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Angos is an a posteriori international auxiliary language. It started out as an auxiliary for English, Chinese, and Spanish; it had a balance between each language's complexity and expressive features. Now, the language draws its influence from a number of different languages, including Arabic, Hindi, Japanese, and even Basque. This language was co-developed by users Detectivekenny, Panglossa, and Razlem, with some others.

"Angos" ['aŋ.gos] simply means "Artificial Language". For a basic introduction, including learning resources, visit the official site @ http://angoslanguage.wikispaces.com/

This project is completed.
By all means, please contribute to the language's culture and/or history.
Progress 98%


PhonologyEdit

Vowels: [a], [e], [i], [o], [u]

Consonants: [p], [t], [k], [b], [d], [g], [m], [n], [w], [j] (y), [h], [f], [v], [s], [l, r] (l), [ts] (c)

The digraphs ng and nk may be pronounced [ŋɡ] and [ŋk] respectively.

Diphthongs: aw, ew, iw, ow, ay, ey, oy, uy

Stress: Penultimate

Syllable Structure (C = consonant; V = vowel; S = semivowel)

  • V
  • VC
  • CV
  • SV
  • CVS
  • SVC
  • CVC
  • SVS
  • CCV
  • CSV
  • CSVS
  • CSVC

A liquid (unless at the beginning or end of a root) must be preceded and succeeded by a vowel or semivowel. The combinations sk, st, and sp are preceded by a vowel.

Language CharacteristicsEdit

Angos is a language which is lightly inflected and has a tendency to isolate. A few unique innovations are also present in the language:

Medial Vowel SystemEdit

Drawing from similar IALs, this language features a classification system where the last vowel indicates the part of speech.

Nouns: 'o'

Verbs: 'a'

Adjectives: 'i'

Adverbs: 'u'

Other (conjunctions, prepositions, particles): e

Natural and Artificial Noun DistinctionEdit

In this language, parts of speech are distinguished as either naturi (natural) or omsanati (artificial, i.e man-made). Natural words take a vowel, and to denote an artificial quality, an "s" can be added.

Word Derivation and MorphologyEdit

Angos is a noun-based language, meaning every non-particle has a noun root.

For example, the full inflection of the word ot meaning "fire":

ot- Ending Word Translation
Natural Noun o oto natural fire
Natural Verb a ota to start a fire (natural causes), go to a fire, play with fire
Natural Adjective i oti hot, flame-like, like a natural fire
Natural Adverb u otu in the manner of a natural fire
Artificial Noun os otos artificial fire (campfire, arson)
Artificial Verb as otas to start a fire (artificial causes), go to a fire, play with fire
Artificial Adjective is otis hot, flame-like, like an artificial fire
Artificial Adverb us otus in the manner of an artificial fire


Now for a usual verb, "to have". The noun for this is a "grip" or "hold", b-

  • ba - to get, have, know, understand, take

A word of caution: words in this language are meant to be ambiguous as to facilitate conversation. The reasoning behind this system is (noun [action]), where the action is whatever the context allows. The first example ota "to fire", can be taken as "go to a fire" or "to start a fire". The second example verb is "to have a grip of something" or "to get a grip of something", as in to make something in your grip or hold, to have it in your grip or on your person.

The verb "to be" is omitted completely.

I am a [noun] = Wo [noun]
I am [adjective] = Wo [adjective]

Other Derivatives

Person who is doing VERB = endocentric compound (gi-omo = runner)

Person who does VERB habitually = semu (semu gi-omo = runner)

Place with lots of NOUN, Place where VERB is done = -oy- (va-oyo = forest) (al-oyos = kitchen)


Determining GenderEdit

All nouns are inherently a neutral gender.

Person - omo

Male - na-

Female - ni-

The gender is placed at the beginning of the compound (for more info on compounding, see the Compounding section below):

Man = na-omo

Example: male runner = na-gi-omo (the gender precedes all other parts of the compound)

Woman = ni-omo

Example: female runner = ni-gi-omo

No Plural InflectionsEdit

This language does not include inflections for plurals normally found in other IALs, nor does it include traditional articles. The particle "re" functions as a plural marker. Demonstrative correlatives are used in place of definite articles.

