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Aqͣqarͤrhat

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Aqͣqarͤrhat
Aqͣqarͤrhat
Type
Agglutinating/Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite/Aqͣqarͤrhatian
Head direction
Head-Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Pronouns only
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Aqͣqarͤrhat is a language spoken by a civilization of the same name, that once has ruled in the region of the great river Thailassar; the very name (which is the Middle Aqͣqarͤrhat form, by the way) means "Riverland". Several periods of formation of this language are known, ranging from Proto-Aqͣqarͤrhat, from which also a few other languages come from, through Old and Middle (also called High) stages up to what is nowadays known as the New Aqͣqarͤrhat, with some major changes occuring between these steps.

PhonologyEdit

Old Aqͣqarͤrhat ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m ɳ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p, pʼ, pʰ t̪, t̪ʼ, t̪ʰ ʈ, ʈʼ, ʈʰ k, kʼ, kʰ q, qʼ, qʰ ʔ
Fricative s, sʼ h
Affricate
Approximant
Trill r ʀ
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

Old Aqͣqarͤrhat VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i, iː, ĩ, ĩː, ĭ, ĭ͂; y, yː, ỹ, ỹː, y̆, y̆̃ u, uː, ũ, ũː, ŭ, ŭ̃
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ, ɛː, ɛ̃, ɛ̃ː, ɛ̆, ɛ̆̃ ɔ, ɔː, ɔ̃, ɔ̃ː, ɔ̆, ɔ̆̃
Near-open
Open a, aː, ã, ãː, ă ẵ


As we can see, the Old Aqͣqarͤrhat distinguished its 6 vowels by length (short, medium and long) and by nasality (nasal vs. not nasal). It also retained some of its Proto-language's tonality: its accented vowels (long or medium only) had a pitch accent (High, Mid, or Low), but this was lost in the later stages of development.

High Aqͣqarͤrhat ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m ɳ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p, pˤ t̪, t̪ˤ ʈ, ʈˤ k, kˤ q, qˤ ʔ (non-phonemic)
Fricative ɸ θ s, sː ʂ x χ
Affricate
Approximant l
Trill r ʀ
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

As we can see here, some changes occured during the transition of the Old Aqͣqarͤrhat into the Middle. First, all ejectives disappeared, and pharyngealized stops appeared instead (in the sibilants, the change was in length: the old ejective sibilant changed into a new short, but pulmonic version, and the old 'normal', pulmonic one was lengthened). Also, old aspirated stops became fricatives, with the retroflex fricative getting sibilantized and the uvular and velar ones merging together. The old glottal phonemes changed into the so-called transition system; old glottal stop change into the 'hard transition' (that is, it stayed where it had been, still separating the two syllables), but the glottal fricative changed into 'soft transition' instead, disappearing completely via the lenition process. In the word-initial or final positions the glottal consonants disappeared completely (glottal stop tuning up only to separate vowels from two adjacent words, which otherwise wopuld b in a hiatus). The hard transition meant that the two vowels where to be pronounced separately; and the soft transition caused the vowels to be pronounced without any pause, effectivelly turning them into a diphthong (or even a triphthong or oligophthong, sometimes).


High Aqͣqarͤrhat VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i, iː, ĩ, ĩː, ĭ, ĭ͂; y, yː, ỹ, ỹː, y̆, y̆̃ u, uː, ũ, ũː, ŭ, ŭ̃
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ, ɛː, ɛ̃, ɛ̃ː, ɛ̆, ɛ̆̃ ɔ, ɔː, ɔ̃, ɔ̃ː, ɔ̆, ɔ̆̃
Near-open
Open a, aː, ã, ãː, ă ẵ

Except of the addition of the new soft and hard transition system, the vowel structure of the language didn't change, except that the vowels became shorter and lost the pitch (even in the accented syllables). They also retained the nasalization. The old short vowels became reduced ones, written as a superscript (qͣ) or with a respective diacritic (ă). They could occur only after consonants, if they weren't directly followed by a medium or long vowel. If such a reduced vowel was nasalized, its nasality extended onto the preceding consonant, making it slightly voiced in the process. In the Old Aqͣqarͤrhat, there was a rule that forbade nasal vowels from following ejectives; this was moved into the High Aqͣqarͤrhat, thus keeping the pharyngealized consonants from being followed by a nasal vowel. Only vowels could be word-final, though; and so, there could be no consonants not followed by an (at least reduced) vowel in this position; yet, the only non-close reduced vowel that actually could appear there was the schwa, written as reduced e, or not at all. The reduced close vowels i, u and y could, though, happen even there, starting the process of changing these vowels into palatalization, labialization and palato-labialization, respecively, which would apply to these vowels in all positions (not only word-finally) in the New Aqͣqarͤrhat.

