

New York fith lumnu- I love New York.

It can also be used to make an entire clause a sort of adverbial formation.

Hating the man I once loved, I sought to love anew. - raushtu ë thontor pwi lamnu fi umlumnanriscu moila.


Prepositions


Aboard              Importsi  on/in 
About    Dendwé  lative
Absent    Nÿsni   from
Above    Swanda  supressive
Across    Wosso   near
Afar    Lomboé   
Against   Coshca   surface
Along    Thosti   surface
Alongside   Ipsnaya  surface 
Amid    Cwic   in
Among    üen   in
Around   Rolua   near
Aslant    Checho  
Astride    Lasidé, feno  near
At    Dan Dand  
Athwart   Hwÿxra  
Atop    Uen   
Barring   Irrcni   
Before    Mielli   near 
Behind    ëmpol   
Below    shtau   
Beneath   Ilix  
Beside    Fempec  
Between   Sena  
Beyond   Arwo   
By    Pel Pem pi pe  
Despite   Ishtic 
Down    üf
During    zau refne
Except    shÿpel
Failing    agmînné
Following   Voldene
For    Peym
From    Enx
In    Imi 
Inside    ÿmÿ
Into    Inemi
Like    Mesne leki
Mid   Ift
Minus    Nÿsemi
Near    Romwé
Notwithstanding  Trauncenyce
Of    Ou lon loa lu
Off    Aur  
On    Be bea bo
Onto    Bepre
Opposite   andi
Out  Amma
Outside   Fwaxa
Over    Uelme
Past    Alcïsa
Present    Uleusu uclusu
 Future    iclisi
Plus    Pelnt, pelnc, flene
Regarding    Nëdwé
Round     Laua
Save    Piel
Then    Loé Loc
Through   ïzra
Than    
Throughout   Olmïé
Times    scÿ
To    Ul
Toward  Aumwé
Towards   Naelti
Under    Sué
Underneath   Silix
Unlike    Acmisni
Until    Bethe
Up    Owa
Upon    Boi
Via    iux, lux
With    mo, coe, twelm
Within    Telmé
Without   Aderme
Worth    Zotha
According to   Chauctenni 
Ahead of   Anthel
Along with   Thostimo
As for    Azdoe
As per    Pomco
As to    Nathul
Aside from   Iciÿel
Close to   Ecleth
Far from   Roune
Near to    Romwe
Next to    Binel
Outside of   Fwaxa
Owing to   Welbes
Prior to   Mielmi
Regardless of   Iziÿné
Subsequent to   Wipicte
As far as   Aromié
By means of   Taldo
In case of   Imcwae
In front of   Amielti
In lieu of    Ilsh
In place of   Awero
In spite of   Shnircte
Anti    Anthi
Circa    Reu
Versus    Actra
Apart from   Sperfa
Ago    Mowa
Apart    Spa
Away    Ulo
Withal    Olmoi
This side of   Clepi
That side of   Olclepi
Right    qpesra
Left    Sitcri
Straight    Trun? Trunel. mythwa
Above    Swindi wenn
Around the corner  Dortu
Hellward   Racmarelti
In the presence of   Imzandiun
In the power of  Imvasca
Past    Spwar
Forth    Holca
Right up to   Aswarth
Past
Present
Future    
Approximately  Ectefel
Including   Amüeni
Diagonal to   RoituThanks to   Dannoi


Prepositions of TimePrepositions of discourse

Adverbs of Time
Now                                    Noelt
Then        Bel
Back then     Pluoa
At that time      Ocpelcwa
Long ago     Qporweilya
Once upon a time    Denicwalicwa
Way back then     Plucwo
Way off from now     Cuol
Always     Ommella
Never      Nëstë
Sometimes     Dolomel
Often      ëscé
Whenever     Thelomel
Scarcely     Rëscné
Rarely      
Almost never     Parel
Not very often     
Frequently
All the time
Occasionally
Today      Detha , Octhia
Tomorrow     üthia
The Day after tomorrow   Imithia 
Yesterday     Elvua
The day before yesterday   Temral
On that day     Pothia
Everyday     Olmethia
What day?     Nathia?
Which Day?     Netha?
No day      Retha
Someday     Veithia 
Any day     qpothia
Finally      Lipa Mylli Myna
Already     Moalle
Soon       Luss
Just    Dë Cabba Capta
Still     inca
Frequently      Tarwec
Generally    Ilidwec
Sometimes    Thonel Thonec Thoneie
Rarely     Luroe
Normally    Amie
Occasionally    Awacel
Often     Oleie
Regularly    Eriloi
Usually    Mitwe
Yet     Oid
Always    Moe
Simultaneously   Theonel
Daily     Dethalf? Olmthiel
Early     Cüna
Late   Cryle
First     Pina
Second    
Third
Forth
Recently
Immediately    Hwec Micwal
Seldom    Mlo
Over     Elo Vnele
Later     Crelier
Right now     Almnolt
Lately     Huvwe
Meanwhile    Müvïthe
Afterwards    Astwel
Presently    Ulcinie
Instantly    hwele
Nowadays     codethiel
From now on     Nowama
Long ago    Orocna
Once upon a time   Denicwalicaw
Formerly    Imacla 
Here After    Impiel 
By and By    Imiel
Shortly     Bummie
Forever    Mÿcwenel moemanna
Eternally    Murwenel
For forever more   Moemannamo
Incessantly    Ictembie
Perpetually    Tospiel
Continually    Corsiel
Endlessly    Olrnysie
Evermore    MümowaEverlastingly    Mondamiel

Adverbs of degree
Much     oe
More     Onra  Vmau 
Most     Onï   Vmï
Too     Fwae fae sae
Very     Vau, Vae
Greatly     Ocmïel
Far     Rowna Vmar
Principly    Impiel
Mainly     Yeplie
Mostly     Onyth
Entirely     Pytriel
Full     Faunna Fonna
Fully     Fonneth
Completely    Dympiel
Perfectly    Vélëél
Wholly    Olmiel
Totally    Ortiel
Altogether    Axca
Quite     Cvïsto
Clear     Mëvanda
Stark     Cforqpa
Exceedingly    Efmëthiel
Extremely    ïscviel
Hardly     cwelle
Excessively    defriel
Intolerably    onyscriel
Infinitely    Mucweniel
Enough    Alar
Sufficiently    Alariel
Adequately    Deliel
Exponentially    Ixianopsiel
Proportionally    üvolmiel
Eventually    Omwiel
Even     Vlun
Little     Mimpi
Less    Mecwë
Least    Mixwi
Scantly    shcidiel
Merely    Werdiel
Barely     Hacliel
Partly   Larmiel
Nearly     Romwiel
Almost    lupciel
Not quite    numbe
Wisely    Lÿntea Lyntiel
Well    Alwa dü
Ill    Nallwa
Wisety    
Foolishly    Spustiel
Justly    Vycliel
Truly    Althiel
Surely     Lempiel
Perhaps    Swale
Possibly   Thicniel
Maybe    Mulne, folba
Else    lewOtherwise   Andriel


Conjunctions, coordinators and phrases of discourse
And   Elnt 
But   Miau, mio, mia, Cuuw
Or   Cwï , lur, foi, bwa, fue,
Nor   Froi, nroi 
For   Hëx Peym üv üvi
So   Cala, Lo,
Yet   Cué
As   Baus, Zol, loz,
If   Lae, të , lex,
Also       mïo
After   Astu
Before   Maelli, mwelli, mieli 
While   Fÿthé
Since   Tuer
Until   Olti
Because  Vegnuva 
So far as  Hÿthré
Now that  Nwoltil 
In order to/that  Pruvoé 
Though  ÿccma 
Although  Zÿccma
Even though  Mÿccmwa
Unless   Nreya
Only if   Pielï
Whether or not Nÿthenae 
Even if   Lÿmwa
In case of  Sethiamé 
Once   Onto
Whereas  Doumie
Provided  ümdalthi
Till   Ictie
As if   Nathie, cwetsh, chasti
So that   Cwové
As long as  Alÿga
Accordingly  Gwepiel
Hence   Obo
Instead   Vmecca
Nevertheless  Mÿolnïé
In as much as  Ichite
Until now  Oltielli 
For example  Clepsuva
However  Mauzné
Likewise  Mësnël
So too   Omu, umu 
Of course  ÿmbé
Next   Ticto 
Still   Incu aqpmes
Anyway  Cwemei
For instance  Prolxé
Meanwhile  Müvÿthé
On the contrary  Anthïé
Besides  Zorbé
Further more  Tompé
Indeed   Elcte
Moreover  Oémbié
On the other hand Balvimi Althiu
Then again  ëthësë
Therefore  Ilco
Consequently  Avieldé
In fact   Alëstrié , Delroé
Namely  Nünoé
Otherwise  Althié
So far   Olfoé
Thus  Nonwa
Even if   Can it be that  Copuia va? 

