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Askanil
Saċwelgë (KL)

Saċwelge (HE)

Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Head-final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Three (Masculine, Feminine, Neuter)
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 82%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 66%
Syntax 81%
Words  ? of 1500
Creator Mattia Tosin

Askanil language (Eastern Askanil: officially Saċwelgë in Kyliun [sɐˈxʍɜʟɢɘ]; Western Askanil: Saċwelge in Hevera [saˈxʍɛɭgɪ]; meaning "language of the hills") is a minor language spoken in the region of the Silver Vales, on the border between Kyliun and Hevera, including the provinces of Sulya and Thal in Hevera and the westernmost part of Vaara shire in Kyliun.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Askanil is a Nil language (or human language) which belongs to the Aulsavric languages group. These languages are spoken in a large area that includes territories from Hevera to the Galver, contrasting with the Vànthom and Kahaym languages, which are originally from North-Kahaymah. Askanil is considered a northern Aulsavric language.

In spite of the continuous attempts of Heveranish government to replace Askanil with Ovarnil language and despite the spread of important international languages like Kahaym, the Silver Vales have always been a stronghold of this language and the native speakers have kept it as their tongue. But since the region is divided by the Silver Mountains the language has been slightly modified and divided into two main dialects: the Eastern, spoken in Kyliun, and the Western spoken in Hevera. In addition to this, the official languages of these countries has helped creating two dialects.

PhonologyEdit

These are the consonants and vowels' sounds used in eastern Askanil dialect, considered by many the "less contaminated" of the two ones.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal /m̥/ /m/ /ɱ/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ŋ̊/ /ŋ/ /ɴ̥/ /ɴ/
Plosive /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /ʈ/ /ɖ/ /c/ /ɟ/ /k/ /g/ /q/ /ɢ/
Fricative /ɸ/ /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ç/ /x/ /ɣ/
Affricate /t͡θ/ /d͡ð/ /kx/
Approximant /β̞/ /ʋ/ /ð/ /ɹ/ /j/ /h/
Flap or tap /ɾ/ /ɽ/
Lateral fric. /ɬ/
Lateral app. /l/ /ɭ/ /ʟ/

Co-articulated consonantsEdit

Labio-velar Labio-palatal Alveolo-lateral
Approximant /ʍ/ /w/ /ɥ/ /ɫ/

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close /i/ /y/ /ɨ/ /u/
Near-close /ɪ/ /ɪ̈/ /ʊ/
Close-mid /e/ /ɘ/ /o/
Mid /ə/
Open-mid /ɜ/ /ʌ/ /ɔ/
Near-open /ɐ/
Open /ɑ/

Writing SystemEdit

Askanil is formerly based on an oral history and tradition so no evidence showing the original Askanil writing system (if ever existed) has been discovered, and since we have no proofs we can just suppose what it could be like.

According to many scholars, the original writing system should look like the Aulsavric alphabet: more or less 30 letters, made of basic letters and diacritics, written from right to left. Perhaps it could be the alphabet which the Mehayllerdrkon and later the Ovarnilic alphabet came from, even though this supposition is not supported by many scholars.

The need of a writing system for this language failed as soon as the Kingdom of the Silverlands (lasted circa until year 4980, First Era) collapsed. Since then, the nation has never been unified again, divided politically and geographically. Slowly, almost everything of the original culture of Askanils got lost and so did the alphabet. The language was getting less and less important and endured in the small, apart villages of the Silver Vales, where a writing system was useless.

After the First Great Revolution and the proclamation of the Confederated Republic of Kahaymah, the minor languages have been reconsidered locally and there started a plan to reintroduce Askanil language. The first problem was to invent a writing system, considering the difference between Eastern and Western dialects, which needed different letters for different sounds.

However, here is shown the alphabet for the Eastern dialect, considered the official koine.

Letter Name Sound Variation with soft vowels (e, ë, i, ï, y)
A, a aw /ɐ/ /ɑ/ /ʌ/
B, b bew /b/ --
C, c ac /k/ /q/ /s/
Ċ, ċ loa-ac /x/ /ç/
Ç, ç mpren-ac /c/ --
D, d dan /d/ /ɖ/ --
Đ, đ fydan /d͡ð/ /ð/ --
E, e ew /e/ /ɜ/ /ɪ/ --
Ë, ë ċlai-ew /ɘ/ --
F, f few /f/ /ɸ/ --
G, g gârn /g/ /ɢ/ /j/ (sometimes)
Ġ, ġ loa-gârn /ɣ/ --
Ģ, ģ mpren-gârn /ɟ/ /j/
H, h han /h/ --
I, i i /i/ /ɪ/ --
Ï, ï ċlai-i /ɪ̈/ --
L, l lârn /l/ /ɭ/ /ʟ/ /ɫ/ --
Ł, ł fylârn /ɬ/ --
M, m maw /m/ /m̥/* /ɱ/ --
N, n naw /n/ /ɱ/ /ɳ/ /ŋ/ /ɴ/ /ŋ̊/* /ɴ̥/* --
O, o ow /o/ /ɔ/ --
Ö, ö ċlai-ow /ʊ/ --
P, p pârn /p/ /b/ --
R, r raw /ɾ/ /ɽ/ /ɹ/ --
S, s sew /s/ [/ʃ/ if followed by "L"] --
Ṣ, ṣ loa-sew /z/ /s/ (sometimes)
Ş, ş mpren-sew /ʃ/ --
T, t taw /t/ /ʈ/ --
Ŧ, ŧ fytaw /t͡θ/ --
U, u u /u/ /ɨ/ --
V, v vew /v/ /β̞/ /ʋ/ --
W, w nhâdvew /ʍ/ /w/ --
Y, y ypnaed /y/ /ə/ /j/ /ɥ/ --
  • *These consonants are voiceless when followed by another consonant.

