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Aspenish

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Aspenish
Aspenush
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Mostly Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Aspenish (Aspenush; /ɑs.'pɛ.ɲʊʃ/) is the native language of the Aspenish people and the official language of the Republic of Aspenia, an island nation in northern Europe, and one of languages of the Nordic Council.

General informationEdit

Aspenish is classified as a Middle Germanic language, the last surviving language of this branch. It has been significantly incluenced by both West and North Germanic languages and slightly influenced by Insular Celtic, mostly Scottish Gaelic, and Romance languages, especially French through English and Dutch.

DialectsEdit

There are twelve main dialects spoken in Aspenia. They are

  • Apple dialect (Äpil djalekt; //),
  • Ash dialect (Askur djalekt; //),
  • Cedar dialect (Zeedhar djalekt; //),
  • Cherry dialect (Kirïzya djalekt; //),
  • Elm dialect (Uulmo djlekt; //),
  • Fir dialect (Daane djalekt; //),
  • Mapple dialect (Ehornu djalekt; //),
  • Oak dialect (Ëik djalekt; //),
  • Pear dialect (Piira djalekt; //),
  • Pine dialect (Füro djalekt; //),
  • Rowan dialect (Roowen djalekt; //),
  • Spruce dialect (Gutha djalekt; //),
  • Wilow dialect (Söusye djalekt; //).

The formation of dialects is due to the influence of different languages in specific zones. Dialects typically differ in terms of inflectional morphology, vocabulary, and particle usage.

RegulationEdit

The regulatory authority for the teaching of Aspenish is the National Academy of the Aspenish Language (Nasjonelu Akademi ev dem Aspenushu Spöökh; /nɑ.sjɔ'nɛ.lʊ ɑ.kɑ.dɛ'mi: ɛv dɛm ɑs'pɛ.nʊ.ʃʊ spø:x/) and carer body of the literary heritage in Aspenish is the National Institute of the Aspenish Literature (Nasjonelu Instituut ev demr Aspenushu Litaratüür; /nɑ.sjɔ'nɛ.lʊ ɪns.tɪ'tu:t ɛv dɛm ɑs'pɛ.nʊ.ʃʊ lɪ.tɛ.ɾɑ'ty:r/). Both are especial bodies of the Aspenish Ministry of Culture, Education and Sport (Aspenushu Ministaarje för Kultüür, Ontarvëisong ent Spoort; /ɑs'pɛ.nʊ.ʃʊ mɪ.nɪs'ta:.ɾjɛ fœr kʊl'ty:r ɔn.tɑɾ'vʌɪ.sɔɲg ɛnt 'spo:ɾt/).

PhonologyEdit

Aspenish has 33 consonant phonemes including allophones and 20 vowel phonemes, 10 long and 10 short. One of the most notorious characteristics of Aspenish is the lack of affricates.

ConsonantsEdit

The inventory of consonants in Aspendush is similar to Germanic and Celtic languages. It has no clicks, ejectives nor implosives. The consonants are:

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar

Post-alveolar

Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m ɱ1 n ɲ ŋ2
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç ʝ x ɣ
Approximant j h ɦ4
Labialised app. w
Trill r2
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l ʎ

1/ɱ/ is the allophone of /m/ before labiodentals.

2/ŋ/ is the allophone of /n/ before velar plosives and fricatives.

3/r/ is the allophone of /ɾ/ at the beginning and the end of words.

4/ɦ/ is the allophone of /h/ voiced consonants.

VowelsEdit

The inventory of vowels was anciently similar to the other North Germanic languages, but it was modified due to the influence of other Germanic and Celtic languages. Each of the 10 long vowels is phonetically paired with one of the 10 short vowels. The 20 vowels are:

Front Near-front Near-back Back
Close i: y: ɯ: u:
Near-close ɪ ʏ ɯ̽ ʊ
Close-mid e: ø: ɤ: o:
Mid
Open-mid ɛ œ ʌ ɔ
Near-open
Open a: ɶ: ɑ ɒ

DiphthongsEdit

Ortography IPA
ai ɑɪ
ɑɯ̽
äu ɒʊ
äü ɒʏ
ei ɛɪ
ɛɯ̽
öu œʊ
öü œʏ
ëi ʌɪ
ëï ʌɯ̽
ou ɔʊ
ɔʏ

AlphabetEdit

The Aspenish alphabet uses a modified version of the Latin script:

Aa Ää Bb Dd Ee Ëë Ff Gg Hh Ii Ïï Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Öö Pp Rr Ss Tt Uu Üü Vv Ww Zz

Cc, Qq and Xx only appear in foreign words, especially names. Yy also appears in foreign words and after alveolar consonants to form their palatal counterpart. For example, ty and dy are pronounced /c/ and /ɟ/ respectively, and so on. The vowels are doubled to lengthen them.

PhonotacticsEdit

The standard syllable structure is;

(C) (C) (A) V (C) (C)

Where (A) is a liquid consonant or a semivowel. There is consonant harmony according to the place of articulation when a syllable ends with a nasal or a liquid consonant (except fricatives and affricates) and the next syllable begins with a plosive or a fricative.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Aspenish is a nominative–accusative language, morphologically agglutinative, flexive and uses several particles to determine the grammatical functions of the sentence elements.

World orderEdit

The basic word order in Aspendish is SVO in main clauses, SOV in relative clauses and VSO in questions and commands. However, as words are heavily inflected, the word order is fairly flexible and every combination may occur in poetry, i.e. SVO, SOV, VSO, VOS, OSV and OVS are all allowed for metrical purposes.