Diction particles and interjections.

question          Cva? Ti
agreement            Maa
Explanation request         Lo?         
Memory confirmation        Fué?
exclamation            phï
committal             io 
Verity exclamation             iau    
              ias 
Topic changer  dü 
Agreement request         me            Vocative.            yoë



Syntax
Word orderChanging the word order does not change the meaning of a sentence as it would in English, rather it simply changes the focus of a sentence, that is what the speaker wishes to emphasize. The basic word order is VOS. That is Verb, object, subject.

In copulative sentences the verb is normally at the end. In fact it is usually left out entirely, and the pronoun is all that’s used.

Rowa au- I am brave.Rowa vu- I’m brave.

Mëanno vu - I’m happyMëanno au- I’m happy

In the case above sometimes both are used at once to separate vowel barriers.

Mëanno au -> Mëanno vu au -> Mëanno v’au.

Similarly mu ï -> M’ï  and ru ï -> L’ï

When a tense other than the present is used than the copula is normally used.

Mëanno clu- I was happy.

But since tense can also be marked in the adjective then,

Mëannalthto vu - I was happy.

There can sometimes be a different sense in the two uses. Since au is tensed it suggest it may be a temporary condition.

Mëanno v’au- I am happy now. I am happy but I was not before. I’m in  a happy mood right now.

Mëanno vu- I’m a happy person. My situation is happy.

In the third person the order is determined by the focus.


The boy is brave- Rowa l’ï moëumi - brave is the boyIt is the boy who is brave. - ë moëu rowa l’ï

Theodor is a boy - O moëu thëodor ï 
Theodor is a boy. - O moëu l’ï thoedorIt’s Theodor who is a boy- Thëodor o moëu l’ï

In a non copula verb sentence the verb usually comes first. 

Nwallthu o valnor   - I saw a horse.

Although usually left out sometimes the subject pronoun shows up at the end. Nwellthu o valnor vu- I saw a horse.

Of course if it is to be emphasized that it was one and no other who did the action that that element occurs first.

Vu nwallthu o valnor - It was me who saw a horse.

If the object was effected in  a real way than it occurs first, or simply to emphasize.

O valnor nwallthu - I saw a horse and nothing else. I saw a horse and it noticed, it was frightened by me.

To strengthen the above meaning sometimes a passive verb with an accusative subject is used.

O valor nwellamnivoës - A horse was seen by me, and it was frightened by this, or it noticed, or was effected by this.

The general rule is that the object proceeds the subject if it is in someway effected by the action.

Lumni moëumi melfar- The boy loves the girl. (but she doesn’t know, or care.)Lumni melfar ë moëu- The boy loves the girl and she knows.  

Sometimes this distinction is further made by the use of the dative versus the accusative case.

Lumni melfas ë moëu - The girl does not knowLumni melfar ë moëu - The girl does know.



In noun phrases relative noun phrases can also be constructed as such.
The girl I love- ë lumnu melfaThe horse who kicked the knight- ë cnovuth acsèstri valno

Of course the other way is - ë melfa pwi lumnuË valno pwi cnovuth ascèstri

Pwi vs. pono

Pwi is used directly after the noun, pono is used in isolation and can be inflected for gender and number.

I don’t like the horse who kicked the knight, who hurting me, I wish also to hurt.Qpuscaü valnomith pwi cnovuth acsestri, pono ishti vuvnaë, ishtiscuro muu. 

In sentences with indirect objects the order is determined by whichever is more interesting or important to the sentence.

Aucliá thornthuqp roës- She gave the sword to him. The sword is the main idea here.Aucliá roës thornthuqp - She gave him the sword. The sword was already mentioned but it is revealed that she gave it to him.

Similarly adverbs occur where their importance is needed.

Ormëel aucliá thornthuqp roës - KINDLY- she gave him the sword. Aucliá ormëel thornthuqp roës - She kindly gave him the sword. 


There are many ways to construct the same meanings in complex sentences.

As he clutched his sword, which was his father’s before his, Azmorl thinks of home.  


Mothani thornthulith pwi clë opagam maeli ronya, theni Azmorl molmëo. 
 Azmorl rum ronya maeli opagam clë thornthulith mothani fi molmëo thèni.

She kindly gives the sword to the green knight on the horse.

Aucliá ormëel ë valnatra cnovues vënèthes ë thornthuqp.

Valnatra cnovumis ë thornthuth ormëel aucliá.  

DictionaryEdit

...
Stand
Tauto
Go
Eco ispo asco
Come
Velo
See
Nello nwellu
Hear
Aco    acto
Feel
Isno
Think
Cocro Dolco thenu
Consider
Inthelo
Know
Firo isco
Remember
Minimo
Forget
Amwelo
Sit
Stuio
Sleep
Nimo, Dimo, Mino, Mido  mindo  mwndo
Dream
Lylo 
Run
Prafo prafto pravo? Pravdo?
Walk
Aevo
Swim
Peglo Wogo
Fly
Atytra soar Zelno, Lebno
Kiss
Timpo amlo
Love
Lamno
Hate
Ralsto
Fear
Froio
Hope
Femano luvo
Want
Micno vnoco? Valdo? Vlardo? Alcu?qpalmo?
Do
Flaro dramo fano?
Make
Macwo Calno momo
Cook
Torpo
Buy
Cwento
Sell
Ulro
Dig
Plicto Cweco
Help
Uvydo
Heal
Lumisto
Cure
Amwo
Hurt
Sripso  isfo ishfo
Save
Talmo
Fight
Scysto
Kill
Frucsto Ngyco
Pray
Iyumo
Murder
Rhaxto
Slay
Fyusto
Slaughter
Escralsco
Give
Aclu
Take
Pruto
Put
Busso dodomo
Receive
Selico
Eat
Ago
Drink
Calo
Dance
Dedano boibo
Sing
Lodio Yudamo mewa=song litali
Speak
Ostro
Say
Devo pwetho pwethco pwethto
Call
Anno
Whisper
Phwendo
Yell
Ayo
Scream
Svauso
Cry
Mecame  florno
Weep
Pimelo
Sob
Glybdo
Have
Valo Vamo cambo
Wonder
Vethono
Believe
Vuno
 Trust
Rwmvo?
Cut
Sasto
Wear
Clumo
Live
Cyso  Lysto Rovo? Vnoco? Vloro? Vnoto
Die
Thyto
Smile
Memo
Laugh
Hyao  haho limlo
Learn
Ducco Ducto
Teach
Pardo
Wrap
Aclumo
Weave
Vewo
Sew
Thuro
Knit
Flupto
Like
Disco? qpusco
To regret
Shanno
Tell
Lodio
To transform, make?
Mormo
To burn
Cydo, Moiro
To greatly desire to know
e
To philosophize
e
To desire
Vanuso
To need
Meno? Menumo? Lorgo? Lorvo? Lorfo? Lortho? lorqpo
To get
Dallo
To Read
Zuno? Bucto
To Write
Yamo? Cipso
I lie
Weero Throio
I lay
Thromo
To breathe
Lifo, Lifio
TO hold
Motho, mothio
To turn
DwadoTo Touch

To fall
Dwemdo
To pull
Cepo
To push
Tuco
To throw
Denco
To Tie
Tivo
To Play
Loio
To float
Pholio
To flow
Phelno
TO discernCecio