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

The Old and High Aqͣqarͤrhat permit only syllables with an (optional) one-consonant onset, an obligatory nucleus and no coda; yet, the nucleus may consist just of a reduced vowel (which, especially between unvoiced consonants, might be almost inaudible for most European speakers). Vowels that are linked by a soft transition (that is, no consonant interrupting, not even a glottal stop) are treated as singular vowels, even though they might seem to be diphthongs, triphthongs, etc..

Interestingly, glottal stop may occur at the beginning of words, distinguishing them from the ones that don't have it.

Old Aqͣqarͤrhat didn't permit any consonant clusters; this was kept in the High Aqͣqarͤrhat. The New one actually permits some (prenasalizd stops, for example), but it's still quite stiff in this matter.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No Yes No Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

Aqͣqarͤrhat nouns decline by cases (14) and number (7/8); the Old one had also genders (4), but in the later stages it was preserved in the pronomial forms only.

CasesEdit

As I said above, Aqͣqarͤrhat nouns have 14 cases in total, these being:

  • Direct (the 'subject case'; neither agent nor patient, but can act as any or both);
  • Ergative (the agent; the direct cause (or 'perpetrator') of an action);
  • Accusative (the patient; the direct recipient (object) of an action);
  • Causal (the indirect cause of something happening);
  • Dative (the (indirect) recipient, benefactor, goal or effect of an action);
  • Instrumental (the way, the means or the tool to do something);
  • Comitative (parties that accompany the carrying out of an action, not being directly involved);
  • Possessive (the owner of a thing);
  • Inessive (the surroundings or circumstances);
  • Adessive (all-round indirect case; usually corresponding to the preposition 'about');
  • Ablative (the source; motion from; usually used with adpositions to mark moving away from some position);
  • Allative (in the direction of; motion to; usually used with adpositions to mark the movement into a position);
  • Perlative (through, across, by, along, via; usually used with adpositions to mark movement through or via a position)
  • Locative (in, at; used to mark the location where something occurs, might be thought of as a static counterpart of the 3 cases above; usually used with adpositions to mark placement in a position).

Aqͣqarͤrhat nouns have 3 different stem forms, each used with a different set of cases:

  • form 1 (or direct) - used to form Direct, Ergative and Accusative;
  • form 2 (or middle) - used to form Causal, Dative, Instrumental and Comitative;
  • form 3 (or indirect) - used to form Possessive, Inessive, Adessive, Ablative, Allative, Perlative and Locative cases.

There is yet another, fourth form, though - the adjectival form. It can take any of the aforementioned cases, as well as a fifteenth case, the Adverbial (used to make adverbs).

These forms are usually quite regular, although some irregularities might also occur; there can also actually exist several different variants of each form of a single substantive (that is especially true for the adjectival), sometimes with varying meaning.


Aqͣqarͤrhat noun casesEdit

Case Affix
Ergative -sē- [sɛː]
Accusative -'on- [ʔɔn]
Causal -kara- [kara]
Dative -tumu- [tumu]
Instrumental -ximi- [ximi]
Comitative -ţolo- [ʈɔlɔ]
Possessive -ãrhe- [ãʀɛ]
Inessive -ymo- [ymo]
Adessive -esso- [ɛsːɔ]
Ablative -šōfa- [ʂɔːɸa]
Allative -hangū- [χaŋuː]
Perlative -'ēnho- [ʔɛːɴɔ]
Locative -qͦ'ly- [qˤɔ̆ly]

When in adjectival form, however, the Aqͣqarͤrhat nouns and gerunds tend to use alternative affixes for some cases, as well as a distinct Adverbial case.

The alternative forms are:

  • -sse- [sːɛ] for Ergative
  • -ky̆̃ňu- [ky̆̃ɳu] for Instrumental
  • -nhͣthu- [ɴăθu] or -ngangū- [ŋaŋuː] for Dative
  • -ţ'ylĩ- [ʈˤylĩ] for Possessive
  • -qēra- [qɛːra] for Ablative
  • -hŭ̃t'ē- [χŭ̃tˤɛː] or -rhē- [ʀɛː] for the Adverbial case.