Long and short vowelsEdit

In Askanil language, vowels are distinguished in long and short vowels. The different quantity of a vowel is typical of Aulsavric languages.

Short vowel Example Long vowel Example
A, a parn, lesson Â, â pârn, hat
E, e sen, four Ê, ê sên, nose
Ë, ë mëċlar, captain Ě, ě měċlar, rooster's crest
I, i laerin, air Î, î laerîn, pleasure
O, o nfod, saying Ô, ô nfôd, birth
U, u mełuf, milk Û, û mełûf, gap
  • The vowels ï, ö and y are always short.

GrammarEdit

GenderEdit

There are three genders in Askanil language: Masculine, Feminine and Neuter (like in many other Nil languages). It is possible to recognize the gender by looking at the last letter of the noun, even though the same letter may identify more than one gender:

  • Masculine nouns:
    • possible consonant-ending: c - ċ - d - f - g - ġ - h - l - m - n - r - s - ş - t - ŧ
    • possible vowel-ending: a - i - ï - u - y
  • Feminine nouns:
    • possible consonant-ending: b - d - đ - f - g - ġ - h - l - n - r - s - v - w
    • possible vowel-ending: a - e - i - ï
  • Neuter nouns:
    • possible consonant-ending: ċ - d - đ - h - m - n - p - s - ṣ - ş - t - ŧ - v - w
    • possible vowel-ending: ë - i - o - ö - y

There is no noun which ends with letters ç, ģ and ł

CasesEdit

There are 7 cases in Askanil language: Nominative, Accusative, Vocative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental, Prepositive. The cases are divided into groups, called declensions, according to the gender and the ending letter.

Prepositive case supports all the prepositions, but usually these ones can be found together with a noun declined in another case. The most important prepositions are:

  • a(n)*, to express possession (genitive)
  • cy(n)*, locative meaning, "in"
  • ma(d)*, allative and dative meaning, "to, for" (dative, instrumental if expresses an advantage)
  • med, ablative meaning, "from, by" (instrumental)
  • nau(d)*, perlative meaning, "through" (accusative)
  • ty(n)*, delative meaning, "from (a place)" (genitive [rarely], instrumental)
  • i(n)*, traslative meaning, "becoming"
  • laeg, comitative meaning, "with" (instrumental)
  • ģyn, to express position, "between/among" (genitive)
  • o(d)*, "under/below" (accusative)
  • lâs, "on/over" (accusative)
  • wyn, to express a topic "about" (genitive)

* - the consonants are added only if the first letter of the following word is a vowel

I declensionEdit

It includes regular nouns ending with strong vowels (a - o - ö - u)

Example: cewla, part (m)

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] cewla -is cewlais
Accusative -n cewlan -as cewlaas
Vocative [zero] cewla -is cewlais
Genitive -im cewlaim -imon cewlaimon
Dative -i cewlai -eg cewlaeg
Instrumental -noċ cewlanoċ -naeċ cewlanaeċ
Prepositive -n cewlan -neg cewlaneg

II declensionEdit

It includes regular nouns ending with soft vowels (e - ë - i - ï - y). These nouns lose the soft vowel in indirect cases, while it is kept in direct cases (nominative, accusative, vocative).

Example: nhaelgë, language (n)

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] nhaelgë -s nhaelgës
Accusative [zero] nhaelgë -nas nhaelgënas
Vocative [zero] nhaelgë -s nhaelgës
Genitive -am nhaelgam -amon nhaelgamon
Dative -a nhaelga -ag nhaelgag
Instrumental -aċ nhaelgaċ -aeċ nhaelgaeċ
Prepositive -ain nhaelgain -ainag nhaelgainag

III declensionEdit

I groupEdit

It includes regular masculine and neuter nouns ending with long vowels followed by consonants ċ, đ, f, ġ, h, ṣ, ŧ. In indirect cases, the long vowel becomes a short vowel, while the final consonant is always replaced by a specific consonant (ċ -> c; đ -> d; f -> v; ġ -> g; h -> c; ṣ -> s; ŧ -> t).

Example: draenâċ, wyvern (m)

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] draenâċ -ar draenâcar
Accusative [zero] draenâċ -ar draenâcar
Vocative -a draenâca -ar draenâcar
Genitive -aim draenacaim -on draenacon
Dative -ai draenacai -aeg draenacaeg
Instrumental -aes draenacaes -aeg draenacaeg
Prepositive -an draenacan -onais draenaconais


II groupEdit

It includes regular feminine nouns ending with a long vowel followed by a consonant and masculine and neuter nouns ending with a long vowel and the remaining consonants (c - d - g - h - l - m - n - p - r - s - ş - t - v - w). The consonant doesn't change like in III declension, but in the indirect cases the long vowel becomes a short vowel.