“I’ve been wondering”Romelienta

To waitLatto

To lose
Dodemo
Hope, long
Yulo
To arrive
Cento
To sail
Dalio
TO shine
Alimo
TO relax
Blydo
To let
Endo
Reminisce nostalgically
Dilestno
IntertwineInsyxo

To WashMilero


Lips                                    Sínún

Upper lip                            Wènsínu

lower lip                             Çtäusinu

Smile                                   Mëmò        

Say                                       Dévò

Speak                                   Óstrò

Talk                                     Túpò

Tell                                       Lódiò

I call                                  Ännò

I beakon                            Bóndéssò

Sing                            Üdämo

Laugh                                   Hão

Yell                                      Äyò

Cry                                       Mëcämë

Scream                                 Sväusò

Whisper                               Phwèndò

Whimper                             Hyignò

Cough                                 Cäo

Gum                                    Skish

Teeth                                   Dènqi

To brush teeth                     Dènqidä Égäyo

To bathe                              Égäio

To wash                               Lälvò

Cuspid                                 Ishästä

Palate                                  Gändrä

Molar                                  Hÿmdèl

Alveolar ridge                     Hëch

Uvula                                  Mópili

Tongue                               Länguèll

Taste                                    Fúèlsia

To taste                                 Fósò

Bitter                                    Kernt

Sweet                                  Ämäèn

Sour                                     Ziëc

Salty                                     Tsèts

Spicy           Hässä

Starchy                                 Hènga

Delicious                            Ümisimoa

Bad                                      Súsrii

Mouth                                  Cúlnä

Voice                                   Äèl

Tonsils                                 Mópili

Throat                                  Sälgä

Neck                                    Súún

To nod                                 Pibägò

Chin                                      Fièt

Cheek                                   Búcúi

Jaw                                      Lúúñ

Face                                      Däóué

Nose                                      Phémi

Nostril                                  Phéminiti

nose bridge                           Phémstri

To smell                                Moiò

Scent                                      Ólzë

Stench                                    Cräuga

Musk                                      Féftriu

Fragrance                               Üfétrium 

A whiff                                   Féfiphä

Eye                                         Núèltu

Eyelid                                     Nwisi

Eyelash                                    Nwèsh

Eyebrow                                 Nwèsifi

Wink                                       Ipi

Blink                                        Bibiu

To stare intensive= look

To gaze intensive+ watch

To peer                                     Stäbimò

To look                                    Bëmò

To show                                  Ädnèlò

To watch                                 Élómò

Iris                                            Élsénti

Pupil                                          Zilisti

Whites of the eyes                     Nwèlccä

To see                                       Nèllò/Nullò

To look intensive=look

To look for                                Nèlúvò    

Sight                                         Núèlium

Vision                                      Ménèlcä

a vision                                   Üménèlium  

Tear                                           Éclëmë

To shut your eyes                    Äcnèläimò

To squint                                  Äcnèllifò

Ear                                            Lax

Earlobe                                     Läcsiblò

Earhole                                     Läcsiätcä

To hear                                       Äcò

Audition                                     Äcciúm

To listen                                    Ädiäco

To listen for                              Äccäimo

To pique your ears                     Äccuifò

Brow                                          Chóul

Forehead                                    Äcëma

Temple                                      Piutstu

Area between the eyes               Zidzo

Freckle                                        Plica

Scar                                             Lhäshcu

Acne                                           Fishta

Wart                                             Ngälg

Facial hair                                    Däuzif

Head hair                                     Polëëma

To comb hair                               Frittò

Body hair                                      Sif

Beard                                            Porpa

Mustache                                     Porpina

Saliva                                            Shynè 

Braided hair                                 Vländä=braid Vländilima

Blonde hair                                  Óldilima

Red hair                                        Rècthilima    

Brown hair  Ruscilima 

Black hair                                      Cälcilimä

Short hair                                     Snilima

Ponytail                                          Núlima

Messy hair                                     Fläshälimä

To cut hair                                     Polëëmiada Sfixo

To shave                                          Hüffò

Sneeze                                            Hicshu

Head                                                Äcmä

Booger                                             Fshiupsi

Body                                               Äggä

Head                                              Äcémä

Brain                                               Zäxärä

To consider                                    Ynsicwo

To think about                                Pilipidò

To ponder                                       Eúcigò

To brood                                         Rälëcro

To think                                           Cócrò

To wonder                                      Vëthónò

To worry                                        Rälämpò

To know                                         Sitsò

To decide                                        Äxisänò

To determine                                   Idimisò

To remember                                   Minimo

To forget                                          Ämwèlò

To memorize cause to remember

To believe                                        Vúnò

Belief                                              Vúnium

Torso                                                Tómm

Belly                                                 Dérdu

Core                                                 Cÿcrò

Chest                                                 Cärsë

Breast(male)                                      Clÿxòs

Navel                                                   Néxir

Stomach                                             Grúndú

Abdominal                                           Blúdúi

Butt                                               Räuboé

Back                                              Änx

Heart                                           
 Ormë
For a heart to beat Ormoio 

Lung                                            Änku

Liver                                               Chéò

Kidney                                             Klipi

Bladder                                           Sädni

Bowel                                              Blor

Guts                                                 Gäshä

Spine                                              Dÿdina

Bone                                              Lúcnä

Skeleton                                        Shäust

Rib                                                 Papflu

Shoulder                                         Sómói

Collar bone                                      Cäflishnu (cäflä colar)            

Pelvis                                               Dafsè

Solar                                                plexus

Skin                                                  Ditrué  Clommä=hide

Blood                                                 Äigmä

Fat                                                       Häfä

Vein                                                  Sägnol

Soul                                                   Vänä

Muscle                                                Gärnu

Arm                                                 Spónna

Forearm                                           Mèlspona

Bicep                                               Cinspona

Elbow                                                 Mumu

Hand                                                   
 Bälvä
To Grasp
 
To hold
Motho Mothio
To wave
Wrist                                                     Disti

Palm                                                      Dólnu

Finger                                                  Jitti

Thumb                                                 Ùñk

Fingernail                                              Nèd

Index                                                 Lóchiti

Middle                                                Múnjiti

Ring                                                       Vlijiti

Little                                                         Psijiti

Knuckle                                                Clichru

Leg                                                            Äxä

To kick                                                   Äcsistro

To punch                                                 Äcpolcò

Thigh                                                        Äfï

Hip                                                               Fëch

Calf                                                            Buñga

Knee                                                              Géibi

Foot                                                        Bólba

Ankle                                                         Scisci

Heel                                                          Dilmò

Toe                                                         Xëëdoi

Bridge of foot                                         Búibúi

Front heel                                                   Mèldilmò

Walk                                                             Aëvò

Go                                                               Écò

Come                                                          Vélò

Run                                                            Präfò

Swim                                                        Péglò Wogò

Fight                                                             Scÿsto

Hit                                                         Täccò Tästò

Dance                                                       Dëdanò  Bóibò

Jump                                                        Pängò

Spin                                                          Twimò

Turn                                                             Dwädò

Fall                                                         Dwémmò

Hide                                                                 Mniphò

Write                                                                 Phrännò

Read                                                           Zunnò

Sing                                                            Lódiò

To follow                                                Luthisò

Chase                                            Pójitò

Point                                                           Psixò

Gesticulate                                                    Jittò

Lean                                                           Blänimò

Sit                                       Stúiò

Stand                                                                   Täutò

Lay down                                                   Plúndò

Joint                                                           Flëëx

Bite                                                           Därtò

Eat                                                             Ägò

Chew                                                          Fräsnò

Devour                                                        Släikrò

Nibble                                                   Dibbnò

Gobble                                                Plägänò

Drink                                                        Cälo

Gulp                                                    Gäñalo

Sip                                                       Whwiphò

Guzzle                                                 Qgäqgeò

Snack                                                      Pritishò

Feast                                                     Ümägdium

Consume                                                        Klÿsfÿò

Swallow                                                     
 Gläudò
Flora Avlordia

