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Arda lingwa

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Arda lingwa
(temporary name)
Type
fusional
Alignment
nominative-accusative
Head direction
initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

As a general idea, consonnants don't distinguish voiced and unvoiced, explaining the [~] between two letters of the IPA.

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Glottal
Nasal m ɱ1 n ŋ2
Plosive p~b (b) t~d (d) k~g (g)
Fricative f~v (v) s~z (z) ʃ~ʒ (j) x3 h4
Affricate t͡s~d͡z5 (dz) t͡ʃ~d͡ʒ5 (dj)
Approximant j (y) w
Trill r
Lateral app. l

1 When followed by /f~v/
2 When followed by /k~g/
3 Occurs for two reasons:

  • 1.When /i/ is followed or preceded by /j/; or when a descending diphthong is followed by an ascending diphthong of the same nature (e.g. /äj.jä/ -> /äj.xä/);
  • 2.When /u/ is followed by /w/; or when a descending diphthong is followed by an ascending diphthong of the same nature (e.g. /äw.wä/ -> /äw.xä/

4 This sound isn't written, but implied within the text and speech. It's used instead of the glottal stop, between vowels or in a beginning of a word that begins with a vowel.
5 Associated with the digraphs "dz" and "dj"

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ə (h)
Open-Mid ɔ1 (o)
Open ä

1 In diphthongs "wo" and "ow", in triphthongs "yow' and "woy"; and when followed by two consonants in the same word.

AlphabetEdit

a b d e g h i j l m n o r u v w y z

Diphthongs and triphthongs Edit

Diphthongs Edit

Ascending with y: ya ye (yi [xi]) yh yo yu

Descending with y: ay ey hy oy

Ascending with w: wa we wi wh wo (wu [xu])

Descending with w: aw ew hw ow

Triphthongs Edit

Initial and final y: yay yey yhy yoy

Initial y and final w: yaw yew yhw yow

Initial w and final y: way wey why woy

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No Yes No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle Yes No No Yes No No No No


Word Identification Edit

Words are susceptible to ablaut in order to identify their nature. The principle goes likewise:

  • A becomes E
  • O becomes I
  • H becomes U

ExplanationEdit

  • If the first and last syllable has an A, O, or H, the word is identified as a singular noun.
  • If the first syllable has an A, O, or H, but the last syllable became E, I, or U, the word is identified as a plural noun.
  • If the first syllable has either an E, I, U, but the last syllable has an A, O, or H, the word is either an adjective (if it follows a noun) or an adverb (if it follows a verb). N.B.: adjective don't take a number agreement.
  • If the first and last syllable has an E, I, or U, the word is a verb.
last syllable a, o, h e, i, u
first syllable
a, o, h singular noun plural noun
e, i, u adjective/adverb verb

Exception:

In case of a descending diphthong, or triphthong implying H and O in the last syllable:

  • H becomes O
last syllable a, h e, o
first syllable
a, o, h singlular noun plural noun
e, i, u adjective/adverb verb

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

Example textEdit

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