Example: laerîn, pleasure (f)

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] laerîn -ar laerînar
Accusative [zero] laerîn -ar laerînar
Vocative -a laerîna -ar laerînar
Genitive -aim laerinaim -on laerinon
Dative -ai laerinai -aeg laerinaeg
Instrumental -aes laerinaes -aeg laerinaeg
Prepositive -an laerinan -onais laerinonais

IV declensionEdit

I groupEdit

It includes masculine and feminine regular nouns ending with a short vowel and a consonant.

Example: nělgaċ, shadow (m)

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] nělgaċ -as nělgaċas
Accusative -an nělgaċan -aen nělgaċaen
Vocative [zero] nělgaċ -as nělgaċas
Genitive -am nělgaċam -amon nělgaċamon
Dative -ai nělgaċai -aeg nělgaċaeg
Instrumental -aes nělgaċaes -aeg nělgaċaeg
Prepositive -in nělgaċin -ineg nělgaċineg
II groupEdit

It includes neuter regular nouns ending with a short vowel and a consonant.

Example: maeŧ, plant (n)

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] maeŧ [zero] maeŧ
Accusative [zero] maeŧ [zero] maeŧ
Vocative [zero] maeŧ [zero] maeŧ
Genitive -am maeŧam -amon maeŧamon
Dative -ai maeŧai -aeg maeŧaeg
Instrumental -aes maeŧaes -aeg maeŧaeg
Prepositive -on maeŧon -oneg maeŧoneg

V declensionEdit

It includes masculine and feminine irregular nouns ending with a short vowel and a consonant. This nouns change part of the root (usually a vowel or a group of vowels) in vocative, genitive, dative and instrumental cases. In fact, in dictionaries the nouns of this declension are written in two cases: nominative and vocative

Example: cyleg, law (f); in dictionaries: cyleg, cylaig

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] cyleg -as cylegas
Accusative [zero] cyleg -as cylegas
Vocative [zero] cylaig -as cylaigas
Genitive -am cylaigam -amon cylaigamon
Dative -a cylaiga -ag cylaigag
Instrumental -aċ cylaigaċ -aeċ cylaigaeċ
Prepositive -ar cylegar -arais cylegarais

VI declensionEdit

It includes regular nouns ending with a group of consonants.

Example: parn, lesson (n)

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] parn -as parnas
Accusative -en parnen -es parnes
Vocative -a parna -as parnas
Genitive -im parnim -imon parnimon
Dative -i parni -ig parnig
Instrumental -uċ parnuċ -uenoċ parnuenoċ
Prepositive -air parnair -aireg parnaireg

VII declensionEdit

It includes irregular nouns ending with a group of consonants. The nouns that belong to this declension have a different root in vocative, genitive, dative and instrumental cases, like in V declension. They are also written in two cases in dictionaries: nominative and vocative.

Example: ylâfn, breath (f); in dictionaries: ylâfn, ylewf

Case Singular Plural
Termination Example Termination Example
Nominative [zero] ylâfn -as ylâfnas
Accusative -an ylâfnan -as ylâfnas
Vocative [zero] ylewf -en ylewfen
Genitive -im ylewfim -on ylewfon
Dative -e ylewfe -eg ylewfeg
Instrumental -aċ ylewfaċ -anaċ ylewfanaċ
Prepositive -on ylâfnon -oneig ylâfnoneig

Alteration of the first letterEdit

The words having some derived consonants (ċ - đ - ġ - ł - ṣ - ŧ) or the pure consonants f and h as first letter change it in case they are forerun by a preposition or an adjective, in a specific way: ċ -> c; đ -> d; f -> v; ġ -> g; h -> c; ł -> l; ṣ -> s; ŧ -> t.

If a noun is forerun by an adjective which last letter is a consonant and it is the same as the first letter of the noun, this last one falls and can replaced by an apostrophe (even though it is not necessary). If it is a vowel, it is the opposite (the adjective loses the last letter and can be replaced by an apostrophe). For example: daeg ganilôċ, "deep hole", becomes daeg 'anilôċ or daeg anilôċ; cylenai iryui, "to the turquoise flower", becomes cylena' iryui or cylena iryui.

In case we have something like bledac cyleg, "strict law", it will not become bledac yleg because the sound of the first c and the second one is not the same. In bledac it is pronounced /k/, while in cyleg it is pronounced /s/. So it will keep the "original writing".

Determinative articlesEdit

In Askanil language, determinative articles vary according to the case of the noun it is referred to. Usually it is bound to the preposition (if there is one) just by putting it before the preposition. In this case, if the article contains a long vowel, this becomes a short vowel.

Case Article Example
Nominative/Accusative/Vocative ân ân cïriaiŧ, the road; anlâs cïriaiŧ, over the road
Genitive dam dam/dama cïriaiŧam, of the road; damģyn cïriaiŧamon, between the roads
Dative nhâ nhâ/nhama cïriaiŧai, to the road
Instrumental slî slî cïriaiŧaes, (by) the road; slimed cïriaiŧaes, from the road
Prepositive na

(+a(n) => nâ(n))

nao cïriaiŧon, under the road; nâ cïriaiŧoneg, of the roads

Personal pronouns and pronominal particlesEdit

In Askanil language, the personal pronouns are not declined into all seven cases, but only into nominative (which includes vocative), accusative, genitive and prepositive. In fact, they are usually preceded by a preposition to express indirect complements. Each personal pronoun owns a particle, called pronominal particle, which is used in verbs' construction.