Fauna Adeldiua

Plant Avlorda

Tree
 Alome
Leaf
 Lewa
Root
 Kefftre
Trunk
 Gammi
Stem
 Efell
Bark
 Camra
Petal
 Mifis
Branch
Saltos
Twig
Breegdi
Stick
Clatha
Log
  Clagda
Beam
Zyderas
Fiber
Humpwis
Flower
Amenoa
Grass
Crio
Seed
Jeentu
Fruit
Weema
Vegetables
Famone (famaughnee)
Weed
Charxu
Vine
Ixella
Herb
Dzadue
To grow
Azmo
To plant
Avlordo
To farm
Armifo
Nut
Cnufto
Olive
Smolta
Gnarl
Ralgnob
Warp
Deglespo
SproutSiffisti

Bulb
Alfca
Shrub
Yere
Grain
Zeepli
Wheat
Felua
Corn
Dedru
Rice
Keepu
Wood
Romeda
Gourd
Tauper
Mellon
Geemea
Nut
Ched
Berry
Syria
Tuber
Chextu
Banana
Vananya
Gape
Rawana
Bush
Eiz
Venus fly trap
Screpiclascer
Broccoli
Alimi
Brussels sprout
Parisi
Cabbage
Chespa
Cauliflower
Wedipano
Spinach
Ropisas
Lettuce
Ulasca
Beet
Tabolo
Artichoke
Thestelito
Bean
Docnas
Pea
Beiyia
Asparagus
Aploda
Celery
Solosa
Leek
Kelico
Shallot
Ninisi
Carrot
Thornisi
Parsley
Sidnua
Parsnip
Raspisipi
Turnip
Acricha
Potato
Paoa
Radish
rritnos
Yam
Amplaza
Okra
Hocriode
Basil
Spipsi
Cuman
Cyupma
Catnip
Nelcisti
Cayenne pepper
Caeanti
Salt
Stalca
Black Pepper
fristas
Sugar
Mulima
Honey
Nundalu
Chili powder
Shisha
Curry
Cashti
Chives
Edeloi
CilantroTinticu

Dill
Strush
Ginger
Inciri
Hemp
Wespica
Jasmine
Shazad
Mint
Ints
Thyme
Utilime
Licorice
sneligo
Linseed
Efralsi
Mandrake
Covoma
Mustard
Pushcus
Paprika
Paprica
Parsley
Disompa
Peppermint
Respitun
Poppy
Aviva
Rosemary
Amblembiqpa
Saffron
Stistica
Myrrh
Emelris
Frankincense
Hanclapsi
Sage
Acowesh
Sesame
Himpi
Sorrel
Aswelga
Spearmint
Tripisti
Vanilla
Inela
Wasabi
Wasabi
Chickpeas
Cilitisti
Lentils
Teuedosh
Corn
Dedru
Barley
Salsito
Oats
cluhnga
Rice
Keepu
Rye
Hoffisa
Sorghum
Hashcasa
Millet
hinga
Wheat
Felua
Hay
Cuspa
Straw
Cispina
Linden
Sasifta
Bay
Tenninca
Cinnamon
Tiliopica
Persimmon
Asribilomen
Cactus
Tupla
Lacquer
Chava
Sumac
Tupwa
Orchard
Alodima
Ebony
Calfical
Lawn
Feloa
Turf
Depsa
Pasture
AQpulnui
NettleShastra


Pomelo
Festidaldo
CoffeeAuhassa


Zucchini
Sheppenti
Potato
Paopa
Onion
Pilispa
Garlic
Alfabra Thulba
Shallot
Steltsios
Herb
Dzadue
BarleyGushma


Apple
Palna
Orange
Caladi
Grape
Rawana
Watermelon
Swappas
Melon
Ragedda
Apricot
Tolcilia
Cherry
Mynda
Tomato
Oao
Olive
Smolta
Coconut
Dologma
Pomegranate
Asad
Blueberry
Blibi
Blackberry
Acsalsa
Raspberry
Safde
Strawberry
Swedee
Pear
Deffsa
Peach
Jeebra
Plum
Dlusta
Pine-apple
Wimar
Cantaloupe
Poloaddar
Gourd
Tauper
Citrus
Spitsi
Citron
Spitsiphi
Lemon
Sadiga
Lime
Tsaudus
Grapefruit
Plishi
Kumquat
Pipozdaga
Loquat
Gochapsira
Medlar
Pempeltsa
Quince
Chilista
Rowan
Jwasiza
Squash
Benedel
Pumpkin
Angolad
Raisin
Ridwip
Banana
Vananya
Plantain
Vanyupha
Pepper
Feshna
Mango
Gembela
Avocado
Jenipa
Cucumber
Clelleg
Eggplant
Gallo
Caper
Slitsepa
FigCigni

Nut
Ched
Almond
Daliomba
Cashew
Shwucheqpa
Peanut
Jugcheqpa
Pistachio
Cilipecheqpa
Walnut
Apicheqpa
Macadamia
Ademidega
Oak Acorns
Plusti
ChestnutDalcheqpa





Tree
Alome
PineSprissos

OakDarcwidos

SpruceSmelsca

WillowOnivelimo

Cypress
Spusca
Sumac
Geshegla pompliga
Rosemary
Dalpqisill
Bramble
Tharprass
Rue
Churue
Fennel
Reshtie
Columbine
Sipoliclu
Sage
tiatia
Mint
Ziltros
Lilac
Empilipossa
Yew
Clizvitsu
Yucca
Ucca
Cone
Clupimu
Lumber
Raculoa
Timber
Spefoa
Hickory
Threshetta
Maple
Mumblu
Ash
Doscesca
Beech
Thamistra
Mahogany
Eowagnoi
Balsa
Kephu
Hemlock
Plentificess
Poplar
Erizeztra
Elm
Lelthecu
Palm tree
Amblorima
Bamboo
  Dagpoe
Cedar
Chastis
Fir
Rushca
Larch
Ashrisfa
EvergreenVeenolmizva

Argan
Geb
Aspen  Tolpspipa



Moss
Visca
Fern
Spesie
Thorn
Nicthi
Spore
Tribli
Algae
Ithisimia
To prune
Sclipso
Aloe
Suqpella
Sagebrush
Fluspalaca
Heather
Rhetea
Pea
Shlup
Hawthorn
Glegeleg
Daphne
Edelfia
Laurel
Vyxos
Holly
Lopesca
Mistletoe
Thimilisti
Hibiscus
Seicelesca
Wreath
Lewacweti
Garland
Lewavalma
Jasmine
Mlotti
Juniper
Seliados
Lavender
Cwendemion
Clover
Vlofca
Myrtle
Thimestell
OleanderLerie

Acorn
Flantca
Syrup
Glussiqpa
Birch
Boithia
Cork
Propca
AzaleaAleza


Rose
Alnëtha
Tulip
Donelem
Violet
Pilupala
Orchid
Bendefela
Pansy
Censweldi
Carnation
Arthizolos
Chrysanthemum
Voldimoca
Sunflower
Vithrasmi
Daisy
Inoelida
Iris
Ovindemi
Lotus
Plosimeladi
Lilac
qpalimpella
Buttercup
Godwepla
Daffodil
Bimbeldi
Dandelion
Lawassi
Mayflower
Splusibnoi
Forget-me-not
Oldimielian
Marigold
Sestriolda
Magnolia
Pagzaldemmi
PetalWeitisa

FlowerAmenoa

BlossomCoplammea

To bloomCuplizo

To sproutPluspio

NectarInzima

StamenHwepsila

PistolKestipli

PollenDoldni

FragranceAlome



Reptile
  Hesclas
Snake
  Ephua
Serpent
  Neeqpel
Adder
  Destru
Rattle snake
  Scecros
Cobra
  Copra
Viper
  Sipsros
Crocodile
  Honyeshi
Alligator
  Sarag
Turtle
  Scoma
Tortoise
  Axamba
Boa
  Poia
Python
  Peuqpona
Lizard
  Euqpor
Iguana
  Icwana
Chameleon
  Cwepereleus 
Amphibian
  Alimedeu
Frog
 Cayeldu
Toad
 Efant
Salamander
 Sansuo
Insect
 Hytenu
Arachnid
 Giliprinti
Spider
 Fustna
Scorpion
 Pescelons
Beetle
 Cubdo
Bee
 Spistu
Hive
 Tsonticma
Wasp
 Alstis
Fly
 Ungde
Dragonfly
 Rathelion
Mantis
 Eslispi
Grasshopper
 Dwelbina
Cricket
 GurrmurCicada