These affixes (save the Adverbial) are used only sporadically, though, usually in more formal occasions; normally, the usual noun affixes are used. The exception is the participle form of verbs; it actually should use only the 'alternative' affixes (although it may take the 'normal' ones instead, too, but seldom). So, in short, nominal adjectives tend to use 'normal' affixes, while the participles/gerundial adjectives usually use the alternative ones.

Comparing and intensity markersEdit

Aqͣqarͤrhat uses the so-called intensity markers or affixes, which are added to words (most often adjectivals or verbs) to express their intensity. In conjunction witha few characterisitc cases, these might be used to form comparative sentences.

Aqͣqarͤrhat intensity markersEdit

Function Marker
Positive/Equative -p'a- [pˤa]
Amplifying -k'y- [kˤy]
Intensive -q'u- [qˤu]
Weakening -t'e- [tˤɛ]
Diminutive -fī̃- [ɸĩː]
Residual -ssͦ- [sːɔ̆]
Elative -p'ȭţẵ- [pˤɔ̃ːʈẵ]

The Positive and Elative are used solely in comparison, whereas the other markers here have also different functions. The Amplifying and Intensive, as well as Weakening and Residual are used to mark various levels of intensity (from the highest to the lowest). The Diminutive is used to express familiarity.

Comparison:

When a word marked with the above is used in juxtaposition with another word of the same category in a certain case, then it's certainly a comparison. The respective cases to be used on objects of comparison are:

  • Ablative with Amplifying, Intensive and Elative
  • Allative with Weakening, Residual and Diminutive
  • Adessive with Positive (and with any other, too).

Moreover, the Elative (which, in fact, is only rarely used) always appears with its object in Collective number.

NumbersEdit

There are 7 (or 8) numbers in Aqͣqarͤrhat, these being:

  • Singular (one of an instance of a concept; for single, whole, countable things);
  • Dual (used for countable things that are double or occur in pairs or couples; in later times, used for any symmetric system);
  • Trial (used for countable things that are triple or occur in threes; in later times, used for any asymmetric system);
  • Plural (any set of countable elements, but taken respectively, that is, as a set of units, not a consistent group; in English pronouns 'every' and 'each' are used to express a similar concept);
  • Null (zero of instances of a concept; can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns);
  • Partitive/Paucal (a part of a greater whole; a little/a few; can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns);
  • Collective (all of instances of a concept; can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns).

There also used to be a Quadral number, used for quadruples, fours and 'supersymmetric' systems, but its use was limited for religious purposes only, and so they weren't used in everyday speech.

Aqͣqarͤrhat noun numbersEdit

Number Affix
Singular -'ȭ- [ʔɔ̃ː]
Dual -qē- [qɛː]
Trial -ţunu- [ʈunu]
Quadral (ancient) -qeqe- [qɛqɛ]
Plural (respective) -fōnhu- [ɸɔːɴu]
Null -ssythi- [sːyθi]
Partitive/Paucal -tͧli- [tŭli]
Collective -hȭma- [χɔ̃ːma]

Aqͣqarͤrhat also has a 'blank' or 'unknown' number, with no numerical affix added; this is used when the number is not known, irrelevent or can be understood from the context.

Pronominal particlesEdit

Aqͣqarͤrhat doesn't have pronouns as we know them; it rather uses different particles (for example, gender, person or definitness markers) affixed to other parts of speech to convey pronominal ideas (so, the pronoun 'I' would be expressed by a combination 'human-Definite-1st person-Singular-Direct case').

Aqͣqarͤrhat pronominal particlesEdit

Particle type Particle form
1st person (personal particle) -mā- [maː]
2nd person -ssē- [sːɛː]
3rd person, masculine (personal/gender particle) -qō- [qɔː]
3rd person, feminine -thī̃- [θĩː]
3rd person, impersonal animate -fȳ- [ɸyː]
3rd person, impersonal inanimate -ngū̃- [ŋũː]
Definite (absolute) (definitness particle) -ţȭn- [ʈɔ̃ːn]
Definite (exclusive) -lã'- [lãʔ]
Definite (demonstrative) -it'i- [it̪ˤi]
Indefinite -y̆ak- [y̆ak]

As you can see, the 3rd person pronomial particle has 4 genders. There are also 4 particles dealing with definitness. The first one of these, the absolute definite, is used to express that sb/sth is the only one of his/its kind (like he (and no one else) is the greatest king). It's often used witht the superlative. The exclusive definite, on the other hand, delas with groups; it works on a similar basis as the exclusive pronouns in some languages (like we, but not you). The demonstrative definite is used like the this/that in English, although the Aqͣqarͤrhat doesn't make any distinction between the near and remote; different forms are used to distinguish those. Finally, the indefinite is used to express the idea of 'some' or 'any' (like in 'someone, something, anybody, anywhere' etc.)

