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|Nouns decline according to...|
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Aspenish (Aspenush; /ɑs.'pɛ.ɲʊʃ/) is the native language of the Aspenish people and the official language of the Republic of Aspenia, an island nation in northern Europe, and one of languages of the Nordic Council.
Aspenish is classified as a Middle Germanic language, the last surviving language of this branch. It has been significantly incluenced by both West and North Germanic languages and slightly influenced by Insular Celtic, mostly Scottish Gaelic, and Romance languages, especially French through English and Dutch.
There are twelve main dialects spoken in Aspenia. They are
- Apple dialect (Äpil djalekt; //),
- Ash dialect (Askur djalekt; //),
- Cedar dialect (Zeedhar djalekt; //),
- Cherry dialect (Kirïzya djalekt; //),
- Elm dialect (Uulmo djlekt; //),
- Fir dialect (Daane djalekt; //),
- Mapple dialect (Ehornu djalekt; //),
- Oak dialect (Ëik djalekt; //),
- Pear dialect (Piira djalekt; //),
- Pine dialect (Füro djalekt; //),
- Rowan dialect (Roowen djalekt; //),
- Spruce dialect (Gutha djalekt; //),
- Wilow dialect (Söusye djalekt; //).
The formation of dialects is due to the influence of different languages in specific zones. Dialects typically differ in terms of inflectional morphology, vocabulary, and particle usage.
The regulatory authority for the teaching of Aspenish is the National Academy of the Aspenish Language (Nasjonelu Akademi ev dem Aspenushu Spöökh; /nɑ.sjɔ'nɛ.lʊ ɑ.kɑ.dɛ'mi: ɛv dɛm ɑs'pɛ.nʊ.ʃʊ spø:x/) and carer body of the literary heritage in Aspenish is the National Institute of the Aspenish Literature (Nasjonelu Instituut ev demr Aspenushu Litaratüür; /nɑ.sjɔ'nɛ.lʊ ɪns.tɪ'tu:t ɛv dɛm ɑs'pɛ.nʊ.ʃʊ lɪ.tɛ.ɾɑ'ty:r/). Both are especial bodies of the Aspenish Ministry of Culture, Education and Sport (Aspenushu Ministaarje för Kultüür, Ontarvëisong ent Spoort; /ɑs'pɛ.nʊ.ʃʊ mɪ.nɪs'ta:.ɾjɛ fœr kʊl'ty:r ɔn.tɑɾ'vʌɪ.sɔɲg ɛnt 'spo:ɾt/).
Aspenish has 33 consonant phonemes including allophones and 20 vowel phonemes, 10 long and 10 short. One of the most notorious characteristics of Aspenish is the lack of affricates.
The inventory of consonants in Aspendush is similar to Germanic and Celtic languages. It has no clicks, ejectives nor implosives. The consonants are:
|Plosive||p b||t d||c ɟ||k g|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||ç ʝ||x ɣ|
|Flap or tap||ɾ|
1/ɱ/ is the allophone of /m/ before labiodentals.
2/ŋ/ is the allophone of /n/ before velar plosives and fricatives.
3/r/ is the allophone of /ɾ/ at the beginning and the end of words.
4/ɦ/ is the allophone of /h/ voiced consonants.
The inventory of vowels was anciently similar to the other North Germanic languages, but it was modified due to the influence of other Germanic and Celtic languages. Each of the 10 long vowels is phonetically paired with one of the 10 short vowels. The 20 vowels are:
|Close||i: y:||ɯ: u:|
|Near-close||ɪ ʏ||ɯ̽ ʊ|
|Close-mid||e: ø:||ɤ: o:|
|Open-mid||ɛ œ||ʌ ɔ|
|Open||a: ɶ:||ɑ ɒ|
The Aspenish alphabet uses a modified version of the Latin script:
Aa Ää Bb Dd Ee Ëë Ff Gg Hh Ii Ïï Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Öö Pp Rr Ss Tt Uu Üü Vv Ww Zz
Cc, Qq and Xx only appear in foreign words, especially names. Yy also appears in foreign words and after alveolar consonants to form their palatal counterpart. For example, ty and dy are pronounced /c/ and /ɟ/ respectively, and so on. The vowels are doubled to lengthen them.
The standard syllable structure is;
Where (A) is a liquid consonant or a semivowel. There is consonant harmony according to the place of articulation when a syllable ends with a nasal or a liquid consonant (except fricatives and affricates) and the next syllable begins with a plosive or a fricative.
Aspenish is a nominative–accusative language, morphologically agglutinative, flexive and uses several particles to determine the grammatical functions of the sentence elements.
The basic word order in Aspendish is SVO in main clauses, SOV in relative clauses and VSO in questions and commands. However, as words are heavily inflected, the word order is fairly flexible and every combination may occur in poetry, i.e. SVO, SOV, VSO, VOS, OSV and OVS are all allowed for metrical purposes.
