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Conlang

Aquilian

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Aquilian
'
Type
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative, Dative
Head direction
Variable
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Masculine, Feminine, Neuter
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

The Aquilian language is closely related to Latin, with very similar grammar and basic vocabulary. Native speakers are well aware of the similarities and a common origin between the two is often suspected, but despite the close relations and ongoing interlinguistic contact, there are some very significant differences between Latin and Aquilian.

These differences include the passive voice, which is common in Latin but is falling out of use in Aquilian except in a few verbs where the passive is most used. Aquilian also lacks a synthetic future tense, and in general distinguishes aspect before tense unlike in Latin. However, while Aquilian verbal morphology has greatly simplified relative to Latin, the nominal morphology retains archaic features lost or marginalized in Latin, such as the locative case. But the most striking differences are in the syntax; Latin, despite using prepositions and most adjectives after nouns, is normally verb-final. This contrasts with Aquilian, where the syntax is head-initial with very few exceptions, and is best shown by the verb-initial and verb-second word orders, and the mainstream Aquilian dialects seem to be developing a topic-prominent structure similar to many East Asian languages but very unusual among Western European languages.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

(NOTE. Sounds in round brackets are allophones)

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n (n) (ŋ)
Plosive p b t d k kʷ g gʷ
Fricative ɸ (β) (f) (v) θ (ð) s (z) x (ɣ)
Affricate
Approximant l j w
Trill r
Flap or tap (ɾ)
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e ə o
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are declined in several classes, but there are some patterns that can aid memory of the various forms:

Class I, final -a
akʷa- 'water', feminine Singular Plural
Nominative, Vocative akʷā akʷās
Accusative akʷām akʷans
Genitive akʷās akʷāzom
Locative akʷai akʷais
Dative akʷai akʷais
Ablative akʷād akʷaid

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1Iegō(m), me
2you (singular)tū, te
3heēs
4wewēs, nōs
5you (plural)ūs, wōs
6theyēzoi
7thiskēs, kēa, kēd
8thatiβēs, iβēa, iβēd
9here
10thereiβē
11whokʷōs
12whatkʷōd
13wherekʷōɸē
14whenkʷande
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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