  Dzazzdum
Louse
  Shig
Ant
  Wisti
Butterflies
  Clumnala
Worm
  Miki
Grub
  Dunk
Moth
  Muniqpma
Cocoon
  Cuncwa
Crustacean
  Scamsca
Crab
  Phelibnoi
Shrimp
  Cheeta
Lobster
  Gambendi
Squid
  Shutra
Octopus
  Ganeo
Fish
  Sente
Ray
  Creethosa
Shark
 Hycula
Flounder
 Wenjea
Bass
 Teptust
Tuna
 Maglo
Salmon
 Zalgama
Piranha
 Shx
Walleye
 Peffija
Carp
 Golpag
Goldfish Oldisinti

 
Bird
  Anecwa
Egg
  Awa  
Nest
  Fissola
Wing
  Lowa
Feather
  Awe
Beak
  Clidza
Talon
  Hysca
To Fly
  Zeldo
To flap
  Sweffto
To soar
  Atytro
To glide
  Affago
To swoop
  Dwapilio
Owl
  Eulenor
Eagle
  Arla
Hawk
  Tyxper
Sparrow
  Nelebu
Robin
  Merelme
Swan
  Seveqpe
Finch
  Pempu
Bluejay
  Jeeme, Capaui
Cardinal
  Leentu
Goose
  Gader
Duck
  Bombu
Vulture
  Scyrax
Crow
  Targos
Raven
  Rastinus
Ostrich
  Kodan
Penguin
  Beendo
Peacock
  Scelfena
Chicken
  Cheua
Turkey
  Agnuix
Kiwi
  Cwi
Quail
  Flegwe
Pheasant
  Pezemza
Partridge
  Qiprissa
Woodpecker
  Gembliue
Loon
  Asundie
Pelican
  Ampostra
Petrel
  Flusrunos
Prion
  Yrdi
Albatross
  Umeestrios
Stork
  Phescra
Heron
  Sicfi
Crain
  Azulumi
Egret
  Gloji
Ibis
  Sclesi
Auk
  Olaubru
Gull
  Foltima
Tern
  Espitsu
Wren
  Micni
Flamingo
  Zplozza
Falcon
  Calscos
Kyte
  Qecwa
Rail
  Lessyr
Crake
  Gejidu
Dove
  Ahwispu
Pigeon
  Denju
Parrot
  Carroha
Cuckoo
  Cucu
Swallow
  Minelu
Hummingbird
  Phibzi
Lark
  Ascraluci
Lyrebird
  Mimcristu
Magpie
  Haploja
Mockingbird
  Paploga
Starling  Ezwecra








Animal  Dalthos

Mammal  Lacthmiumi

Zoo
  Dalthenethica
Horse
  Valnos
A team of horses
  Valnupnae
Cattle
  Addel
Ox
  Cfypas
Calf
  Naftupha
Bovine
  Addeliona
Bull
  Cofftre
Cow
  Nafta
Heifer
  Naftima
Steer
  Naftethid
Udder
  Legmi
Beef
  Naftalga
To moo  Ngoo

Milk
  Lacthi
To milk
  Lacthio
Horn
  Oma
Tail
  Juf flufa?
Fur
  Solsha
Cloven hoof
  Cliscidobsu
Pig
  Gucch
Boar
  Guchrek
Hog
  Guchu
Sow
  Gucha
Piglet
  Gobi
Pork
  Gutivel
Pigsty
  Guchethica
Oink  Cuunho

Snout
  Clopihu
Muzzle
  Ezda
Limb
  
Paw
  Ibwenu
Claw
  Scalca
Fur
  Selsha/solsha
Dog
  Coiros
Male dog
  Coiru   Coppu
Bitch
  Coira Humell coila
Pup
  Coirupha/u  coilipha
To bark
  Arngo
Wolf
  Lopios
She-wolf
  Loppia
Whelp
  Loppuph
To howl
  Cawuo
A Pack
  Lopupnai
Cat
  Nelca
Kitten
  Nelcima
To meow  Ngeao

Lion
  Leva
Cub
  Levima
To roar
  Arrco
Tiger
  Thagros
Leopard
  Leshtica
Puma
  Bobuda
Jaguar
  Hmixe
Panther
  Dogra
Lynx
  Lence
Jackal
  Cacwesta
Coyote
  Thupsu
Bear
  Cumothros
Sheep
  Vathen
To bah   Meho

Ram
  Vathos
Lamb
  Davaqp
Goat
  Isheleps
Billy
  Thish
Wether
  Iseled
Nanny
  Diza
Kid
  Dizima
Chevon
  Iselpsalga
Deer
  qpelnum
Buck
  Thelnor
Doe
  qpelna
Fawn
  Qpelnima, Aumistiu
Venison
  qpelnalga
To scoff
  Shiuxo
Elk
  Vapici
Stag
  Vapicu
Hart
  Vapica
Mole
  Tupra
Shrew
  Jetesha
Aardvark
  Arst
Elephant
  Oganctos
Manatee
  Manwafta
Armadillo
  Cecluba
Sloth
  Smitra
Lemur
  Rumoli
Ape
  Ebwu
Monkey
  Scishto
Gorilla
  Mygnorios
Baboon
  Babunu
Chimpanzee
  Bopumbulos
Rat
  Ralhamp
Mouse
  Jenda, Jendu  Mwima?
Porcupine
  Spina, Spinu
Chinchilla
  Chinchill Tintiza?
Guinea pig
  Ugmar
Hamster
  Tamper
Squirrel
  Twelfa Twelfu
Racoon
  Fofra Fofru
Beaver
  Walios
Muskrat
  Amistris
Badger
  Coplasci
Wolverine
  Lopima
Chipmunk
  Neednu
Gopher
  Pholog
Gerbil
  Hetchweg
Vole
  Sfara
Lemming
  Gennemel
Rabbit
  Laspi
Hedgehog
  Fegeltu
Bat
  Nefro, Nefra
Whale
  Gobalon
Dolphin
  qpeleena
Porpoise
  Delema
Narwhal
  Alvalani
Cheetah
  Scelistres
Feline
  Nelcithiumi
Mongoose
  Munnos
Hyena
  Iscapsi (demonish) 
Fox
  Vospa
Weasel
  Hwicpi
Ferret
  Ashala
Otter
  Bwendelu
Seal
  Paplastos
Skunk
  Shenca  Shencuo
Tapir
  Buxpenu
Rhinoceros
  Crynta Crynter
Giraffe
  Gwalta Gwaltu
Hippopotamus
  Felnevua
Camel
  Unta
Llama
  Elianma
Moose
  Almusi
Gazelle
  Swalima
Antelope
  Ezipiza
Caribou
  Calipu
Yak
  Hathan
Ibex
  Ipesci
Auroch
  Avrocu
Reindeer
  Malmuqpelni (crowned deer)
To hunt
  Avelumo
To frolic
  Belibo
To stalk
  Shieprio
To bite
  Kashko
To nip
  Ticho
To nuzzle
  Glupo
To growl
  Rogno
To flee
  Elistifo
To crawl
  Pashwo
To wean
  Lathico
Carnivore
  Algiagor
Herbivore
  Criagor
Omnivore
  Olmagor
To stomp  Dobsalco


Sun
Vitheriana
Sky
Mista Misca Isca Istica Mwnua Mwvista Vumista Vwmistica
Skyscreen
Inel
Cloud
Neffua   lufpo?
Blue sky
Mlosticca
Air
Daumo
Wind
Zalne vlumnu
Breeze
Melphiana
Gust
Adluplo
Atmosphere
Amelicnisia
Weather
Ruzda
Haze
Amaon
Mist
Siphonia
Fog
Lezna
Rain
Lawe
Drizzle
Lawephe, Diffidisti
Pouring rain
Lawonstra
Storm
Fystra
Tempest
Acfolta
Squall
Shmorra
Light storm
Agvueldima
Light rain
Liwimithima
Thunder
Croscta
Lightning
Iscovda
Snow
Luki
Blizzard
Hrukka
Sleet
Laweluki, Lukipha
Hale
Blumbalad
Flurries
Mlurthui
Tornado
Plaundra
Typhoon
Macwasta
Cold wind
Brulmia
Gray sky
Hizdimel
Moon
Lonu
Moonbeam
Lonalana
MoonlightLonucuna