I see a cow - Wo via sapio [lit. I see cow]
I see cows - Wo via le sapio [lit. I see (more than one) cow]
I see the cow - Wo via fove sapio [lit. I see this cow]
I see the cows - Wo via fove le sapio [lit. I see this (more than one) cow}

ParticlesEdit

Angos employs heavy use of particles to determine aspect, tense, mood, etc. The polar particles se and ne can be attached to other particles to emphasize or negate respectively.


Tense:

Tense Angos English Translation
Present Tense ala eat
Past Tense me ala ate
Future Tense ke ala will eat


Moods:

Interrogative - ce (must always begin the question): Ce to ala? - Do you eat? (this is only used if there is no interrogative correlative)
Modal Particles Positive Translation Negative Translation
Ability seale can neale can not
Permission seste may neste may not
Necessity semye must, have to nemye must not
Desire seve want, would like neve do not want, would not like
The negative necessity modal nemye means explicitly "must not" as in "You must not eat": To nemye ala. To say something like "You do not have to eat", you would place a negative marker in front of the positive modal: To ne semye ala (You 'no' must eat)
  • Directive commands can be expressed with just the verb:

Ala! (Eat) Ne ala! (Don't eat)

  • Volitive commands are expressed with -vame:

Sevame gia! (Let's go!) Nevame gia (let's not go)


Evidentiality and Epistemic Modality:

Epistemic Particle Angos Example English Translation
setine Ro setine gia Evidently, he walked.
netine Ro netine gia It is doubtful that he walked.


Comparison:

Comparative Particle Angos Example English Translation
sele Wo sele bali de to. I am taller than you.
nele Wo nele bali de to. I am less tall than you.
sefe Wo sefe bari. I am the tallest.
nefe Wo nefe bari. I am the least tall.

Polarity:

Polar Particle Agnos Example English Translation
se Wo se gia. Yes, I am going.
ne Wo ne gia. No, I am not going.

Particle PlacementEdit

Particles go before whatever they modify.


SyntaxEdit

Basic sentence structure (unmodified) is SVO: Wo kelea golo (I throw the ball).

Passive voice is formed with the particle te preceding the verb: Golo te kelea ve wo (The ball is thrown by me).


ModifiersEdit

Place the modifier before whatever it modifies.

[Wo] [milu] [ne ba mao]

In the case above, the negative polar particle ne can only go before ba (it will only negate the succeeding word). Mao is an object and must directly succeed the verb unless it is being modified (e.g: ...ba bali mao)

Prepositional PhrasesEdit

A prepositional phrase is constructed:

([prepositional particle] + [object modifiers] + [object])


Verb TransitivityEdit

Transitive and intransitive verbs are unmarked.

Transitive: Wo mabada [object] = I change [an object]

Intransitive: Wo laksa = I dance


CompoundingEdit

Angos uses endocentric compounding, in which A+B denotes a special kind of B. In Angos, compounding is generally used for artificial words with no natural counterparts. Stress is placed on the penultimate syllable of each root in the compound.

Store

toval = merchandise
oy = place
toval + oy + Part of Speech Marker = toval-oyos = store [lit. merchandise place]

Windmill

mag = grain

oy = place
mag + oy + POS marker = mag-oyos = granary/mill [lit. seed place]
bavel = wind
bavel + magoyos = bavel-mag-oyos = windmill [lit. wind seed place]

Television

vi = eye
mek = machine, mechanism
vi-mekos = TV [lit. eye machine]

Telephone

ans = conversation
mek = machine, mechanism
ans-mekos = telephone [lit. conversation machine]

Computer

no = brain
mek = machine, mechanism
no-mekos = computer [lit. brain machine]

VocabularyEdit

NounsEdit

The noun inventory in Angos is relatively low, only a little more than 500 lexical roots (as of June 2011). But when inflected, there are more than 4000 distinct words.

WordOrigin

The pie chart above shows the percentage of the language groups whose vocabulary was used in creating Angos.

Language Group Percentage
Latin (Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Latin) 14
Germanic (English, German, Nordic) 13
Macro-Altaic (Turkic, Japanese, Korean) 11
Slavic (Russian, Polish, Czech, Bos/Serb/Croatian) 9
Semitic (Arabic, Hebrew) 9
Greek 6
Finno-Ugric (Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian) 6
Austronesian (Tagalog, Indonesian, Malay) 5
Hindi/Urdu 4
American (Hopi, Cherokee, Navajo, Nahuatl) 4
A priori 3
Mix 3
Chinese 3
Swahili 3
Armenian 2
Basque 2
Hieroglyph 1
Gaelic 1
Sanskrit <1
Bantu <1
Telugu <1


DictionaryEdit

For a full, up-to-date dictionary, please visit the wikispaces site.

