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Aruk

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Aruk
Aruk nan otlo
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
none
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Aruk (Aruk nan otlo [ˈɑˑɺɯk nɑn ˈoˑt͡ɬo]) is a language isolate that employs a multitude of cases and verb forms, but maintains complete regularity. It is largely agglutinative and sentences are head-final.

PhonologyEdit

Aruk has a fairly small phonemic inventory. Allophones are in parentheses ( ).

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ɲ) (ŋ)
Plosive p t k ʔ
Fricative (ɸᶣ) s (ɕ) (ç) (x) h
Affricate t͡s (t͡ɕ)
Lateral fric. t͡ɬ
Lateral flap ɺ
  • /n/ becomes palatalized to [ɲ], and becomes velarized [ŋ] before velar consonants and fricatives.
  • /s/ is becomes palatalized to [ɕ].
  • /t͡s/ is becomes palatalized to [t͡ɕ].
  • /h/ becomes labio-palatalized to [ɸᶣ].
  • /h/ becomes palatalized to [ç].
  • /h/ becomes velarized to [x].

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i y ɯ
Close-mid o
Open-mid ɛ œ ʌ
Open ɑ
  • /i/ palatalizes any preceding consonant. 
  • /y/ labio-palatalizes any preceding consonant.
  • /ɯ/ velarizes any preceding consonant.
  • /i/, /y/, and /ɯ/ all act as approximates /j/, /ɥ/, and /ɰ/, respectably, before long vowels and between other vowels.

Stress and Vowel LengthEdit

It is standard that the first syllable of a word recieves primary stress, and the vowel of that syllable gets "half long" vowel length /ˑ/, unless:

  • that vowel exhibits full length /ː/, (oopi [ˈoːpi]).
  • that vowel acts as an approximate, (iuura [ˈjɯːɺɑ]).

Vowels written twice are pronounced as long /ː/.

AlphabetEdit

Aruk nan Ahükita

"Aruk nan ahükita", the Aruk alphabet. Its script is closely related to the Latin alphabet.

Letter IPA Allophones
A a ɑ
E e ɛ
Ë ë ʌ
H h h ɸᶣ ç x
I i i
K k k
M m m
N n n ɲ ŋ
O o o
Ö ö œ
P p p
R r ɺ
S s s ɕ
T t t
Tl tl t͡ɬ
Ts ts t͡s t͡ɕ
U u ɯ
Ü ü y
’ ‘ ʔ

PhonotacticsEdit

General syllable structure is (C)V(C) or GN, where:

  • C is any consonant.
  • V is any vowel.
  • G is a glottal stop /ʔ/.
  • N is a syllabic nasal.

Some exceptions:

  1. A word cannot begin with /ʔ/ if it begins with a (C)V(C) syllable. (am)
  2. A syllable cannot end in /ʔ/. (ka)
  3. GN syllables cannot follow a syllable that ends in a consonant. (hat‘n)

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are declined by use of suffixes according to their number and case. There are 2 numbers (singular and plural) and 17 cases.

NumberEdit

A noun is made plural with a suffix. These suffixes depend on the corresponding case to which the noun belongs. A noun ending in a vowel gets the -m suffix, and a noun ending in any consonant gets the -üm suffix. The siffixes for the rest of the cases are listed below. 

CasesEdit

Nominative Meaning maame maamem atan atanüm naanëts naanëtsüm
Accusative direct object maamet maame‘m atan atantëm naatëtsët naanëtsë‘m
Dative indirect object maamek maame‘nëk atan atankëm naanëtsëk naanëtsë‘nëk
Prosecutive across maameias maameiam atanias ataniam naanëtsias naanëtsiam
Intrative between, among, amidst, inter- maamesar maamesarëm atansar atansarëm naanëtssar naanëtssarëm
Ablative from, out of, away from maamesötl maamesö‘mëtl atansötl atansö‘mëtl naanëtssötl naanëtssö‘mëtl
Inessive in, inside maameiitl maameüütl ataniitl atanüütl naanëtsiitl naanëtsüütl
Adessive by, near, close to maamenami maamemami atannami atanmami naanëtsnami naanëtsmami
Genitive of, belonging to, associated with maamen maameiim atanin ataniim naanëtsin naanëtsiim
Locative on maametötl maametütl atantötl atantütl naanëtstötl naanëtstütl
Perlative through maameno maamenum atanno atannum naanëtsno naanëtsnum
Allative to, towards maameran maamerem atanëran atanërem naanëtsëran naanëtsërem
Subessive under, below, beneath maamer maamerüm atanër atanërüm naanëtsër naanëtsërüm
Instrumental-comitative with (accompanied by) maamep maame‘nëp atam atampëm naanëtsëp naanëtsë‘nëp
Instrumental with (instrument), via, by means of maameputu maameputum atamputu atamputum naanëtsputu naanëtsputum
Privative without, lacking maamehar maameharëm atanhar atanharëm naanëtshar naanëtsharëm
Prepositional object of prepositon maamesa maamensa atansa atanë‘nsa naanëtssa naanëtsë‘nsa

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are also declined according case. They are classified by number, person, formality for second-person singular, and clusivity for first-person plural. There is also a "zero-person" pronoun that acts similarly to the English word "one", but does not carry the same academic tone.