Cases, gender and numberEdit
Aspenish nouns do not inflect in any case, articles add an 'u' when they modify a noun and articles vary in the subjective and oblique cases.
Words also vary in three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Inanimate nouns are arbitrarily distributed in these three genders; the animate, however, are declined in the masculine or feminine according to sex and neuter is used when the speaker doesn't know the gender of the being or if it's ambiguous, like the case of plants, some of which hermaphrodite.
Finally, wrords are divided in countable and uncountable nouns.The countable nouns vary in number following the singular-plural scheme.
One shared property with Germanic languages is the definiteness, which, in Aspenish, is marked by articles. They are put before nouns and are divided in definite and indefinite.
The definite article declines in case, gender and number.
|Case||M. F. N.||Pan gender|
|Subjective||dol del dal||dil|
|Oblique||dom dem dam||dim|
The indefinite article declines in case and gender in the singular number.
Nouns have three grammatical genders: masculine (xxx), feminine (xxx) and neuter (xxx), Inanimate nouns gender is largely arbitrary and must be memorized. For example: don lägh (lake), dem kruuza (cross) and dar klan (clan). On the other hand, animate nouns add suffixes, -or or -am for masculine and -in or -ez for feminine.
- dal gaty - cat of any gender
- dol gatyor - male cat
- del gatyin - female cat
- dal sagart - priest of any gender
- dol sagartam - male priest
- del sagartez - female priest, priestess
Plural are formed depending on the procedence of the noun stem. Latin words form the plural adding an 's' ('is' after consonants).
- kanyon (f) - cannon --- kanyonis - cannons
Germanic words form plural adding an 'n' ('en' after consonants) or an 'r' ('ar' after consonants).
- hund (n) - dog --- hunden - dogs
- bjarg (m) - mountain --- bjargar - mountains.
Word roots from other languages (like Celtic, Slavic, other Proto-Indo-European languages and others, like Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, Arabic, etc.) do not follow a rule and form plural with one of the suffixes before mentioned.
- [Japanese] kimono (m) - kimono --- kimonos - kimonos
- [Arabic] alkohol (n) - alcohol --- alkoholen - alcohols
- [Scottish Gaelic] klane (n) - clan --- klaner - clans
|3rd sing. masc.||hol||hom||hos|
|3rd sing. feme||hel||hem||hes|
|3rd sing. neut.||hal||ham||has|
|3rd impersonal and reflexive sing.||hiun||zu||zus|
|3rd reflexive plur.||-||zi||zis|
The possessive adjectives are formed by adding the article endings to the each possessive pronoun. For example, the possessives of the 3rd person singular neuter are:
The demonstrative, interrogative, and relative pronouns are listed in the correlatives table below.
Adjectives are used to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about that specific noun or pronoun. In and as in English and other Germanic languages, adjectives come before the noun.They are also declined, but only when they come before a noun to directly describe it, in the attributive position of a nominal phrase, adding an '-u' after the root.
- del gudu hundin - the good bitch
In the predicative position, they do no inflect.
- dal tee ist gud - the tea is good and not
dar tee ist gudu.
There are three degrees of comparison: positive form, comparative form, and superlative form: these correspond to English equivalents.
The basic form of the adjective is the positive form: the adjective stem with the appropriate ending.
- dïïp - deep
- dol dïïpu ozeaan - the deep ocean
The basic comparative form consists of the stem and the suffix -er. Inflected, the adjective ending is attached.
- dïïper - deeper
- dïïperu ozeaan - deeper ocean
The basic superlative form consists of the stem and the suffix -ast. Inflected, the adjective ending is attached.
- dïïpast - deepest
- dol dïïpastu ozeaan - the deepest ocean
[NEED HELP WITH ADVERBS, HELP!]
An adverb is a word that qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, clause, sentence or any other word or phrase. There are adverbs of location (in space and in time), of manner, of quantity and epistemic adverbs.
[NEED SUGGESTIONS FOR THESE ADVERBS]
Adverbs of manner that are based on adjectives and are formed by adding the suffix -iz to adjective stem. For example:
- sëbdain - sudd en --- sëbdainiz - sudd enly
- glaad y - gl ad --- glaadyiz - gladly
Modifiers in Aspenish, as in English, follow a specific order:
- Determiner (articles, possessive adjectives, demonstratives)
- Ordinal number ()
- Cardinal number ()
- Head noun
Verbs come in five moods, two voices, four aspects, and three tenses, along with the four persons
Nonfinite verb formsEdit
|Infinitive||stem -un||Present participle||gu- stem -and|
|Gerund||stem -ong||Past participle||gu- stem -et|
|Supine||stem -uly||Future participle||gu- stem -il|
Indicative and subjunctiveEdit
After the Aspenish Orthography and Grammar Reform of 1836, the indicative and subjentive mood were combined and the tenses remain the same for each person and number:
|stem -a||stem -et||stem -il||stem -od||stem|