Nominative Accusative Genitive Prepositive Pronominal particle
1st singular (m-n) wy im nai em y -y
1st singular (f) wya nae a -y
2nd singular lyn ilin ŧai ilen i -i
3rd singular (m-n) nhad wnim wnai wnem as -a
3rd singular (f) nhae wnas
1st plural maenac nyhan mai nyhem ny -in
2nd plural lwynac lyhan lai lyhem wy -wy
3rd plural tanhâd tylan tas tylhem ti -yt

AdjectivesEdit

The declension of adjectives follows the terminations of the V declension if the noun it refers to is masculine or feminine, while follows the II group of the IV declension if the noun is neuter. Some adjectives are irregular and in dictionaries are written in two cases: nominative and vocative (like the nouns).

Possessive adjectivesEdit

Possessive adjectives are declined like the other adjectives: it means that they follow V declension for masculine and feminine and the II group of IV declension for neuter gender. The gender of the adjective depends on the gender of the object that is owned and not on the gender of the owner (like in English). In fact, the possessive adjectives are declined according to the gender and the number of the object owned.

Possessive adjectives
Masculine/Feminine (V decl.) Neuter (IV decl., II gr.)
1st singular nad (-am, -a, -aċ...) naŧ (-am, -ai, -aes...)
2nd singular lyn lyŧ
3rd singular wnhaed wnhauđ
1st plural manhaid manhaiŧ
2nd plural dylyn dylyŧ
3rd plural tynhaid tynhauđ

VerbsEdit

Verbs' conjugation in Askanil language is quite complicated. The verb is not only composed of the verb itself, but of two parts: the verb form and the pronominal particle. This part is necessary to distinguish the purpose of a sentence: in fact, a sentence can be positive, negative, interrogative or optative.

The verbs of positive and negative sentences (declarative) are made of a pronominal particle followed by the verb: the negative form is formed by adding nd- before the particle (except for 1st and 3rd plural persons, which are respectively forerun by e- and n-). For example: wy y lwnan, "I dine"; wy ndy lwnan, "I don't dine".

Interrogative and optative sentences' verbs are made of the verb followed by a pronominal particle bound to the verb (the opposite of declarative sentences). The difference is just that the second one is actually a positive sentence, but the particle is put after the verb. For example: lwnany wy?, "do I dine?"; wy lwnany, "I want to dine".

There is also a construction called negative optative, that is the negative form of optative: the structure is like the negative one, but a second particle is put at the end of the verb. For example: wy ndy lwnany, "I don't want to dine". Anyway, in this case it would be more correct to use a periphrastic sentence, made of the verb ilwynaiŧ, ilwadan, fhilaitin, fileunin, ilwyfâd, "to like" or "want". For example: lwnaiŧ wy ndy ilwynan, "I don't want to dine".

Verbs in Askanil are sorted in three groups or classes: the I class includes verbs which present infinitive form ends with -aŧ or -aiŧ; the II class includes verbs which present infinitive form ends with -eŧ or -eiŧ; the III class includes verbs which present infinitive form ends with -iŧ or -iuŧ.

Each verb is represented with its paradigm, which consists of present infinitive, 1st person singular from indicative imperfect, 1st person singular from indicative preterit, 1st person singular from indicative perfect and supine. Present infinitive's root is used for present and future tenses, indicative imperfect's for imperfective tenses, preterit's for preterit indicative, perfect for perfective tenses (perfect infinitive included) and supine for the other undefined tenses.

As examples, here will be used the regular verbs lwnaiŧ, lwnadan, lwnaitin, lwnacin, lwnâd, "to eat/to dine" (I class), nganeŧ, nganedan, nganeitan, nganiṣin, nganêd, "to send" (II class), mauniŧ, mauneudin, mauniutan, maunicin, maunîd, "to love" (III class).

Indicative moodEdit

Indicative mood supports both the declarative and interrogative (including optative) constructions. It has seven tenses: present, imperfect, preterit, perfect, pluperfect, future and future perfect.

  • Present indicative

Present indicative corresponds with the present simple and continuous in English. The root of the verb in present tense refers to the root of the present infinitive form.

I class II class III class
Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative
wy -an y lwnan lwnany -en y nganen nganeny -in y maunin mauniny
wya a lwnan a nganen a maunin
lyn -as i lwnas lwnasi -es i nganes nganesi -is i maunis maunisi
nhad/nhae -anaed as lwnanaed lwnanaeda -eneid as nganeneid nganeneida -inaid as mauninaid mauninaida
maenac -amyn ny lwnamyn lwnamynin -emyn ny nganemyn nganemynin -imyn ny maunimyn maunimynin
lwynac -ainas wy lwnainas lwnainaswy -eunes wy nganeunes nganeuneswy -iunis wy mauniunis mauniuniswy
tanhâd -ynhad ti lwnynhad lwnynhadyt -ynhed ti nganynhed nganynhedyt -ynhud ti maunynhud maunynhudyt
  • Imperfect indicative

It is a past tense combined with imperfective aspect (it means it refers to continuing or repeated actions). The root is based on the root of imperfective tenses: in regular verbs it is signified by -ad- in I class, -ed- in II class and -eud- in III class.

