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Asitane
not yet
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Active-stative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

This is a work in progress. More to come later.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p r k
Fricative ɸ f θ s x h
Trill ʀ
Approximant ɹ
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Vowels are distinguished by length, short and long.

Front Near-front Central Back
Close i  y ɯ  u
Mid e  ø ɤ  o
Open a ɒ

OrthographyEdit

The residents of Asitane during this period had no writing system. I will thus use the Latin alphabet with the following correspondence:

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n nh
Plosive p r k
Fricative ph f th s x h
Trill r
Approximant rh
Lateral fric. lh
Lateral app. l
Front Near-front Central Back
Close i  iu w  u
Mid e  eu o  ou
Open a au

Long vowels are represented by a doubled vowel.

Phonotactics Syllables adhere to the pattern CV(N), where N is any consonant except plosives and /ɹ/. Vowels may be short or long.

Mutations:

  • A bilabial consonant in the coda rounds the preceding vowel
  • /h/ is elided if the preceding syllable ends in a consonant.
  • When a stop follows a consonant articulated in a different location, the stop assimilates to that same position. E.g. /xt/ -> /xk/
  • A plosive following a nasal assimilates to also become nasal. E.g. /mp/ -> /mm/

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes Yes No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate to morphologically represent gender, number, tense, mood, and polarity.

There are three tenses: past, present, and future.

There are seven moods:

  • Indicative
  • Subjunctive
  • Desiderative
  • Potential
  • Conditional
  • Hortative

The conjugation patterns follow below. The endings indicate tense, gender, number, and polarity, while moods are represented by suffixes inserted before the inflections.

Affirmative

Present 1st conj. plural 2nd conj. plural 3rd conj. plural
Male -a -au -e -eu -o -ou
Female -a -au -i -iu -w -u
Neuter -as -aus -es -eeus -ws -uus
Past
Male -at -aut -et -eut -ot -out
Female -at -aut -it -iut -wt -ut
Neuter -asta -austa -eset -eseut -wswt -usut
Future
Male -ar -aur -er -eur -or -our
Female -ar -aur -ir -iur -wr -ur
Neuter -asra -ausra -eser -eseur -wswr -usur

Negative

Present 1st conj. plural 2nd conj. plural 3rd conj. plural
Male -an -aun -en -eun -on -oun
Female -an -aun -in -iun -wn -un
Neuter -anh -aunh -enh -eunh -wnh -uunh
Past
Male -anta -aunta -enet -eneut -onta -ounout
Female -anta -aunta -init -iniut -wnta -unut
Neuter -anhta -aunhta -enhet -enheut -wnhta -unhut
Future
Male -anra -aunra -ener -eneur -onra -ounour
Female -anra -aunra -inir -iniur -wnra -unur
Neuter -anhra -aunhra -enher -enheur -wnhra -unhur

Modal suffixes

Subjunctive -akk- -ikk- -wkk-
Imperative -att- -ett- -ott-
Desiderative -ass- -iss- -wss-
Potential -annh- -ennh- -onnh-
Conditional -allh- -ellh- -ollh-
Hortative -aupph- -iupph- -upph-

The affirmative participle is formed by an irregular conjugation pattern, which follows.

Present 1st conj. plural 2nd conj. plural 3rd conj. plural
Male -aum -aum -eum -eum -oum -oum
Female -aum -aum -ium -ium -um -um
Neuter -aum -aum -eum -eum -um -uum
Past
Male -aumma -aumma -eumet -eumeut -oumma -oumout
Female -aumma -aumma -iumit -iumiut -umma -umut
Neuter -aumma -aumma -eumet -eumeut -umma -umut
Future
Male -aumra -aumra -eumer -eumeur -oumma -oumour
Female -aumra -aumra -iumir -iumiur -umma -umur
Neuter -aumra -aumra -eumer -eumeur -umma -umur

Negative participles are formed instead by adding a suffix between the verb stem and regular negative inflection. The suffix is:

-aumph- -eumph- -oumph-

The passive participle is formed by adding a suffix to the end of the corresponding active participle. The suffix is -man if the active participle ends in /m/, and -tan otherwise.

The gerund is used to form a noun out of a verb, which takes the meaning of "the act of doing x." The gerund is formed by a suffix, and declines like a first declension noun. The suffixes are as follows:

Suffix -alhe -elhe -wlhe
Gender neuter female male

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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