PersonalEdit

Person Singular Plural
Formal Informal Inclusive Exclusive
1 apau tutüm tamnam
2 ipi irai iritsim
3 üna rënam
0

ReflexiveEdit

Person Singular Plural
Formal Informal Inclusive Exclusive
1 apara tutüram tamnaram
2 ipira irara iritsiram
3 ünara rënaram
0 nüra

ReciprocalEdit

Person Inclusive Exclusive
1 tutüse tamnase
2 iritsise
3 rënase
0 nüse

Possessive Edit

Person Singular Plural
Formal Informal Inclusive Exclusive
1 apaun tutüim tamnaim
2 ipin irain iritsiim
3 ünan rënaim
0 nün

DemonstrativeEdit

Singular Plural
Proximal kina kinam
Medial hana hanam
Distal sona sonam

RelativeEdit

Singular Plural
mu mum

InterrogativeEdit

What, which mu?
Who, whom mat?
Whose matin?
Where mono?
Whence mosötl?
Whither moran?
When meie?
How mut?
How much mor?
How many morüm?
Why, wherefore mai?
Whether mana?

IndefiniteEdit

Proximal Medial Distal Negative Universal Existential
Elective Assertive
Root ki

this ...

ha

that ...

so

that ... over there

ke

no(t) ...

kaate

each/every ...

kaane

any ...

kaase

some ...

Object kina

this

hana

that

sona

that over there

kena

nothing

kaata

everything

kaana

anything

kaasa

something

Being kesu

nobody/no one

kaatsu

everybody/everyone

kaansu

anybody/anyone

kaassu

somebody/someone

Location kino

here

hano

there

sono

over there

keno

nowhere

kaato

everywhere

kaano

anywhere

kaaso

somewhere

Amount kitor

this many/much

hator

that many/much

sotor

that other amount

ketor

none/not any

kaantor

any amount

kaastor

some amount

Method kimut

this way

hamut

that way

somut

that other way

kemut

no way

kaatmut

every way

kaanmut

anyhow

kaasmut

somehow

Time kie

now

haie

then

soie

that other time

keie

never

kaatie

everytime

kaanie

anytime

kaasie

sometime

Type kitlü

like this

hatlü

like that

sotlü

like that other type


AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives, like all modifying words in Aruk, typically go right before the word or group of words that they modify. In between the adjective and the noun is the particle nan. Unlike most languages with extensive case systems, adjectives do not decline in any way. Verbs acting as a participle adjective, however, do need to be conjugated to their paticiple form.

AdverbsEdit

There are two classes of adverbs in Aruk. Adverbs that modify adjectives, other adverbs, determiners, noun phrases, and prepositions use the ken particle. Adverbs that modify verbs, clauses, and sentences use kem.

VerbsEdit

All verbs in Aruk end in -a. They take different suffix endings according to the following forms: 

Form Affix
Verb prase infix -tsik-
Past tense -nüö
Future tense -iu
Perfect aspect -tl
Active participle -nat
Passive participle -nüt
Passive voice -uat
Factual conditional mood -sar
Speculative conditional mood -saats
Predictive conditional mood -riam
Negative polarity -ke
Interrogative mood -më

Because of this feature, verbs and verb phrases can end up being very long words. For example "Irai kaarasnatsikhiistarnaiutlkemë?"means "Will you not want to have studied?".

Copula DeletionEdit

Sentences using the copula, ta, usually remove the verb if the sentence is an informal statement or a polar (yes or no) question.

SyntaxEdit

It is most common for words to be in SOV order, but there are no strict rules. Other common word orders include:

  • VSO for questions and poetry.
  • SVO for songs.

VocabularyEdit

Example textEdit

“I felt that I was not, never had been and never would be a living part of this overpoweringly solid and deeply meaningful world around me.”

A Separate Peace by John Knowles

“Apau iuuranüö mu apau tanüöke, honoie nan tsü‘n kina kotoonenemai ken sötö ame sëtë‘nte ken tarapniis nan ketëin ohüs apausa keie kem tanüötl ame keie kem tasaats.” 

Tsüüskar nan A‘an John Knowles-n

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