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Ancient Asumanese
Âsumâ
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction mixture
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 57%
Statistics
Nouns 75%
Verbs 75%
Adjectives 25%
Syntax 67%
Words of 1500
Creator carroteater


Classification and DialectsEdit

This language was once an agglutinative language. It has gradually turned into a fusional one. It was spoken and written by an ancient humanoid civilization on an exoplanet circa 4000 BC - 1000 BC, or from -1500 to +2500 using their calendar.

They live in a twin stellar system. The second star is a red dwarf (35 AU away) going around a central yellow star little cooler than our Sun. At nights Asumanese people may admire the shiny dwarf with naked eyes. In daytime, however it is outshone by the main sun. Their home planet is about the size of Earth (95%) but is even more dominated by water - with a ratio 9 to 1 - and orbits at a smaller distance than Earth does (0.85 AU). This makes their years shorter than ours (324.5 d). Number of moons: 1 (0.9% of planet's mass). Average temperature +13 °C on surface. Deepest point -14,617 km. Highest point +5,528 km.

Early writings were written on a type of dried algae with inky substance derived from marine creatures best described as squids by our standards.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ

χ ʁ

Affricate
Approximant j w

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low a ɑ

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllable structure: A nucleus consisting in a vowel is always mandatory. 

V = vowel, W = approximant, N = nasal consonant, C = any other consonant than W or N 

V, WV, CV, NV, CWV, NWV

The Asumanese language has a front/back vowel harmony.

Lexical stress: no.

Prosodic stress: yes, on penult.

Writing SystemEdit

Latinization
Letter a â e ê y i w u o ô m n
Sound a ɑ e ɛ j i w u ɔ o m n
Letter p b t d k g f v s z x j
Sound p b t d k g f v s z ʃ ʒ
Letter h r
Sound χ ʁ

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns decline in number, gender and case. They are either in singular or plural. They come in three different genders: neuter or mixed, feminine and masculine.

Inflection pattern: stem-number-gender-case

Number Edit

For plural /u/ or /i/ is suffixed to nouns depending on vowel harmony contraints. Before a vowel the markers are reduced to /w/ and /j/. That is the usual case.

Gender Edit

Markers
N -, -e, -o
F -i, -ê, -â
M -a, -ô, -u

Case Edit

Nominative Accusative Genitive Locative
N -, -e, -o -sa/-sâ, -esa, -osâ -ga/-gâ, -ega, -ogâ -na/-nâ, -ena, -onâ
F -i, -ê, -â -isa, -êsa, -âsâ -iga, -êga, -âgâ -ina -êna, -ânâ
M -a, -ô, -u -asa, -ôsâ, -usâ -aga, -ôgâ, -ugâ -ana, -ônâ, -unâ

The nominative serves as a case of presentation and entry in dictionaries. It shows the subject in a sentence. The accusative is mainly a case for objects. In addition, some prepositive phrases require this case. The genitive is used to show dependencies between entities, such as possession. In Asumanese, you indicate place and time with the locative case.

Pronouns Edit

Their declension differs somewhat from noun declension. Pronouns feature a clitic that can either be used to put an emphasis on the purport of nominative subjects or possessive adjectives. In the first situation, the clitic comes immediately after the verb. And in the second, it succeeds the element qualified by the adjective. You may also use them without a nominative subject or possessive adjective. Since they lack case endings, their role is open to interpretation. The clitics are not (yet) under the vowel harmony's influence.

Personal pronouns Edit

Neuter Edit
Nom. Acc. Gen. Loc. Clitic
1SG mene mesa mega mena me
2SG tene tesa tega tena te
3SG sene sesa sega sena se
1PL nene nesa nega nena ne
2PL vene vesa vega vena ve
3PL xene xesa xega xena xe
Feminine Edit
Nom. Acc. Gen. Loc. Clitic
1SG mânô mâsâ mâgâ mânâ
2SG tânô tâsô tâgâ tânâ
3SG sânô sâsâ sâgâ sânâ
1PL nânô nâsâ nâgâ nânâ
2PL vânô vâsâ vâgâ vânâ
3PL xânô xâsâ xâ
Masculine Edit
Nom. Acc. Gen. Loc. Clitic
1SG mônô mômômômô
2SG tônô tôsô tôtôtô
3SG sônô sôsôsôsô
1PL nô nô nô nô nô
2PL vôvôvôvôvô
3PL xônô xôsâ xôgâ xônâ

Demonstrative pronouns Edit

Nom. Acc. Gen. Loc. Clitic
SG, PL SG, PL SG, PL SG, PL SG, PL
N hene, hyine hase, hyisa haga, hyige hana, hyine he, hyi
F hêne, hyêne hisa, hyêsa hêga, hyêga hênâ, hyêna hê, hyê
M hane, hyane hasa, hyasa haga, hyaga hana, hyana ha, hya

Relative and interrogative pronouns Edit

Nom. Acc. Gen. Loc. Clitic
SG, PL SG, PL SG, PL SG, PL SG, PL
N kono, kwuno kâso, kwuso kâgo, kwugo kâno, kwuno ko, kwu
F kâno, kwâno kâsâ, kwâsâ kâgâ, kwâgâ kânâ, kwânâ kâ, kwâ
M kôno, kwôno kôsâ, kwôsâ kôgâ, kwôgâ kônâ, kwônâ kô, kwô

VerbsEdit

Moods Edit

Indicative, conditional, potential, subjuntive, imperative and infinitive.