I class II class III class
Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative
wy -an y lwnadan lwnadany -an y nganedan nganedany -in y mauneudin mauneudiny
wya a lwnadan a nganedan a mauneudin
lyn -as i lwnadas lwnadasi -as i nganedas nganedasi -is i mauneudis mauneudisi
nhad/nhae -ait as lwnadait lwnadaita -aet as nganedaet nganedaeta -ît as mauneudît mauneudîta
maenac -amyn ny lwnadamyn lwnadamynin -amyn ny nganedamyn nganedamynin -imyn ny mauneudimyn mauneudimynin
lwynac -anys wy lwnadanys lwnadanyswy -anys wy nganedanys nganedanyswy -unis wy mauneudunis mauneuduniswy
tanhâd -anhait ti lwnadanhait lwnadanhaityt -ynhait ti nganedynhait nganedynhaityt -inait ti mauneudinait mauneudinaityt
  • Preterit indicative

Preterit is a past tense used to describe momentary and punctual aspect in an action or state. Preterit can be found only in indicative mood. Its root refers to the preterit form of the verb (third entry of the paradigm): in regular verbs it is signified by -ait- (I class), -eit- (II class) and -iut- (III class).

I class II class III class
Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative
wy -in y lwnaitin lwnaitiny -an y nganeitan nganeitany -an y mauniutan mauniutany
wya a lwnaitin a nganeitan a mauniutan
lyn -is i lwnaitis lwnaitisi -as i nganeitas nganeitasi -as i mauniutas mauniutasi
nhad/nhae [zero] as lwnait lwnaita [zero] as nganeit nganeita [zero] as mauniut mauniuta
maenac -ym ny lwnaitym lwnaitymin -ym ny nganeitym nganeitymin -ym ny mauniutym mauniutymin
lwynac wy lwnaitî lwnaitîwy wy nganeitî nganeitîwy wy mauniutî mauniutîwy
tanhâd -âhn ti lwnaitâhn lwnaitâhnyt -âhn ti nganeitâhn nganeitâhnyt -âhn ti mauniutâhn mauniutâhnyt
  • Perfect indicative

Perfect is a past tense that describes a perfective aspect: it means that the action (or state) is "perfectly" completed. The terminations are almost the same as preterit's, but the root of the verb is different and, except for most of the regular verbs of I and II class, there is not a particle that signifies it. For a large number of I and II class' verbs the particle is respectively -ac- and -iṣ-.

I class II class III class
Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative
wy -in y lwnacin lwnaciny -in y nganiṣin nganiṣiny -in y maunicin mauniciny
wya a lwnacin a nganiṣin a maunicin
lyn -as i lwnacas lwnacasi -as i nganiṣas nganiṣasi -as i maunicas maunicasi
nhad/nhae [zero] as lwnac lwnaca [zero] as nganiṣ nganiṣa [zero] as maunic maunica
maenac -ym ny lwnacym lwnacymin -ym ny nganiṣym nganiṣymin -ym ny maunicym maunicymin
lwynac wy lwnacî lwnacîwy wy nganiṣî nganiṣîwy wy maunicî maunicîwy
tanhâd -âhn ti lwnacâhn lwnacâhnyt -âhn ti nganiṣâhn nganiṣâhnyt -âhn ti maunicâhn maunicâhnyt
  • Pluperfect indicative

It is a past tense used to describe an antecedence with another past tense. It is made of the same root of perfect indicative, and almost the same terminations: the only one difference is that before the terminations of the perfect tense is forerun by -aen- in all classes.


I class II class III class
Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative
wy -aenin y lwnacaenin lwnacaeniny -aenin y nganaeniṣin nganaeniṣiny -aenin y maunaenicin maunaeniciny
wya a lwnacaenin a nganiṣaenin a maunicaenin
lyn -aenas i lwnacaenas lwnacaenasi -aenas i nganiṣaenas nganiṣaenasi -aenas i maunicaenas maunicaenasi
nhad/nhae -aen as lwnacaen lwnacaena -aen as nganiṣaen nganiṣaena -aen as maunicaen maunicaena
maenac -aenym ny lwnacaenym lwnacaenymin -aenym ny nganiṣaenym nganiṣaenymin -aenym ny maunicaenym maunicaenymin
lwynac -aenî wy lwnacaenî lwnacaenîwy -aenî wy nganiṣaenî nganiṣaenîwy -aenî wy maunicaenî maunicaenîwy
tanhâd -aenâhn ti lwnacaenâhn lwnacaenâhnyt -aenâhn ti nganiṣaenâhn nganiṣaenâhnyt -aenâhn ti maunicaenâhn maunicaenâhnyt
  • Future indicative

It is used to describe any future action or state. It is made of the present infinitive root, while the terminations are similar to the preterit's.

I class II class III class
Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative
wy -in y lwnin lwniny -an y nganan nganany -an y maunan maunany
wya a lwnin a nganan a maunan
lyn -is i lwnis lwnisi -as i nganas nganasi -as i maunas maunasi
nhad/nhae -ait as lwnait lwnaita -eit as nganeit nganeita -eit as mauneit mauneita
maenac -ym ny lwnym lwnymin -ym ny nganym nganymin -ym ny maunym maunymin
lwynac -îhr wy lwnîhr lwnîhrwy -îhr wy nganîhr nganîhrwy -îhr wy maunîhr maunîhrwy
tanhâd -âhn ti lwnâhn lwnâhnyt -âhn ti nganâhn nganâhnyt -âhn ti maunâhn maunâhnyt


  • Future perfect indicative

It is used to describe an antecedence with a verb tense located in the future. It is made of the root of the present infinitive tense and the terminations are the same of the present indicative; anyway, it is signified by the particles -abh- for I class, -ën- for II class and -inh- for III class.