VerbsEdit

Verbs don't conjugate by tense, voice or person, but they have 6 aspects (Perfect, Inchoative, Stative/Gnomic, Active/Continous, Cessative, Progressive) and 4 moods (Indicative, Interrogative, Potential/Subjunctive, Optative/Jussive).

Aspect/tenseEdit

As said above, Aqͣqarͤrhat has 6 aspects (I call them aspects rather than tenses, as they convey the manner of an action, not actual time), these being:

  • Perfect (an action completed some time prior, but its effects still visible)
  • Inchoative (an action/state is just commencing)
  • Gnomic (an undefined action; might be constant or habitual; similar to Greek or Quenya Aorist or English Present Simple)
  • Continous (an action that is happening at the moment of speaking, or a state that is changing)
  • Cessative (an action/state that is ceasing)
  • Progressive (a future, usually planned or somehow predicted action/state)

Aspects are marked with special affixes assigned to them:

Aqͣqarͤrhat verb aspect affixesEdit

Aspect Affix
Perfect -kexą̄- [kɛxãː]
Inchoative -hę̄a- [χɛ̃ːa]
Gnomic -ĭnha- [ĭɴa]
Continous -sȳla- [syːla]
Cessative -ţ'u- [ʈˤu]
Progressive -ĩrhͦ- [ĩʀɔ̆]

MoodEdit

There are 4 moods in Aqͣqarͤrhat verbs:

  • Indicative (a real action)
  • Interrogative (used to form questions or statements the speaker is somewhat unsure of)
  • Potential/Subjunctive (used to make hypotheses, usually in conditional sentences; ambigous as to the speaker willing something or not)
  • Optative/Jussive (orders, demands, wishes or encouragement; speaker espresses his will that something happen)

Each mood has its own verb stem form (similar to the nouns' system), to which the aspectual affixes are added.

There is also the gerund, which has its own stem form (and might thus be called a fifth 'mood'). It doesn't take the aspectual affixes, though, but the substantival ones instead (the same as the adjectival in nouns, so, including the adverbial case). Although, if an aspectual affix is added, the gerund turns into a participle (its temporal relation to the main clause being marked by the aspectual affix).

Like the nouns, the verbs might have even several variants of a single form.


ModalityEdit

Aqͣqarͤrhat doesn't have verbs to express modality; instead, it uses modal particles, followed by verbs in their usual form. The particles are not clitics, and they always precede the verb they modify; they can also be put at the beginning of a sentence.

There's a list of them:

Aqͣqarͤrhat verb modality particlesEdit

Type Particle
necessity (need) ndăra- [ɳăra]
obligation (have to/must) k'uŏ- [kˤuɔ̆]
possibility (can) fyma- [ɸyma]
permission (may/to be allowed to} kithĭ͂- [kiθĭ͂]
will (want to) lane- [lanɛ]
advice (should) mą̄xa- [mãːxa]

EvidentialsEdit

There are two evidential particles: -ngalĭ [ŋalĭ] and -ssyrĭ [sːyrĭ], added after the verb they modify. The former one implicates that the speaker is sure of the information expressed, and the latter one indicated the exactly opposite.


NumeralsEdit

Aqͣqarͤrhat numerals use an octal (8-based) system, which is also, perhaps, a cause for number 4 and its multilplications to be considered holy by the Aqͣqarͤrhatians.

There are 7 types (or forms) of numerals. They're declined just like the adjectives, and, indeed, their function is very similar. There are some differences, of course, but not too complex.

So, these 7 types of numerals in Aqͣqarͤrhat are:

  • Cardinal numbers (the most basic ones; also functioning as nouns, but they are not used with the Adverbial case; one, two, three, etc.)
  • Ordinal numbers (indicating the order of things; they may take the Adverbial case (for example, for the first/second/third time etc.); first, second, third etc.)
  • Collective (groups of elements; naturally, there is no number one or the Adverbial case; they correspond to the cardinal numbers as the dual/trial/collective do to the plural; (group of) two, three etc.)
  • Multiplicative (similar to the Latin multiplicatives; singular, twofold, threefold, etc.; might take the Adverbial case - once, twice, etc.)
  • Genitive numbers (used to express some part coming from a greater number of things,like one/some/none/any of two, three, four, etc.; don't have the number one or the Adverbial case)
  • Partitive numbers/Fractions (not to be confused with the grammatical number Partitive; used in fractions; one half, one third, two fifths etc.; no number 1 or Adverbial)
  • Distributive numbers (much like their Latin counterparts; one-by-one, two-by-two, three each, per four, etc.; can take the Adverbial).

