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Aratkoma

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Aratkoma
Aratkoma
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Head-final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Aratkoma is the official language of Aratkom.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ñ /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive p b /p b/ t d /t d/ k g /k g/
Fricative f v /ɸ β/ s z /s z/ š ž /ʃ ʒ/ q h /x ɣ/
Affricate c /t͡s/ ç /t͡ʃ/
Trill r /ʀ/
Lateral app. l /l/

VowelsEdit

MonophtongsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close
Close-mid é e* o
Mid e
Open-mid ê
Near-open
Open a

The y, u and o are rounded. All other vowels are unrounded.

* Pronounced like this when it is stressed

DiphtongsEdit

There is one diphtong, au, which is pronounced /aʊ̯/.

Vowel lengthEdit

I and É are long when they're stressed. Ê is only short when followed by at least two consonants. O, U and Y are long when they're stressed or when they're in the first syllable of the root. A and E are never long.

AlphabetEdit

Aratkoma alphabet

Aratkoma is written in the Aratkoma alphabet, which is shown in the picture together with its romanized form. It is written from up to down.

PhonotacticsEdit

The syllable formula is: (F)(C)(R)V(R)(C), with F a fricatve, C a consonant, R a consonant but not a plosive or an affricate, and V a vowel. A syllable cannot begin with three consonants. There can't be more than two vowels in a row and a consonant cannot appear twice in a row.

The stressed syllable is always the second last one, unless the word only has one syllable, when that syllable of course is the stressed one.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

CasesEdit

The Aratkoma language has five cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative and prepositional.

The nominative is used for the subject: ( tarça kartoder. I ate a fish.)

The genitive is used for possesion: (Ra neas byra mean. The man's house is red.)

The dative is used for the indirect object: (Ki terško capa girkuden. He gave some money to you.)

The accusative is used for the direct object: (Qé tarça kartoder. I ate a fish.)

The prepositional is used after all prepositions.

NounsEdit

There are four groups of nouns: masculine nouns ending on a vowel, feminine nouns ending on a vowel, neuter nouns ending on a vowel and nouns ending on a consonant. Nouns ending on a consonant are all declined the same way.

MASCULINE NOUNS ENDING ON A VOWEL
Case Singular Plural
Nominative Nea Neal
Genitive Neas Near
Dative Nei Neek
Accusative Nea Nela
Prepositional Neu Neap

Some masculine nouns have a nominative singular ending on -i. The other cases have the same endings.

FEMININE NOUNS ENDING ON A VOWEL
Case Singular Plural
Nominative Kuro Kurom
Genitive Kuros Kurê
Dative Kuré Kures
Accusative Kuro Kurom
Prepositional Kuru Kuraš

Some feminine nouns have a nominative singular ending on -u or -y. The other cases have the same endings.

NEUTER NOUNS ENDING ON A VOWEL
Case Singular Plural
Nominative Eñe Eñes
Genitive Eñes Eñés
Dative Eñi Eñir
Accusative Eña Eñas
Prepositional Eñu Eñuš

Some neuter nouns have a nominative singular ending on -é or -ê. The other cases have the same endings.

NOUNS ENDING ON A CONSONANT
Case Singular Plural
Nominative Purt Purtak
Genitive Purto Purtau
Dative Purti Purtis
Accusative Purt Purtek
Prepositional Purtu Purtuš

Words from this group with a P within them are usually masculine. Other words with a S, a Š, a Z or a Ž within them are usually feminine. Other words with an A, an É, an Ê or an I within the are usually neuter. Most other words are masculine.

VerbsEdit

This table shows the conjugation of the verb posak, "to walk".

Present Past Past perfect Future
1st sg. posar posader posarener posapor
2nd sg. posat posadet posarenet posapot
3rd sg. posan posaden posarenen posapon
1st pl. posamo posademo posarenemo posapomo
2nd pl. posati posadeti posareneti posapoti
3rd pl. posako posadeko posareneko posapoko
Infinitive posak posadek

PassiveEdit

The helping verb mindok marks the passive voice.