Star
Owa, Uer, Eor, Vytha, Vythena  vnoa noe
Galaxy
Ovythiniumi
Planet
Artha   Wolner
Mars
Ruvisti
Venus
Bwitilisti
Jupiter
Hultristi
Mercury
Esfisti
The north star
Nolstra
Shooting star
Uerennik
Comet
Plombia
Asteroid
Arthuph
Meteor
Ashra
Meteorite
Asrina
Earth
Arthiana
East
Osma
North
Ivma
South
Auma
West
Umma (yumma)
Center
Icma
Summer
Astanu
Winter
Opheum
Fall
Efallia
Spring
Anexe
Day
Dolvi
Night
Reyme
Dawn
Aumisa
Morning
Amur
Noon
Alvua
Afternoon
Advua
Evening
Apsra
Dusk
Calcipsi
Twilight
Altwima
Midnight
Alvirimi
Deep night
Anexe
Sunrise
Vitheriano
Moonrise
Lonuo
Sunset
Anexe
Moonset
Anexe
Month
Lezmu
Weeks
Dendelya
Full moon
Lonulanna
Eclipse
Alcnyssa
Rainbow
Moluma
Aurora Borealis
Adwersta
Ancestors
Arienae
Family
Vilima Vamala
Relatives
Camcrioi
TwinThwelo

Forefathers
UPaxroi
Great-
Gyo-
Grandparent
Apsius
Father’s father
Pactrago
Father’s mother
Pactramga
Father’s parents
Pagzeroi
Mother’s parents
Magzeroi
Mother’s father
Magmapago
Mother’s mother
Magmaga
Gandparents children
Seroi
Grandparents son
Grelo
Grandparents daughter
Ixriliel
Parent
Anar
FatherOpaga Pactos


Father’s brother
Volnxo
Father’s sister
Ilgla
Father’s siblings
Raswe
MotherOmaga Magma

Mother’s brother
Fulnco
Mother’s sister
Wafsa
Mother’s siblings
Esloe
Father’s siblings in law
qpelfelgo
-law etc.
elga
Cousin of father’s brother
Pacwelis
Cousin
Ethoco
Cousin of father’s sister
Amitha
Cousin of mothers brother
Magwelis
Cousin of mothers sister
Sorpsina
Sibling
Qpelfa Qpelfo
BrotherPruqpu? Praqpu? Braqpu? Obraqpos


Younger brother
Anwe
Elder brother
Orowe
Sister
Swesta Sweesta     Ozwezda
Younger sister
Twimi
Older sister
Omiza
Offspring
Ugloriae
DaughterSalima? Alima? Alina?

Son
Salor? Saltros?  Tolthro Olthro Dalthro
Daughters son
Estelro
Daughter’s daughter
Izilia
Son’s son
Folsto
Son’s daughter
Wilvila
Sisters son
Oldlo
Sister daughter
Iliana
Brother’s son
Thelcros
Brother’s daughter
Delilza
Brother’s offspring
Ashrosso
Sister’s offspring
Irtosso
Father/uncle
Blasho
Mother/aunt
Mlava
Brother/sister/cousin
Icle
Son/nephew
Doato
Daughter niece
Muama
Grandparents children
Eqpgoi
Grandparents grand children
Jordoi
Parents grandchild
Flalu Flalua
Spouse
Ulpni
Husband
Argo Hargo
Wife
Vemba (veemba)
Brother wife
Sellimi
Sisters husbandCilvgo



Agree
unitcto
Be interested in
Mlisto
Be right
Utha right Uthlo
Be wrong
Arsto, Arslo
Believe
vuno
Convince
uvycno
Demonstrate
macthio
Doubt
Rothto
Forget
amwelo
Imagine
qpumio
Know
isco
Learn
Ducco qpucco, qpucto
Persuade
Hyupto
Reason
Uqpentica
Reflect
Delestno? wirpho
Remember
minimo
Study
Cluzbio? Idbo, idufo
Think
theno
Understand
firano
Horse
  Valnos Valna
Equid
  Valnethium
Pony
  Walnema
Nag
  Geleg
Foal
  Walnephe
Stallion  Thorvalnos Tholmos Thorvos

Stud  Revelnu

Sire  Dothneus

Mare  Valna Walma

Broodmare  Revelma

Dam  Datha

Gelding  Falnethid

Colt  Valnuphus Omostu

Filly  Valnupha Miuenne

Warhorse  Falner

Workhorse  Uvalanod

Drafthorse  Ufalne

Carriagehorse  Palazmona

A swift horse  Delethos

A wild horse  Halnithix

A horse for riding  Velens

Hotblood  Salnec

Coldblood  Calnec

Warmblood  Falnec

Roan  Lommoa?  Lommoana?  Omobien

Painted  Flissimu

Bay  Recthalnos  

Brown horse  Ruscalnos

Chestnut  Syralnos

White  Valdalvos

Black  Calcalnos

Red
  Valdalvos
 
Gray  Ednalnos

Dapple gray  Altsalnos

Appaloosa  Saspalnos

Brindle  Thosalnos

Buckskin  Melioa

Champagne  Dopessoa

Cremello  Nedoa

Dun  Somienne

Grulla  Agolloa

Palomino  Oldalnos

Perlino  Issoboa

Pinto  Bledoa

Breed  Melovdium

To breed  Melovdo

To ride a horse  Vielno

A horse rider  Valneus

To keep a horse  Egvalnico?   Valnuvio?

Horse feed  Falicembia

Horse shoe  Dobsicluf

Hoof  Dolbsu

Tail  Swiffwa flufo?

Donkey  Palafos

Mule  Nalivalnum

Zebra
  Zalnos
 
To neigh  Ngeho

To graze  Anglo

To kick  Acsistro

To buck
  Dzofco
To rear  Ascalo

To trot  Afwo

To amble  Glemo

To canter  Hemuto

To gallop  Adasho

To nicker  Higiligo

To whinny  Hueuho

To charge on a horse  Valnithivixo

Limb  Blombae

Mane  Plocma

Forelock  Melplixi

Throat latch  Hwacccha

Poll  Clymiplima

Crest  Clymella

Withers  Holgma

Back  Anxa

Loin  Thordname

Croup  Dunga

Haunch  Gelgetu

Dock  Pludd

Point of shoulder  Axomsi

Arm  Hmyss

Elbow  Mumu

Forearm  Melmyss

Knee  Geibi

Fetlock  Chefsca

Flank  Dwech

Stifle  Coppsiffi

Gaskin  Techgwe

Quarter  Hillie

Hock  Clospu

Cannon  Navla   (hilt)

Ankle  Scisci

Pastern  Sofft

Coronet  Nicmi  (stair)

Barrel  Daubnosa

Chestnut  Sechwe

Chin groove  Anglilosh

Frog  Alfca

Heartgirth  Ormwome

Hindquarters  Punda

Jugular groove  Cyscwefe

Mane  Plocma

Muzzle  Sarchu

Splints  Cepidelificnae

Saddle  Volcna  (throne)

Stable  Valnethica

Stirrup  Fledume

Bridle  Bluzda

Halter  Thostrux

Hackamore  Ishipwi

Rein  Ruspa

Bit  Cythes

Harness  Pushtru

Martingale  Gimoqpidda

Spur  Splost

Crop  Crolpsa

Whip  Raspitsi

Champron
  Caletsi
Criniere  Swatsena

Croupiere  Blancwall

Flanchard  Shespai

Peytral  Ormodnoa

Caparison  Flashra

horse dung  Shafalnsh




Active
Fanioc     Lombioc    Rasynno (energetic)
Affectionate
Tulbio
Tulbia
Tulbina? 