Infinitive is considered as one of the moods and come in a short form and a long form. Both may be preceeded by the abstractive preposition "xe" or "xo" according to the long infinitive ending "-re" or "-ro". All long forms follow the rule:

(xe) [stem]-re | (xo) [stem]-ro

Tenses Edit

Simple tenses Edit

Asumanese has three basic verb tenses present, past and future.

Simple present: current event, "something is getting done here and now"

Simple past: memory of an event, "something got done before this"

Simple future: projection for an event, "something will get done after this"

Complex tenses Edit

Also a variety of compound tenses allow for further nuance. In principle, strings of multiple constituants are possible. However, their number rarely exceeds three. The longer the string the smaller the frequency.

The auxilary verbs used with present pariciples are movement verbs, think of enter, stay and leave.

Simple present + present participle: current habit or condition

Simple past + present participle: memory of a habit or condition

Simple future + present participle: projection for a habit or condition

The auxilary verbs used with past pariciples are possession verbs, think of take, keep and give.

Simple present + past participle: current result of a past event

Simple past + past participle: memory of a result of a past event

Simple future + past participle: projection for a result of a current event

First conjugation Edit

xo kuro (to run)
present past future
infinitive

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

kuro

kuromo

kuroto

kuroho

kuronu

kurovu

kurohu

kuru

kurumo

kuruto

kuruho

kuronu

kuruvu

kurohu 

kurâ

kurâmo

kurâto

kurâho

kurânu

kurâvu

kurâhu 

indicative

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

kuô

kuômo

kuôto

kuôho

kuônu

kuôvu

kuôhu 

kuôu

kuôumo

kuôuto

kuôuho

kuôunu

kuôuvu

kuôuhu 

kuôâ

kuôâmo

kuôâto

kuôâho

kuôânu

kuôâvu

kuôâhu 

conditional

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

kuno

kunomo

kunoto

kunoho

kunonu

kunovu

kunohu 

kunu

kunumo

kunuto

kunuho

kununu

kunuvu

kunuvu 

kunâ

kunâmo

kunâto

kunâho

kunânu

kunâvu

kunâhu 

potential

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

kumo

kumomo

kumoto

kumoho

kumonu

kumovu

kumohu

kumu

kumumo

kumuto

kumuho

kumunu

kumuvu

kumuhu 

kumâ

kumâmo

kumâto

kumâho

kumânu

kumâvu

kumâhu 

subjunctive

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

kupo

kupomo

kupoto

kupoho

kuponu

kuopovu

kupohu 

kupu

kupumo

kuputo

kupuho

kupunu

kupuvu

kupuhu 

kupâ

kupâmo

kuopâto

kupâho

kupânu

kupâvu

kupâhu 

imperative

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

ku!

kumo!

kuto!

kuho!

kunu!

kuvu!

kuhu!

kuu!

kuumo!

kuuto!

kuuho!

kuunu!

kuuvu!

kuuhu!

kuâ!

kuâmo!

kuâto!

kuâho!

kuânu!

kuâvu!

kuâhu!

Second conjugation Edit

xe bire (to drink)
present past future
infinitive

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

bire

bireme

birete

birehe

bireni

birevi

birehi

biri

birime

birite

birihe

birini

bivini

bihini

bira

birame

birate

birahe

birani

biravi

birahi

indicative

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

biê

biême

biête

biêhe

biêni

biêvi

biêhi

biêi

biêime

biêite

biêihe

biêivi

biêini

biêihi

biêa

biêame

biêate

biêahe

biêani

biêavi

biêahi

conditional

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

binê

binême

binête

binêhe

binêni

binêvi

binêhi

bini

binime

binite

binihe

binini

binivi

binihi

bina

biname

binate

binahe

binani

binavi

binahi

potential

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

bimê

bimême

bimête

bimêhe

bimêni

bimêvi

bimêhi

bimi

bimime

bimite

bimihe

bimini

bimivi

bimhi

bima

bimame

bimate

bimahe

bimani

bimavi

bimahi

subjunctive

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

bipê

pipême

bipête

bipêhe

bipêni

bipêvi

bipêhi

bipi

bipime

bipite

bipihe

bipini

bipivi

bipihi

bipa

bipame

bipate

bipahe

bipani

bipavi

bipahi

imperative

1sg

2sg

3sg

1pl

2pl

3pl

bi!

bime!

bite!

bihe!

bini!

bivi!

bihi!

bii!

biime!

biite!

biihe!

biini!

biivi!

biihi!

bia!

biame!

biate!

biahe!

biani!

biavi!

biahi!

Gerund Edit

Formed with an infinitive inflected in the locative case.