Modality and irrealisEdit

Modality is marked with helping verbs. However, the same helping verbs are, combined with a past infinitive, also used to express irrealis. How this works can most easily be explained with examples:

Aratkoma Gloss Meaning
Tarça kartor. fish-ACC eat-1SG. I eat a fish.
Tarça kartok otar. fish-ACC eat-INF must-1SG. I have to eat a fish.
Tarça kartodek otar. fish-ACC eat-PAST-INF must-1SG. I should have eaten a fish.
Tarça kartodek žartur. fish-ACC eat-PAST-INF want-1SG. I wish I ate a fish (but I didn't).

This can be done with all modal verbs, though these ones are the most common.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are placed in front of the nouns and have the same endings as the nouns ending on a vowel.

The comparative is formed by the prefix kê- (kêt- before a vowel). The superlative has -lak- between the stam and the ending.

ArticlesEdit

Aratkoma only has definite articles. The articles don't have cases.

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular ra ro šé
Plural ral roé šes

PronounsEdit

Personal pronounsEdit

Singular
1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Nominative kau
Genitive qa kai lua
Dative qi ki li
Accusative
Prepositional qu ku lu
Plural
Nominative mute rauko elmar
Genitive muti raç lém
Dative muto réo elmi
Accusative meky rac lar
Prepositional mecy ry ly

Possessive pronounsEdit

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular ha ka la
Plural muta ra ema

Possessive pronouns are declined as adjectives.

Demonstrative pronounsEdit

Proximal
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular les meo koc
Plural lép mes cok
Distal
Singular la qeo çitu
Plural lêr heo zir

Relative pronounsEdit

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative séu toe
Genitive sêç toeš mêr
Dative sêr tor mêš
Accusative séa toê mêk
Prepositional sêhu tohu mêu

NumeralsEdit

Number Cardinal Ordinal Number Cardinal Ordinal Number Cardinal Ordinal
1 eq eqêr 11 çimeq çimeqêr 21 košto-eq košto-eqêr
2 ko kobêr 12 çimko çimkobêr 22 košto-ko košto-kobêr
3 mara marabêr 13 çimara çimarabêr 30 marašto maraštobêr
4 léža léžabêr 14 çimléža çimléžabêr 40 léžašto léžaštobêr
5 rês rêsêr 15 çimrês çimrêsêr 50 rêšto rêštobêr
6 kum kumêr 16 çimkum çimkumêr 60 kumšto kumštobêr
7 lin linêr 17 çimlin çimlinêr 70 linšto linštobêr
8 ork orkêr 18 çimork çimorkêr 80 orkšto orkštobêr
9 palu palubêr 19 çimpalu çimpalubêr 90 palušto paluštobêr
10 çim çimêr 20 košto koštobêr 100 poco pocobêr

1000 = kendor

10 000 = qybêm

100 000 = alas

725 396 = linalas koqybêm rêskendor marapoco palušto-kum

Word orderEdit

Perakistu ra nea qi tarça girkuden ra lê byru.
Yesterday the man me fish gave at home.
Yesterday the man gave me a fish at home.
ra meu byru
the in red house
in the red house
kartok mindok žartun
eat be* (he) wants
(he) wants to be eaten

*: Helping verb marking passive

DerviationEdit

From verbsEdit

Suffix Meaning Example
-ha to let someone ... çiqñyk (to die) - çiqñyhak (to kill)
-na someone who ... kêrçiqñak (to hunt) - kêrçiqñana (hunter)
-hec tool nalték (to write) - naltéhec (pen)

Note that the infinitive ending -k should be removed before deriving.

From adjectivesEdit

Affix Meaning Example
-žé -ness, -ity, etc. ñqêšça (dark) - ñqêšçažé (darkness)
-kêra* un-, not ... imara (happy) - imarakêra (unhappy, sad)
-k to be ... imara (happy) - imarak (to be happy)
-és- very ... imara (happy) - imarésa (very happy)

*: The suffix -kêra can be used for all adjectives, but many of them also have another opposite which is commonly prefered.