PronounsEdit

The pronouns follow the same inflection rules as other nouns. However, when used as adjectives, they become possessive pronouns (my, your, their, our)

Pronouns Singular Plural
1st Person wo re wo
2nd Person to re to
3rd Person ro

re ro

ParticlesEdit

(prepositions, conjunctions, other)

ParticleEnglish
deat, for, to, than
ve*of (possessive), from, since, by (authorship)
mwewith, by way of, using, via
besewithout
yeand
oeor
mitsebut, rather, although, however
nivenear, about, by
inein, into, inside
tweout, out of, outside
daveon, on top of, over, up
dore

under, below, down

beif
sarieunless
fiwane(just) in case
matein order to, so that
paheinstead of, rather than
orosealready, yet
ganteconcerning, about, on, in terms of
weseoff, away
erikangenevertheless, despite, notwithstanding
tavethere is, there are
antebefore, until
posteafter, behind
hie**in, on (temporal)
rotaneplease (politeness marker)
terelative marker, passive marker
replural marker
setineevidently, certainly
netineuncertainly, maybe
heonly, just, no more than

*ve is a possessive marker, not a genitive. The only exceptions to its usage are the pronouns, which use the adjective ending to denote possession.

**Ine and dave are strictly spatial particles (e.g. I am in the house - Wo ine reisos). The particle hie is strictly temporal and would be used for phrases like "on Sunday" (hie ayntsios) or "in three hours" (hie tin tyaso).

Table of CorrelativesEdit

:D What This That

Some

Any

Few Many Every No
X

kove

which [x]

fove

this [x]

dove

that [x]

move

some [x]

yove

any [x]

fetove

few [x]

varove

many [x]

osove

each [x]

nove

no [x]

Time

kue

when

fue

now

due

later

mue

sometime

yue

anytime

fetue

seldom

value

many times

osue

always

nue

never

Verb

kewe

do what

fewe

do this

dewe

do that

mewe

do something

yewe

do anything

fetewe

do a few things

valewe

do many things

osewe

do everything

newe

do nothing

Association

koce

whose

foce

this one's

doce

that one's

moce

someone's

yoce

anyone's

fetoce

few people's

valoce

many people's

osoce

everyone's

noce

no one's


Using the Table of CorrelativesEdit

Questions are always in the format: Particle-Subject-Verb-Object

The interrogative correlatives (as well as the particle 'ce') act as clause enhancers; they will always begin the question.

Ce to kafe-oya? - Are you going to the coffee shop?
Ce lo pani-amo? - Is it blue?

Relative interrogatives are formed with the addition of the particle "tu":

Wo ba te kove omo me fewe - I know who did it

Word TablesEdit

Numeral Numbers - re rakamo
0 nun
1 ayn
2 don
3 tin
4 kan
5 keyn
6 sin
7 sun
8 okon
9 novan
10 den
11 den-ayn
12 den-don
13 den-tin
20 don-den
21 don-den-ayn
30 tin-den
40 kan-den
100 syen
125 syen-don-den-keyn
1000 den-syen
1125 den-syen-don-den-keyn
10,000 syon
11,125 syon-den-syen-don-den-keyn
100,000 den-syon
1,000,000 eseon
10,000,000 den-eseon
100,000,000 ospen

Example TextEdit

IntroductionsEdit

Anya Hello/Goodbye
Kove ti namos?

What is your name?

Wi namos... My name is...
Kove oyo to ve?

Where are you from?

Wo ve... I am from...
Ce to kali? How are you?
Osove kali It's going well (lit. Everything good)
...boli ...bad
...hemi ...so-so/usual
Mila Thanks
Ce to? And you?
Ye to You too


Estukos Ayn ve Om-Pilav-IposEdit

Article One of the Declaration of Human Rights

Angos English (direct)
Estukos Ayn Part 1
Osome kotayu ye beselu te bebea mwe pativo ye pilavo. Le lo ba logiko ye no-senso ye sevame sisalu osewe de osove ando. All people from birth are free and equal in honor and rights. They have logic and conscience, and should like siblings act towards each other.


Featured BannerEdit

Fove angos me aynu te bokaa.

Isue efa te kinoa ye li kal-meno, me te awkela te bokaa.

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