So, to sum up, there are 7 different types of numerals in Aqͣqarͤrhat (or 10, if counting the Adverbial forms of some of them). To these might be added various 'indefinite' numerals, functioning as pronouns, nouns or adverbs in English (for example, some, all, least, any, etc.).


The main Aqͣqarͤrhat numerals are shown below:

Type Cardinal Ordinal Collective Multiplicative Genitive Partitive Distributive
1 kărit [kărit] kărite [kăritɛ] kărit'ē [kăritˤɛː] kăritum [kăritum]
2 ssērh [sːɛːʀ] ssērhē [sːɛːʀɛː] ssērhȭ [sːɛːʀɔ̃ː] ssērhe [sːɛːʀɛ] ssērhy̆šō [sːɛːʀy̆ʂɔː] ssērhišō [sːɛːʀiʂɔː] ssērhum [sːɛːʀum]
3 q'u [qˤu] q'uē [qˤuɛː] q'uȭ [qˤuɔ̃ː] q'ue [qˤuɛ] q'ušō [qˤuʂɔː] q'ušō [qˤuʂɔː] q'u'um [qˤuʔum]
4 ţil [ʈil] ţilē [ʈilɛː] ţilȭ [ʈilɔ̃ː] ţile [ʈilɛ] ţilyšō [ʈilyʂɔː] ţilišō [ʈiliʂɔː] ţilum [ʈilum]
5 hỹ̄ [χỹː] hỹ̄ē [χỹːɛː] hỹ̄ȭ [χỹːɔ̃ː] hỹ̄e [χỹːɛ] hỹ̄šō [χỹːʂɔː] hỹ̄šō [χỹːʂɔː] hỹ̄'um [χỹːʔum]
6 xąth [xãθ] xąthē [xãθɛː] xąthȭ [xãθɔ̃ː] xąthe [xãθɛ] xąthyšō [xãθyʂɔː] xąthišō [xãθiʂɔː] xąthum [xãθum]
7 'iši [ʔiʂi] 'išiē [ʔiʂiɛː] 'išiȭ [ʔiʂiɔ̃ː] 'išie [ʔiʂiɛ] 'išyšō [ʔiʂyɔː] 'išišō [ʔiʂiɔː] 'išium [ʔiʂium]
8 nhā' [ɴaːʔ] nhā'ē [ɴaːʔɛː] nhā'ȭ [ɴaːʔɔ̃ː] nhā'e [ɴaːʔɛ] nhā'y̆šō [ɴaːʔy̆ʂɔː] nhā'ĭšō [ɴaːʔĭʂɔː] nhā'um [ɴaːʔum]
64 ndē [ɳɛː] ndē [ɳɛː] ndēo [ɳɛːɔ] ndē [ɳɛː] ndēšy̆ [ɳɛːʂy̆] ndēšĭ[ɳɛːʂĭ] ndē'um [ɳɛːʔum]
512 fara [ɸara] fare [ɸarɛ] faro [ɸarɔ] fare'e [ɸarɛʔɛ] farešy̆ [ɸarɛʂy̆] farešĭ [ɸarɛʂĭ] farum [ɸarum]

SyntaxEdit

Aqͣqarͤrhat has a generally free word order, although the predicate and the subject are always just beside one another, without any other word intruding between them. This language is interesting because of its unusual morphosyntactic alignment: apart from Ergative and Accusative cases, which are used to mark the agent ad the patient, respectively, it also has a third case, Direct, which is neither, but can act as any (or both; it indeed comes from a fusion of old Nominative and Absolutive). The Direct-marked subject is obligatory in all of the Aqͣqarͤrhat sentences; it can be intransitive (alone), act as an agent (with Acc.), a patient (Erg.) or even the two at the same time, with both Accusative patient and Ergative agent, (sometimes) with each having its own predicate; this way Aqͣqarͤrhat language is able to form the so-called dipredicative sentences.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


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