I class II class III class
Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative Declarative Interrogative
wy -abhan y lwnabhan lwnabhany -ënen y nganënen nganëneny -inhin y mauninhin mauninhiny
wya a lwnabhan a nganënen a mauninhin
lyn -abhas i lwnabhas lwnabhasi -ënes i nganënes nganënesi -inhis i mauninhis mauninhisi
nhad/nhae -abhanaed as lwnabhanaed lwnabhanaeda -ëneneid as nganëneneid nganëneneida -inhinaid as mauninhinaid mauninhinaida
maenac -abhamyn ny lwnabhamyn lwnabhamynin -ënemyn ny nganënemyn nganënemynin -inhimyn ny mauninhimyn mauninhimynin
lwynac -abhainas wy lwnabhainas lwnabhainaswy -ëneunes wy nganëneunes nganëneuneswy -inhiunis wy mauninhiunis mauninhiuniswy
tanhâd -abhynhad ti lwnabhynhad lwnabhynhadyt -ënynhed ti nganënynhed nganënynhedyt -inhynhud ti mauninhynhud mauninhynhudyt

Subjunctive moodEdit

Subjunctive mood supports only the declarative construction and not the interrogative/optative construction (which is used alone in the optative mood, instead). In addition, this mood can be found only in subordinate clauses. It has six tenses: present, perfect, future (which are used in connection with present and future tenses), imperfect, pluperfect and future perfect (used in connection with past tenses).

  • Present subjunctive

It is used to describe contemporaneity with present or future tenses. It is made of the present infinitive root.

I class II class III class
wy -in y lwnin -ain y nganain -ön y maunön
wya a lwnin a nganain a maunön
lyn -is i lwnis -ais i nganais -ös i maunös
nhad/nhae -in as lwnin -ain as nganain -ön as maunön
maenac -imyn ny lwnimyn -aimyn ny nganimyn -ömyn ny maunömyn
lwynac -is wy lwnis -ais wy nganais -ös wy maunös
tanhâd -it ti lwnit -ait ti nganait -öt ti maunöt
  • Imperfect subjunctive

It describes contemporaneity with past tenses. It is made of the root of imperfective tenses.

I class II class III class
wy -irh y lwnadirh -airh y nganedairh -erh y mauneuderh
wya a lwnadirh a nganedairh a mauneuderh
lyn -irh i lwnadirh -airh i nganedairh -erh i mauneuderh
nhad/nhae -irh as lwnadirh -airh as nganedairh -ein as mauneudein
maenac -im ny lwnadim -aim ny nganedaim -eim ny mauneudem
lwynac -is wy lwnadis -ais wy nganedais -eis wy mauneudeis
tanhâd -it ti lwnadit -ait ti nganedait -eit ti mauneudeit
  • Perfect subjunctive

It describes antecedence with present or future tenses. It is made of the root of perfective tenses, while the terminations are the same of the present subjunctive.

I class II class III class
wy -in y lwnacin -ain y nganiṣain -ön y maunicön
wya a lwnacin a nganiṣain a maunicön
lyn -is i lwnacis -ais i nganiṣais -ös i maunicös
nhad/nhae -in as lwnacin -ain as nganiṣain -ön as maunicön
maenac -imyn ny lwnacimyn -aimyn ny nganiṣimyn -ömyn ny maunicömyn
lwynac -is wy lwnacis -ais wy nganiṣais -ös wy maunicös
tanhâd -it ti lwnacit -ait ti nganiṣait -öt ti maunicöt
  • Pluperfect subjunctive

It describes antecedence with past tenses. The terminations are the same of imperfect subjunctive, but the root is based on the perfective tenses' root.

I class II class III class
wy -irh y lwnacirh -airh y nganiṣairh -erh y maunicerh
wya a lwnacirh a nganiṣairh a maunicerh
lyn -irh i lwnacirh -airh i nganiṣairh -erh i maunicerh
nhad/nhae -irh as lwnacirh -airh as nganiṣairh -ein as maunicein
maenac -im ny lwnacim -aim ny nganiṣaim -eim ny maunicem
lwynac -is wy lwnacis -ais wy nganiṣais -eis wy mauniceis
tanhâd -it ti lwnacit -ait ti nganiṣait -eit ti mauniceit
  • Future subjunctive

It describes a following action or state with present and future tenses. It is made of the present infinitive root.

I class II class III class
wy -wyl y lwnwyl -wyl y nganwyl -wyl y maunwyl
wya a lwnwyl a nganwyl a maunwyl
lyn -wys i lwnwys -wys i nganwys -wys i maunwys
nhad/nhae -wyt as lwnwyt -wyt as nganwyt -wyt as maunwyt
maenac -wsean ny lwnwsean -wsein ny nganwsein -wsîn ny maunwsîn
lwynac -wlâ wy lwnwlâ -wlî wy nganwlî -wlî wy maunwlî
tanhâd -whait ti lwnwhait -wheit ti nganwheit -whît ti maunwhît
  • Future perfect subjunctive

It describes a following action or state with past tenses. It is made of the present infinitive root and the terminations of the future subjunctive tense, but it is signified by the particles -abh- for I class, -ën- for II class and -inh- for III class, like future perfect indicative.