AffectionTintofa

AgreeyUnifo

AgreeableUnifioc

Aggressive
HarcoHarcioc? Harcazma

AngerClyxos? Clyxto

AngryClyxazma Clyxno Clyxieth

AnxietyGnorvmia

AssureBrommo

AttitudeThendica

Be downPhulpno

Be upWemino

BoldClyvo

BoreGufpo

BoredGufpno

BoredomGufpoe

CheerfulTupita

CheerTyptia

ComplainGlosro

ComplaintGlwsria

CruelFmarcna

CryMicami?

TearsEclimi tufta?tufnu?

DepressedReludna

DepressionReldysita

DesperateAuxtro

DisagreeRalifo

Be againstRaxtro

DisappointPhyugo

DissatisfactionAcloftium

EmotionMultiu? Ormthium?

EmotionalOrmazma

EncourageUvanisto

EncouragementUvanistea

EnthusiasticAlyvmi

FaithVynea? Vunea? Vunieth? Vwnium?

TrustFnumo? Fnuto?

FearFrois

FeelingIsnia. Ysnia. Multu? Multiu? 

FlatterUloqpio

FlatteryUlwqpima

Fun
Lufca
Plufca?
EnjoymentAmlua

GentleLammi

GloomyHogla

HappinessLaflumia

HappyLafna? Lafla? Laflana?

HopeFeana Luva?

HumbleAuploa Auplona

IndifferenceYntildium

JoyMeana

KindMumma? Mumna? Mumla bumdu?

LaughLimlia laughter Lumlo Lumla A laugh

LaughterLimlia

Mood
Qponlu? qponlua
qponda
Bad moodRalqponda

Good moodUqponda

NeedMeno Munium Munia Mwnia Mwnium

NegativeNynielna

OpposeActro 

PassiveSiftico

PatienceFelnuta patient

PositiveBystelna

ReliefHacwo  Aphua

Sigh of reliefPhunnoa

SadMaclo

SadnessMacletium

SatisfactionUmolbium

ShameTobria

Be ashamedTobrunna

SmileMymo? Memiu?

SorrowName? Nuthniu?

SurpriseNacamia

SympathyThitosa? Theetosa?

TensetCuxa

ThankfulnessDanazmia

ThankfulDannazma

ThankDanne, qpanua

TimidPhimwi

Tolerance Fotcoa

WeepPilemo? Pimelo

Wonderful
Vethonazma
Uladamo?Uqpnica



House
Famta
Dwelling
Cysethica, Umpwelca
Home
Moma Molmë
Hovel
Ralgna
Shack
Cishti
Hut
Lopcu
Castle
Arcanda
Mansion
Esysea
Fort
Dydoma
Cave
Solcmo
Cellar
Ifstoca
Tower
Ulpsa
Hamlet
Fultsa
Village
Furne, Nalmea
Town
Torsta
City
Poltomia, Polta
Port
Thusta
Agora
Rasla
Metropolis
Orpoldaia
Capitol
Upolitima
Necropolis
Strythipolta
Cemetary
Ucalmistoa
Graveyard
Mumba = grave, Mumbethica
Well
Manaithica, Mastitha, Maniva Mavna
Stable
Valnethica
Barn
Armba
Farm
Palta
Street
Slitona
Road
Tarnta
Path
Wefnu
Way
Colta
Cobblestone
Simpicava
Door
Eltru, Vrapa
Gate
Ovarnta
Wall
Cagwa, Plasco
Fence
Frosca
Window
Shimo?, Lomco? Lunco? Lucno? ect
Curtain
Smormia
Shudder
Clustrea
Blinds
Nulnaia
Ceiling
Chucta
Floor
Dolpa
Wall
Cegwe…?
Roof
Athroa? Throa? Thrumi? Thruspo?
Tile
Ticliti
Shingle
Selfra
Thatch
Crutha
Gable
Buemda
Chimney
Fumreo
Fireplace
Lacnethia
Hearth
Morme
Bath
Loimba
Shower
Lawethica
Bathroom
Qwocuno
Sink
Milerethica
Mirror
Amnya? Amnia? Vumnoa?
Stairs
Tumpista
Basement
Xepsos
Storey
Pithsa
Kitchen
Dorna
Garden
Ivellma
Fountain
Maqpiur
Statue
Otysta
Oven
Marda
Stove
Filupsa
Cauldron
Gwarthoca
Dining room
Ucwethica
Library
Buctethica
Pool
Alurqpa
Cabinet
Chesti
Cupboard
Destu
Laundry
Sharsia
Hamper
Wepsola
Living room
Urocta
Vestibule
Umolvion
Attic
Tretto
Screen
Eshti
Bedroom
Nidethica
Chair
Recla
Seat
Lorsco
Table
Orb   I? u?
Stool
Tuefsha
Throne
Volcna
Couch
Dumni
Bed
Petha
Pillow
Plumbina
Blanket
Fafla
Sheet
Wipsis
Carpet
Solista
Torch
Cafros
Chandelier
Colta
Candle
Elmina
Candelabra
Colta
 Towel
Sholwu
Sewing room
Thulethica
Storage
Avsethica Avso keep
Yard
Nafya
Field
Vemla
Grass
Crio
Bell
Dombos, dombu, domba
Doorknob
Bwelcu
Hinge
Swettu
Cart
Harnos
Chariot
Ractas
Wagon
Hunyos
Wheel
Lotta
Car
Telntos
Axle
Croc
Hub
Zonno
Boat
Psotra
Ship
Vroio
Barge
Hotpa
Ferry
Meviembra?
Canoe
Canowa
Kayak
Caiacu
Yacht
Daltama
Raft
Pwantos
Restaurant
Tyderia
Hall
Ocothiama
Dining Hall
Colt
Bar
Faur
Pub
Shaufma
BistroLizdo

Example textEdit

... That guilty moisture,                                        Ocno snèlthëa morgla
which hovers o’er the sinners’ brow,               Pwi acëmëdra ovweli arthmuionmi
and that quicksilver dew sparkling                  amu locno vnussi üsiphwi stexieni
Which green grass sip of,                                 Pwi qpunui vëneth whwiphi
Both are blissful spells,                                    tau mu üluxë thwervmiForsent by gods as dowries.                              pocwestantau ë qpolcucmaë volstumaë

The lines of cool lake                                       ë dwelfü luclu ümmëo
Flowing off the down of swan                          qpufmastru vluemnni swelqpëo
And too the serpent streams                              amu ë ephuaë elvunaë
Hugging tight the hilly earth breasts                 cliptiel ambiau plarthmiau dumbecsu 
Glimmering both as seas of stars                       Lrupsumiau spistiau vnoëo The eager giving gods do lend                           ë qpolci ainliaclini üfolsti

ümanna                                                              eOe ümanna
starry milk of gods                                             vnolna lacthi qpolcion
ümanna,                                                             eOe ümanna
the blood of mortal wish                                    ë vlarthni loa thystelthu lÿskia
From forth the swollen clouds it falls                smolpa lofcastraë dwemdimia     
As rain to bathe the earth with silver life           Laweuma arthianar egaiwn sissa vnotcma 
And the seas which flocks of fish do swim        uel loscëstaëmi smëthia sëmëon peglimia         
   And of feast by birds and bears are made       uel üaglomaë nelebix cuthmoin laun
Sweet goddreampt honey                                   aminu qpolclÿlumnthu vmwelnë
Which falls from falls on mountain tops            pwi dwemdi flasfatraë omba lu zithlidra                                                         
And feeds the hunger of the fields                      ë logmar fmention blegli
So sweet our godhoney water be                         olaminu  qpmwolcmibi manna L’ïSo golden our priceless dowry                             olausla  bio slectilas volsta i

So, think and savor in your dreaming mind     Lomo, athéné we üvmié lÿleni mithcëstaqpi
This cool water which both we drink               ocluclu manna pwi calitoiFrom silver glass glasses.                                  Culvatrau sissau crëzduau 


Gleaming virtue (Tryno lit. the effort to do the right thing)

Ilyana tryno Ilyana tryno      Gleaming Tryno
E lunyea myndo                      The only thing dear (precious emotionally, sentimentally)E lunyea myndo

E mwnua Ywa                       The sky so wide
E mwnua Lywa                           The sky bluish-white
Atotlica syno                                  A tiny thing cobbled together and posted in the groundAtotlica Sypho                                 A tiny thing cobbled together and esteemed

Ilyana Tryno                                  gleaming virtue
Ilayan Tryno                                 gleaming virtue
E lunyea Myndo                                  the only thing dearE lunyea Myndo                                    the only thing dear


O Alnetheccatra brampli valna         A horse who tramples through a rose briarElcwi umilna dolpsicli lalna              Is leaving behind sweetsmelling hoof prints, I notice with delight/



Cu Léwaë                             
O moëu                           
Dwemdènaë                 
Nelumu                              
Fmurtcaë                        
Fi armu                               
Mëdraë
Aëvi Rw
Ishtaë miau
 Armothialith
Moé Isnopauwé Vu mu lëëth

Cu- 2nd person plural nominative pronoun. All you. Used as a vocative here.Léwa- Noun, 'Leaf' feminine inanimate. -ë Nominative  Plural

Cu Léwaë - "You Leaves all,"

O - Indefininite article. - 'An'Moëu- Noun, 'Boy' - Masculine animate.