Cases, gender and numberEdit

Aspenish nouns do not inflect in any case, articles add an 'u' when they modify a noun and articles vary in the subjective and oblique cases.

Words also vary in three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Inanimate nouns are arbitrarily distributed in these three genders; the animate, however, are declined in the masculine or feminine according to sex and neuter is used when the speaker doesn't know the gender of the being or if it's ambiguous, like the case of plants, some of which hermaphrodite.

Finally, wrords are divided in countable and uncountable nouns.The countable nouns vary in number following the singular-plural scheme.

ArticlesEdit

One shared property with Germanic languages is the definiteness, which, in Aspenish, is marked by articles. They are put before nouns and are divided in definite and indefinite.

The definite article declines in case, gender and number.

Number Singular Plural
Case M.  F.  N. Pan gender
Subjective dol del dal dil
Oblique dom dem dam dim

The indefinite article declines in case and gender in the singular number.

Case M. F. N.
Subjective önol önel önal
Oblique önom önem önam

NounsEdit

Nouns have three grammatical genders: masculine (xxx), feminine (xxx) and neuter (xxx), Inanimate nouns gender is largely arbitrary and must be memorized. For example: don lägh (lake), dem kruuza (cross) and dar klan (clan). On the other hand, animate nouns add suffixes, -or or -am for masculine and -in or -ez for feminine.

dal gaty - cat of any gender
dol gatyor - male cat
del gatyin - female cat

Also:

dal sagart - priest of any gender
dol sagartam - male priest
del sagartez - female priest, priestess

Plural are formed depending on the procedence of the noun stem. Latin words form the plural adding an 's' ('is' after consonants).

kanyon (f)  - cannon --- kanyonis - cannons

Germanic words form plural adding an 'n' ('en' after consonants) or an 'r' ('ar' after consonants).

hund (n) - dog --- hunden - dogs
bjarg (m) - mountain --- bjargar - mountains.

Word roots from other languages (like Celtic, Slavic, other Proto-Indo-European languages and others, like Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, Arabic, etc.) do not follow a rule and form plural with one of the suffixes before mentioned.

[Japanese] kimono (m) - kimono  --- kimonos - kimonos
[Arabic] alkohol (n) - alcohol --- alkoholen - alcohols
[Scottish Gaelic] klane (n) - clan --- klaner - clans

PronounsEdit

Person Subjective Oblique Possessive
1st sing. mëgh mën
2nd sing. thö thögh thön
3rd sing. masc. hol hom hos
3rd sing. feme hel hem hes
3rd sing. neut. hal ham has
3rd impersonal and reflexive sing. hiun zu zus
1st plur. vïkh vïr
2nd plur. dhü dhükh dhür
3rd plur. täl täm tär
3rd reflexive plur. - zi zis

The possessive adjectives are formed by adding the article endings to the each possessive pronoun. For example, the possessives of the 3rd person singular neuter are:

Person Nominative Accusative
sing. masc. hasol hasom
sing. femi. hasel hasem
sing. neut. hasal hasam
plural hasil

hasim

The demonstrative, interrogative, and relative pronouns are listed in the correlatives table below.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are used to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about that specific noun or pronoun. In and as in English and other Germanic languages, adjectives come before the noun.They are also declined, but only when they come before a noun to directly describe it, in the attributive position of a nominal phrase, adding an '-u' after the root.

del gudu hundin - the good bitch

In the predicative position, they do no inflect.

dal tee ist gud - the tea is good and not dar tee ist gudu.

There are three degrees of comparison: positive form, comparative form, and superlative form: these correspond to English equivalents.

The basic form of the adjective is the positive form: the adjective stem with the appropriate ending.

dïïp - deep
dol dïïpu ozeaan - the deep ocean

The basic comparative form consists of the stem and the suffix -er. Inflected, the adjective ending is attached.

dïïper - deeper
dïïperu ozeaan - deeper ocean

The basic superlative form consists of the stem and the suffix -ast. Inflected, the adjective ending is attached.

dïïpast - deepest
dol dïïpastu ozeaan - the deepest ocean

AdverbsEdit

[NEED HELP WITH ADVERBS, HELP!]

An adverb is a word that qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, clause, sentence or any other word or phrase. There are adverbs of location (in space and in time), of manner, of quantity and epistemic adverbs.

[NEED SUGGESTIONS FOR THESE ADVERBS]

Adverbs of manner that are based on adjectives and are formed by adding the suffix -iz to adjective stem. For example:

sëbdain - sudden --- sëbdainiz - suddenly
glaady - glad --- glaadyiz - gladly


ModifiersEdit

Modifiers in Aspenish, as in English, follow a specific order:

  1. Determiner (articles, possessive adjectives, demonstratives)
  2. Ordinal number ()
  3. Cardinal number ()
  4. Opinion
  5. Size
  6. Measurement
  7. Condition
  8. Age
  9. Temperature
  10. Shape
  11. Colour/Pattern
  12. Origin
  13. Time/Season
  14. Material
  15. Power
  16. Location
  17. Porpuse
  18. Head noun

VerbsEdit

Verbs come in five moods, two voices, four aspects, and three tenses, along with the four persons

Nonfinite verb formsEdit

Infinitive  stem -un Present participle gu- stem -and
Gerund stem -ong  Past participle gu- stem -et
Supine stem -uly Future participle gu- stem -il

Indicative and subjunctiveEdit

After the Aspenish Orthography and Grammar Reform of 1836, the indicative and subjentive mood were combined and the tenses remain the same for each person and number:

Present Past Future Conditional Imperative
stem -a stem -et stem -il stem -od stem


VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)thö
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47doghund
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainbjarg
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightnoghde
178dayteï
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodgud
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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