I class II class III class
wy -abhwyl y lwnabhwyl -ënwyl y nganënwyl -inhwyl y mauninhwyl
wya a lwnabhwyl a nganënwyl a mauninhwyl
lyn -abhwys i lwnabhwys -ënwys i nganënwys -inhwys i mauninhwys
nhad/nhae -abhwyt as lwnabhwyt -ënwyt as nganënwyt -inhwyt as mauninhwyt
maenac -abhwsean ny lwnabhwsean -ënwsein ny nganënwsein -inhwsîn ny mauninhwsîn
lwynac -abhwlâ wy lwnabhwlâ -ënwlî wy nganënwlî -inhwlî wy mauninhwlî
tanhâd -abhwhait ti lwnabhwhait -ënwheit ti nganënwheit -inhwhît ti mauninhwhît

Optative moodEdit

Optative mood supports only the interrogative/optative construction and not the declarative. It is considered a separate mood, but actually it is the optative form of subjunctive as tenses and terminations are the same. The difference is that it can not be found in subordinate clauses, but only in main clauses.

It may have three functions:

  • Desiderative: accompanied by gâr or if followed by "r", it expresses a desire.
    I nîrlainar gâr mađwynaisi; "May you become rich"
  • Concessive: it expresses a concession.
    Şirnaina; "Let it go"
  • Potential: accompanied by nwy, it expresses something that may happen or maybe happened.
    Tanhâd nwy lwnacimynin; "Maybe they have already eaten"
    Tanhâd nti nwy lwnacimynin; "They shouldn't have eaten yet"

Imperative moodEdit

Imperative mood supports only the declarative construction. It has two tenses, present and future, which have not all the persons, but only the 2nd and 3rd singular and plural (except for present, that has also a termination for 1st plural). In imperative mood the pronominal particle is sometimes omitted, even though it would be more correct to keep it.

  • Present imperative
I class II class III class
lyn [zero] i lwn [zero] i ngan [zero] i maun
nhad/nhae -a as lwna -e as ngane -i as mauni
maenac -at ny lwnat -et ny nganet -it ny maunit
lwynac -as wy lwnas -es wy nganes -is wy maunis
tanhâd -at ti lwnat -et ti nganet -it ti maunit
  • Future imperative
I class II class III class
lyn i lwnâ i nganî i maunî
nhad/nhae -âŧ as lwnâŧ -îŧ as nganîŧ -îŧ as maunîŧ
lwynac -ainhe wy lwnainhe -einhe wy nganeinhe -înhe wy maunînhe
tanhâd -âŧairh ti lwnâŧairh -îŧeirh ti nganîŧeirh -îŧirh ti maunîŧirh

Undefined moodsEdit

Undefined moods don't support any structure, neither declarative nor interrogative/optative, as verbs are not conjugated according to a subject (except for number and case in some moods, like participle).

  • Infinitive

In Askanil language, infinitive mood behaves more or less like in English language. It is usually used as nominal form of a verb, with modal verbs and in infinitive sentences as well. It has three tenses: present, perfect and future.

I class II class III class
Present infinitive -aŧ/aiŧ lwnaiŧ -eŧ/eiŧ nganeŧ -iŧ/iuŧ mauniŧ
Perfect infinitive -ilaŧ/ilaiŧ lwnacilaiŧ -ileŧ/ileiŧ nganiṣileŧ -iliŧ/iliuŧ mauniciliŧ
Future infinitive [supine] + fwylein* lwnâd fwylein [supine] + fwylein* nganêd fwylein [supine] + fwylein* maunîd fwylein

*Fwylein is the future infinitive form of the irregular verb nheiniŧ ([nein, heis], sëdan, fhytein, fhwysin, cynnhêd), "to be".
  • Participle

It "participates" both in the functions of the verb and of the noun. It also behaves like an adjective, even though it is not declined in the same way: in fact, the declination of participle follows the II group of the III declension (nouns ending with a long vowel followed by a consonant). It has three tenses: present, perfect and future. The participle root comes from the supine root: the only difference is that the long vowel becomes a short vowel, if adding the terminations.


I class II class III class
Present participle -âr lwnadâr -êr nganedêr -îr maunidîr
Perfect participle -ât lwnadât -êt nganedêt -ît maunidît
Future participle -wynhâr lwnadwynhâr -wynhêr nganedwynhêr -wynhîr maunidwynhîr
  • Supine

The supine is the less used among the moods in Askanil language. It is used to express a purpose and it is made of the full last entry of the verb paradigm.

Infinitive lwnaiŧ nganeŧ mauniŧ
Supine lwnâd nganêd maunîd

For example:
Nhanwyn srimeinâd wy y şirnen, "I go out to buy something"
Dreinam damģyn enfhiron laeṣîd ân cïriaiŧ as bheirdainhais, "The road was built to connect the two cities"

  • Gerund

It has two tenses: present and perfect. The first one usually describes contemporary with the verb of the main clause, while the perfect gerund usually describes a cause, in antecedence with the main clause verb. It is based on the supine root, without the long vowel.

I class II class III class
Present gerund -anwyn lwnadanwyn -enwyn nganedenwyn -inwyn maunidinwyn
Perfect gerund -anşirin lwnadanşirin -enşirin nganedenşirin -inşirin maunidinşirin
  • Gerundive

It describes the duty or the necessity of doing something. It is based on the supine root and is simply made by putting -wyd at the end of the supine form. It is declined to the noun it refers according to number and case, following the I group of the IV declension.