O Moëu - 'A boy'

Dwemdo- Infinitive of 'To Fall uncontrolably or Uncontrolled.'
Dwenmdèno- Progressive Infinitive- 'To be falling uncontrollably or Uncontrolled"Dwemdènaë- Verb, Present tense, Progressive Aspect, 2nd person plural "You all fall uncontrollably" (I.E. the leaves do)

Nèlumu - Adjective "Being adored, cute and elegant." - Singular Masculine nominative ending. (that is it matches the Boy who is Nelumu.)

Fmurtcaë- Adjective "Being dappled or speckled with varied brilliant warm colors, such as a herd of horses, or sparks from a fire. -Plural feminine nominative (it is the leaves which are Fmurtca)

Fi- Quotative adverbial particle. In this case carries the meaning of "being X at the same time as well"Armu- Adjective- "warm" - Sinuglar masculine nominative.

Fi Armu - "While being Warm at the same time (the boy)

Mu- 3rd person singular oblique pronoun, nominative. "it"Mëdra- 3rd person singular inanimate feminine pronoun, superessive. "On top of it"

Mëdraë- 3rd person plural inanimate feminine  pronounm superessive. "On top of them" (the Leaves)

Aëvo- Infinitive- "To walk"
Aëvi- Verb, present tense, third person singular, masculine animate. "He Walks"Rw- 3rd person singular animate masculine pronoun, nominative. "He"

Aëvi Rw- "He walks"

Ishtmaë- Adjective- "Being in pain" - feminine plural, nominative. Miau- Conjunction- "But"

Ishtmaë miau- "It's painful but" (its painful to the leaves)

Armélthia- Warmth, singular, nominative, feminine abstractive.
-li- 3rd person masculine singular possessive enclitic. "His"
Armélthialith- Noun, Warmth, singular, feminine abstractive+3rd person masculine animate singular possessive enclitic+ accusative case."His warmth" (The boy's warmth is the object of a verb that has yet to be said"

Moé - Still, Yet, Even so.
Isno- Infinitive- "To feel"
Isnopo- Infinitive potential mood- "to be able to feel."
Isnopau- Verb. present tense, potential mood, 3rd person plural inanimate. "they can feel""Still though, They can feel" (The leaves can feel the warmth of the boy)

Wé - Conjunction- "and" prenclitic
Vu- First person singular masculine animate nominative pronoun. "I"
Mu- As well, too. Lëëth- Antienclitic form of -lith, that is the third person singular masculine animate possessive+accusative enclitic. "his"

Wé Vu mu Lëëth- "And I too (can feel) His (warmth)"

You dappled brilliant leaves tumble down
While a boy cute, while being warm as well
Walks on top of you.
It's painful but
You can still feel his warmth.
As can I.


Dialects: The same text above in the different Alnean dialects.

Alpine/ west mountains
Lomnomi vallietten           u->o vu->mi Lomnoth Valnien uet      

Co Lëvien          Antai Vimortsien Lewien Dwemenaf
Jo Mjeou            é Moio Nelmo Fÿthé Armo
Dvemmenai        Elo Antai Aivoth Ro
Nelme               I ishtma cuuw
Vmorsan             Aqpmes Isnof rio Arlemtient
Vilm Ahrm           Elnt Wo Saë 
Miedre               
Aëvoth Reu        
Ischtei Mjau          Ishtma mI cuuw
Reim Arméltient  Rio Armeltient
Aqpmes IsnofElnt Wo Saë

South coast  u->y  ln-> nn th_> qp
Lynny vy vannaqp Lynnye Vanne vou

Cy Leue                 Dwyddenei Chy Leue Fimyrse
Ou Muyey             Eivy Ou Muyey Nilemy Fy Army Mydra
Dwyddenei            M’ae Istui Miuy ytt Isynofou Armélqpia Ryqp
Nilemy                  Wy Vy My Ryqp
Fimyrze
Fy Army
Mydra
Eivy Ry
Istui Miuy
Armélqpia Ryqp
ytt IsynofouWy Vy My Ryqp

Gaulian
Lliumme’myr malnaui L->LL U->iu u->e  vu-> myr v_> mutation m Lliummie’dhyr meou

Gue Llieuaui         Dhuimninuai Gue Llieuaui Mhuorsiaui
A Mhuau                 Ae’r  Mhuau Niellemau a Hoarmh iun Auim Amp fuoi
Dhuimninuai      Ae’r Iusmuai Meou Snopuau Ing Armodh Rua El Myr Snop
Niellemau
Mhuorsiaui
I Hoarmh
Amp Foi
Aumhie Rou
Iusmuai Meou
Armodh Rua
Ing SnopuauEl Myr Snop


North west 
Vü Lünnem mi vanne  u->ü -u-> -em vu-> mi o->e ln->nn Mi Vanna Lunnid vou

Cü Leiba             Cü Smürza Leiba Dümmnesi
Oe Mojju            Oe Nelme Mojju F'armü Mieidri Ouvid
Dümmnesi          Istme Meo Lüm Armlete Snopad Elnt Vü mü poei
Nelme
Smürze
F'armü
Mieidri
Ouvi Lü
Istme MeoLüm  Armlete


Central west
Vue Leunni mi Vauné  u_. ue u->i a-> auI Vauno Leunni voeu 

Cue Leiuai Efmuerze Deauemdinay
Au Muai Nilemeu I L'aurme Oin Mai L'eyvi
L’ist Dolrone Mau
Meue Isneupau Armeldie lo ruemEln Vue mue Isneupi


Deauemdinay
 Nilemeu
Efmuerze
I L'aurme
Oin Mai
L'eyvi
L’ist Dolrone Mau
Armeldie lo ruem
Meue IsneupauEln Vue mue Isneupi

South Central
Fi Lömmö di fannt  vu-> fi u-> o:  ë-> di  v_> f Di Fann Lömmi fei 

Hi Leiwië Smorziën Tfemtinei
Oe  Nelme Moin Si Armme Oevith Of Mei
Da Ist  Ishti Mjaü
Tie kann isnen Reiss ArmithUlt Kann Fi


Tfemtinei
Nelm
Smorzen
Si Arm
Of Mei
Oevi li
Isht MjaüReiss Armt


Central
Fi lömm di fánn  Di fânn Lomm fei

Hi Smortz Laüe Tfeimnungon
ü Nelm ult Ahrm Moy Euft Of Tei
Das Ist Eisht Mjo Tei kann schnop reiss AhrmtUlt Kann fi

Tfiemnetei
Nelm
Smortz
Sharm
Of Mei
Rhi Euft
Ishti MjauReiss Armt

Southcentral mountains
Fi lömmu di valli  di Vallo Lömmi fo

Ci Lièvé Fmorzé Duondené

Eu Moggio Nielimo S'Armi Vem Mé L'oivi
Istimi Istmi mia
Isnoffo Armelca di roIl Fi mio la

Tuondené
 Nielimu
Fmorzé
S'Armi
Ven MéL'oivi
Istmi miaArmelca di ro

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