VocabularyEdit


No. English Aratkoma
1I
2you (singular)kau
3he
4wemute
5you (plural)rauko
6theyelmar
7thisles
8thatla
9herelêsto
10therelato
11who
12what
13wherevuré
14whenpélu
15howrantê
16notem
17alléšku
18manymašku
19someteršku
20fewzokšku
21otherišku
22oneeq
23twoko
24threemara
25fourléža
26fiverês
27bigtêra
28longtera
29wideêda
30thickñysa
31heavyubra
32smallosyra
33shortquka
34narrowsuša
35thinqêšça
36womanqarko
37man (adult male)nea
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childeñe
40wifebendo
41husbandbenda
42motheržyno
43fatherkora
44animalkêrçesto
45fishtarçé
46birdpištêr
47dogdašta
48lousevêtqor
49snakesaçare
50wormtišçu
51treesulka
52forestrascéra
53sticknendo
54fruitmole
55seeducéra
56leafkqyq
57rootrito
58barksulkanêrt
59flowerkuro
60grassžyža
61ropeopan
62skinlinto
63meatkêrçyqa
64bloodnaño
65bonetažaro
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggguštri
68horngoça
69tailnilas
70featherhombo
71hairzéžar
72headnget
73earupka
74eyeorhe
75nosepusto
76mouthnésa
77toothprute
78tongueseñe
79fingernailylga
80footcota
81legpêro
82kneenace
83handlibê
84wingmohara
85bellyšité
86gutscqyrtqpe
87neckpêsa
88backhure
89breastzuro
90heartidica
91liverfur
92drinkvistryk
93eatkartok
94biteqotok
95suckzuro
96spitngatqak
97vomittogyk
98blowlrak
99breatheasémak
100laughdoglak
101seerétok
102hearrutok
103knowlautik
104thinkgacek
105smellrotok
106feardêtarek
107sleepnytyk
108livecêtek
109dieçiqñyk
110killçiqñyhak
111fightqbidek
112huntkêrçiqñak
113hitêfok
114cutkumuk
115splitazêrtyk
116stabsgandok
117scratchydak
118digeslak
119swimpêlésak
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkposak
122comehicêšek
123lienytak
124sitdortok
125standrenpok
126turnontak
127falllustok
128givegirkuk
129holdñetarek
130squeezepêryk
131rubpozuk
132washeléndahak
133wipevotok
134pullatfok
135pushmatfok
136throwivašyk
137tieopak
138sewoprek
139countrnubok
140saydañak, mylrak
141singvétak
142playšetak
143floatobok
144flowkylok
145freezefkarçpqak
146swellkêtêrak
147sunfarcom
148moonlyra
149starpaçobo
150waterklyre
151rainklyrbo
152riverkilê
153laketéže
154seatamu
155salttamuma
156stonekrašçi
157sandmêqe
158dustžimêq
159earthrenpo
160cloudqfyhobe
161fogmêrét
162skyobo
163windšyçe
164snowklyrbol
165iceletsé
166smokedenpo
167fireñipa
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnñipak
170roadpurt
171mountainbacka
172redmea
173greennuña
174yellowratêça
175whitesoca
176blackzyštqyra
177nightzyštqisto
178daykistu
179yeartoçkar
180warmhêsa
181coldfkarçpqa
182fullvol
183newñoka
184oldtulra
185goodpara
186badhtera
187rottentfiça
188dirtykyqça
189straightbala
190roundunta
191sharpiciqa
192dullihida
193smoothrira
194wetklyra
195drymiklyra
196correctpara
197nearkanto
198farbuva
199righttisu
200leftogas
201atkanto
202in
203withlorp, foç, gryš
204andnê, no
205ifkisçu, kiçê
206becauseikéa, etar
207namehymbe


ExamplesEdit

Ra tulra nea posan šé a çistu, ñéte du vuré, em lautin.

The old man walks to the city, but he doesn't know where it is.


Ra krašçi lustoden.

The stone fell.


Pištêr ybêden kanto i has byryvras téu-qibek.

A bird flew by my stores display window.


Bar tu séu yzartak ékaran, ra tulra nea posaden a qu.

The old man that enjoys reading walked up to me.


Bar tu ho êta-zêrt hicêšerenen ra a byryvru, soca dzyt pažetek mindon a bar tu pošnea ékaran, byryvru ikéa partulrante ba.

A white cart which my aunt had gone to the store with is being transported to a store that no one really likes because it is just too old.

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