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Alternative English

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Alternative English
Oðer Englisc
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Alternative English (Oðer English) is a Germanic tongue descended from Old English in a world where the Norman conquest of 1066 failed and where there was therefore a much reduced influence of French upon the language. This manifests itself in a greater Germanic portion of the wordstock, the preservation of a second person singular and a more (though still not entirely) regular orthography, amongst others. Moreover, greater verbal inflection is found, along with a more conservative article system that is more akin to Modern German's.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative f v ð θ s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate x
Approximant r j w
Lateral l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Long Short Long Short Long Short
Close ɪ ʊ
Mid e ɜː ə  ɔː
Open æ ʌ ɑː ɒ
ː

Alphabet (Stafrow)Edit

Alternative English is written like its real-world counterpart in the Roman Alphabet, although there are several variations.

Letter IPA Example word
a [ɑː] after
æ [æ] cæt
b [b] big
c [k] cæt
d [d] dog
e [e]/[ə]* walce
f [f]/[v] fish
g [g] god
h [h]/[x] hiy
i [ɪ]/[ɪː]/[ai] in
l [l] liy
m [m] man
n [n] cniyf
o [ɒ] not
p [p] pig
r [r] riys
s [s]/[z] sick
t [t] tiym
u [ʌ]/[ʊ]/ duc/bun
w [w] wax
x [ks] wax
y [j] why
þ/ð [θ]/[ð] þink/bað
  • is pronounced [ə] when it is word-final and often in unstressed syllables.

​Letter combinations (Staf bindings)

Letters IPA Example
ay [eɪ] taycen
al ː] walcen
ch [tʃ] chees
sh [ʃ] she
dg [dʒ] edg
ol [əʊ] folc
ee [iː] chees

PhonotacticsEdit

Grammar (Stafcraft)Edit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Nouns (Naymwords)Edit

The first main point of importance where nouns are concerned in AE is that there is retention in some part of the old grammatical cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive. 

In Alternative English, the arbitrary gender system present in Old English has collapsed to a lesser degree than with real-world English. Instead, a two-case Scandinavian model exists, whereby all nouns have either common (into which the old masculine and feminine nouns are grouped) and neuter gender. 

Typical common noun paradigm - 'cæt (Tocen woenkind naymword bending)

Grammatical case Singular Plural
Nominative (se) cæt  (þe) cæts
Accusative (þon) cæt (þe) cæts
Dative (þem) cæte (þem) cætum
Genitive (þis) cæts (þer) cæta

Typical neuter noun paradigm - 'child' (Tocen neiðerkind naymword bending)

Grammatical case

Singular Plural
Nominative (þæt) child (þe) children
Accusative (þæt) child (þe) children
Dative (þem) childe (þem) childrum
Genitive (þis) childs (þer) childra

A German-like system of definite articles still exists, detailed below:

Definite article paradigm (Strong liþword bending)

Common (sg.) Neuter (sg.) Plural
Nom. se þæt þe
Acc. þon þæt þe
Dat. þem þem þem
Gen. þis þis þer

VerbsEdit

Verbs are conjugated with somewhat more inflection than modern English verbs. Due to the continued usage of þow, the '-est' ending is not at all archaic, whilst the plural ending of '-en' has equally been retained (as well as marking the infinitive). Notably different also is the fact that the distinction between strong and weak verbs has been kept, so that a distinct set of classes has remained for verbs which share vowel changes throughout their paradigm.

Regular verb endings in the present tense (Steady deedword endings in þon nowtiym)
Person Ending Example verb (to walcen)
1st p. sing. (I) -e

I walce

[ai wɔːk(ə)]

2nd p. sing. (þow) -st/-est

þow walcst

[θow wɔːkst]

3rd p. sing.

(he/she/hit)

-eth/-th/-t*

he walceþ

[hiː wɔːk(ə)ð]

1st p. plural

(we)

-en

we walcen

[wiː wɔːk(ə)n]

2nd p. plural (ye) -en

ye walcen

[jiː wɔːk(ə)n]

3rd p. plural

(þey)

-en

þey walcen

[θei wɔːk(ə)n]

Adjectives (Marcwords)Edit

Adjectives decline depending upon definiteness and number, but not case or gender.

Singular (indefinite) Singular (definite) Plural (indefinite) (Plural definite

Adjective

(good)

a good cæt se goode cæt goode cats þe goode cats

SyntaxEdit

The underlying word order of AE is SVO, but there is a much stronger V2 tendency than in real world English. Any adverb or subordinate clause will cause the verb to proceed its subject as with:

Se fish swimmeþ fast in þon see. --> Fast swimmeþ se fish in þon see.

Often goen we down to þon seerim (coast) to saylen amidst þem wayfum.

Hafing yseen þon unholye mess yleft at þem table, was se man unbeliefing and wiðchoes þer bidding to hangen wið þem.  - Having seen the unholy mess left at the table, the man couldn't believe it and turned down their offer to join them.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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