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Alternative English

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Alternative English
Oðer Englisc
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Alternative English (Oðer English) is a Germanic tongue descended from Old English in a world where the Norman conquest of 1066 failed and where there was therefore a much reduced influence of French upon the language. This manifests itself in a greater Germanic portion of the wordstock, the preservation of a second person singular and a more (though still not entirely) regular orthography, amongst others. Moreover, greater verbal inflection is found, along with a more conservative article system that is more akin to Modern German's.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative f v ð θ s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate x
Approximant r j w
Lateral l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Long Short Long Short Long Short
Close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ɜː ə  ɔː
Open æ ʌ ɑː ɒ
ː

Alphabet (Stafrow)Edit

Alternative English is written like its real-world counterpart in the Roman Alphabet, although there are several variations.

Letter IPA Example word
a [ɑː] after
æ [æ] cæt
b [b] big
c [k] cæt
d [d] dog
e [e]/[ə]* walce
f [f]/[v] fish
g [g] god
h [h]/[x] hiy
i [ɪ]/[ɪː]/[ai] in
l [l] liy
m [m] man
n [n] cniyf
o [ɒ] not
p [p] pig
r [r] riys
s [s]/[z] sick
t [t] tiym
u [ʌ]/[ʊ]/ duc/bun
w [w] wax
x [ks] wax
y [j] why
þ/ð [θ]/[ð] þink/bað
  • is pronounced [ə] when it is word-final and often in unstressed syllables.

​Letter combinations (Staf bindings)

Letters IPA Example
ay [eɪ] taycen
al ː] walcen
ch [tʃ] chees
sh [ʃ] she
dg [dʒ] edg
ol [əʊ] folc
ee [iː] chees

PhonotacticsEdit

Grammar (Stafcraft)Edit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Nouns (Naymwords)Edit

The first main point of importance where nouns are concerned in AE is that there is retention in some part of the old grammatical cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. 

In Alternative English, the arbitrary gender system present in Old English has collapsed to a lesser degree than with real-world English. Instead, a two-case Scandinavian model exists, whereby all nouns have either common (into which the old masculine and feminine nouns are grouped) and neuter gender. 

Typical common noun paradigm - 'cæt (Tocen woenkind naymword bending)

Grammatical case Singular Plural
Nominative (se) cæt  (þe) cæts
Accusative (þon) cæt (þe) cæts
Dative (þem) cæte (þem) cætum
Genitive (þis) cæts (þer) cæta

Typical neuter noun paradigm - 'child' (Tocen neiðerkind naymword bending)

Grammatical case

Singular Plural
Nominative (þæt) child (þe) children
Accusative (þæt) child (þe) children
Dative (þem) childe (þem) childrum
Genitive (þis) childs (þer) childra

A German-like system of definite articles still exists, detailed below:

Definite article paradigm (Strong liþword bending)

Common (sg.) Neuter (sg.) Plural
Nom. se þæt þe
Acc. þon þæt þe
Dat. þem þem þem
Gen. þis þis þer

VerbsEdit

Verbs are conjugated with somewhat more inflection than modern English verbs. Due to the continued usage of þow, the '-est' ending is not at all archaic, whilst the plural ending of '-en' has equally been retained (as well as marking the infinitive). Notably different also is the fact that the distinction between strong and weak verbs has been kept, so that a distinct set of classes has remained for verbs which share vowel changes throughout their paradigm.

Regular verb endings in the present tense (Steady deedword endings in þon nowtiym)
Person Ending Example verb (to walcen)
1st p. sing. (I) -e

I walce

[ai wɔːk(ə)]

2nd p. sing. (þow) -st/-est

þow walcst

[θow wɔːkst]

3rd p. sing.

(he/she/hit)

-eth/-th/-t*

he walceþ

[hiː wɔːk(ə)ð]

1st p. plural

(we)

-en

we walcen

[wiː wɔːk(ə)n]

2nd p. plural (ye) -en

ye walcen

[jiː wɔːk(ə)n]

3rd p. plural

(þey)

-en

þey walcen

[θei wɔːk(ə)n]

Adjectives (Marcwords)Edit

Adjectives decline depending upon definiteness and number, but not case or gender.

Singular (indefinite) Singular (definite) Plural (indefinite) (Plural definite

Adjective

(good)

a good cæt se goode cæt goode cats þe goode cats

SyntaxEdit

The underlying word order of AE is SVO, but there is a much stronger V2 tendency than in real world English. Any adverb or subordinate clause will cause the verb to proceed its subject as with:

Se fish swimmeþ fast in þon see. --> Fast swimmeþ se fish in þon see.

Often goen we down to þon seerim (coast) to saylen amidst þem wayfum.

Hafing yseen þon unholye mess yleft at þem table, was se man unbeliefing and wiðchoes þer bidding to hangen wið þem.  - Having seen the unholy mess left at the table, the man couldn't believe it and turned down their offer to join them.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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