Infinitive lwnaiŧ nganeŧ mauniŧ
Gerundive lwnâdwyd nganêdwyd maunîdwyd

For example:
Damwyn vhailnoim rynhdêdwydam ny laişârnat, "Let's discuss about the decision we have to take"
Gailgenaċ dwynhlainâdwyd, symhailîdwydas fheirelsâwyd, "A war that must be undertaken, families that must be divided" (Askanil proverb)

Passive and reflexive verbsEdit

  • Passive verbs

In Askanil language, the formation of passive voice is quite simple: the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive, while a particle is put before the verb and bound to it. This particle is bheir-, or bhei- if the first letter of the verb is "r". It is typical of Aulsavric languages putting particles to express the verbs' voice.

For example:
Łairnë wy y lwnadan, "I was eating an apple"

becomes:
Med em łairnë as bheirlwnadait, "The apple was being eaten by me"

  • Reflexive verbs

In Askanil language reflexive verbs are divided into direct reflexive, reciprocal reflexive and passive-reflexive.

Direct reflexive is used if the verb has the same semantic agent and patient. It is made by putting the accusative form of the subject's pronoun before the pronominal particle: Maiċail wnim as plairnaed, "Michael washes himself".

Reciprocal reflexive is used if each of the participants occupies both the role of agent and patient with respect to the other. It is made by putting together both the pronoun and the pronominal particle of interrogative/optative verbs: Ân vwynainas tylanyt ti ġaersynhed, "The friends greet each other".

Passive-reflexive (rarely used) is used like a reflexive verb with passive aspect. It is made like the direct reflexive, in addition to the passive particle, and it can be used only with third person singular and plural: Pârnas tylan ti bheirnamlaicynhud, "Hats are being sold" or "Selling hats".


SyntaxEdit

The basic structure of a sentence in Askanil language is OSV. What is weird about this is that it is the only Nil language having this kind of structure (as other human languages have structures SOV or SVO). Since the structure limits the position of a verb to the end of the sentence and Askanil has basically a final head-directionality, the main clause is always put at the end of the period, forerun by the subordinate clauses.

For example:

  • Cilwanedenwyn nhama dranhamai gailranadwynhâr łairnë wy y lwnadan, "I was eating an apple while I was walking to get back home"

If we analyze the sentence we find:

  • Cilwanedenwyn: "while I was walking" (lit: "walking")
  • nhama dranhamai gailranadwynhâr: "to get back home" (lit: "the-to home being-about-to-get-back"; it is a future participle in Askanil)
  • łairnë wy y lwnadan: "I was eating an apple" (lit: "apple I was-eating")

Possessive-genitive constructionEdit

Usually, the possession is not expressed with the verb "to have", but with a periphrastic construct. For example, considering the sentence "I have a dog", in Askanil it will be: A nai mâđar as heit

Literally translated, it would be: "of me (a nai) dog (mâđar) is (as heit)".

In the possessive-genitive construct, the subject of the English sentence ("I") becomes an indirect complement (a nai), made of the preposition "a(n)" followed by the noun of the owner in genitive case. The object of the English sentence ("a dog") becomes the subject in Askanil construct (mâđar), while the verb used is the verb nheiniŧ, "to be".

Conditional sentenceEdit

In Askanil language there are five categories of conditional sentences, based on the factor of possibility. The conjunction "if/whether" in Askanil language is mhir or ir.

  • Reality [structure: mhir/ir + present indicative and present indicative]
    For example: Ir bealgan i slinainas, nhae as lwyldinaid; "If you heat up the water, it boils".
  • Possible reality [structure: mhir/ir + present indicative and future subjunctive]
    For example: Mhir ṣearlaisynid lyn i fewlinis, ân lainheman dama vhyrinam i fewlinwyl; "If you listen carefully, you may hear the sound of the nature".
  • Future possibility [structure: mhir/ir + present indicative and future indicative]
    For example: Mhir mbârd as bealnyucinaid, ndanhaid as şirneit; "If it rains tomorrow, no one will go out".
  • Impossibility [structure: mhir/ir + imperfect subjunctive and future subjunctive]
    For example: Ir gaerdaċ ân cïriaiŧ ndas seiderh, wnim y ċlainwyl; "If the road weren't damaged, I would use it".
  • Unreality [structure: mhir/ir + pluperfect subjunctive and future perfect subjunctive]
    For example: Ir lyn cynörân y fileunirh, y rynhgailinhwyl; "If I had wanted for your help, I would have asked for it".

Example textEdit

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 1Edit

Fâr curdairnim ais něcylaigam slair niłarnaincae anhaid nîlar ti đairnynhad. Slî onherainaċ ais ṣearymwynaes daigynnhêtar, laeg bhairrsaċ anhylewfaċ tanhâd tylanyt ti nirhainâŧairh.

  • Translation: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
  • Interlinear gloss: in dignity(GEN.SG) and right(GEN.SG) free equal-and all human(NOM.PL) (3PL.POS) be.born(IND.PRES.3PL). The(INSTR) reason(INSTR.SG) and conscience(INSTR.SG) endow(PART.PERF.NOM.PL), with fraternal(INST.SG) spirit(INST.SG) they(NOM) they(ACC)-(3PL.REFLX) (3PL.POS) act(IMP.FUT.3PL).

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