Examples:

kuronâ, meaning "in running", "by running" or "while running"

birena, meaning "in drinking", "by drinking" or "while drinking"

Voice Edit

The auxiliary verbs used to make the passive voice are: xe gire (to enter), xe êre (to stay) & xo fâro (to leave).

With the past participle and an optional agent which is introduced by the preposition pira/purâ, according again to the vowel harmony.

Copulae Edit

There are no copulae as such. Neither is there direct equivalents of English "there is". In order to assert something exists, one would only use the plain referent ("A dog" instead of "There's a dog"). Having the prepositions "xe" and "xo" render better an English noun phrase in isolation.

Negation Edit

The basic negation word is "ni" or "nu", depending on the vowel harmony.

Adjectives Edit

Agree with the head in number, gender and case.

Usually placed after nouns or pronouns.

Determinants Edit

Demonstrative
sg pl
N he / ho hi / hu
F hê / hâ hi
M hô / ha hu
Interrogative
sg pl
N ko / ke ku / ki
F kâ / ki ki
M kô / ku ku
Definite article
sg pl
N re / ro ri / ru
F rê / râ ri
M rô / ra ru

Possessive Edit

Use genitive or clitic pronoun. Agree with the possessed.

Participles Edit

Past Edit

neuter: -de, -do

feminine: dê, -dâ

masculine: -da, -dô

Present Edit

neuter: -be, -bo

feminine: -bê, -bâ

masculine: -ba, -bô

Numbers Edit

Hexadecimal system. Nouns derived from neuter.

Cardinal numbers
ns np fs fp ms mp
0 no ne N/A N/A
1/8 se si N/A sa N/A
1/4 ke ki N/A ke N/A
1/2 me mi N/A ma N/A
1 e u â ô
2 o i N/A N/A ya
3 so su N/A N/A
4 ko ku N/A N/A
5 mo mu N/A N/A
6 âku eki N/A eki N/A âku
7 ôfu afi N/A afi N/A ôfu
8 be bi N/A N/A
9 be-e be-u be-wâ be-wô
10 be-o be-i be-yê be-ya
16 dêca dêci docâ docô
24 o be i bi wâ bâ wô bô
25 o be-e i be-u wâ be-wâ wô be-wô
64 suto sutu sutâ sutô
512 mile mili milê mila
Ordinal numbers
1st ezi ezyi ezê ezyê eza ezya
2nd mezi mezyi mezê mezyê meza mezya
4th kezi kezyi kezê kezyê keza kezya
8th sezi sezyi sezê sezyê seza sezya
else stem-zi/zu stem-zyi/zwu stem-zê/zâ stem-zyê/zwâ stem-za/zô stem-zya/zwô
eg. 3rd sozu sozwu sozâ sozwâ sozô sozwâ

Adverbs Edit

Agree with subjects in number and gender.

Usually placed right before verbs or adjectives.

-mi, -mu

Prepositions Edit

& Conjunctions

Both are used indifferently. Sentences are seen as neuter when they undergo inflexion .

Required case English equivalents Example
xe, xo nominative to, -ing, an idea of
de, do locative from, out of, of, off
pe, po locative at, to, on, upon, about
se, so locative in, into
puro, peri locative for, to, in favor (of)
kâto, kati locative against, in front (of), opposed (to)
sipe, supo locative on, up, above, over, about
upu, opo locative under, down, below, beneath
je, jo accusative because
gujo, gije accusative due to positive, because of, thanks to
bâjo, baje accusative due to negative, because of
pira, purâ locative by, with, beside, next to

Derivation Edit

Class N F M English equivalents
General verb -re, -ro
Present participle adjective -be, -bo -bê, -bâ -ba, -bô -ing, -or, -er, -ive
Past participle adjective -de, -do -dê, -dâ -da, -dô -ed, -en, -ly, -y
Ability adjective -epe, -opo -âpâ, -ipi -ôpô, -upu -able, -ible, -ive
Positional adjective -zu, -zwu -zâ, -zwâ -zô, -zwô -th, -ic, -al, ical
Activity noun -ti, -tâ -ty, -ment, -tion, -ing
Cause / Origin adjective -ne, -no -ni, -nâ -nu, -nô -an, -ese, -ist
Reverse any ani-, ânu- ani-, ânu- ani-, ânu- dis-, un-

SyntaxEdit

Due to the case system the word order may vary for focal or stylistic reasons. However, the unmarked arrangement is: SVO

On the other hand, the use of pronoun clitics make things a little more complex. They can act as the subject.

LexiconEdit

English-Asuma Edit

no: ni, nu

yes: si, su

hello: âlu

thank you, general: gaje

thank you, singular informal: gaje pe tena

thank you, plural and formal: gaje pe vena

Asuma-English Edit

gire: i to enter, get in; t to put in, aux to be about (to do)

êre: i to stay, remain; t to keep in, aux to be (doing)

fâro: i to leave, get out; t to take out, aux to have been (doing)

tare: i to take, remove; aux to be going (to do)

uro: i to keep, retain; aux to have (done)

sôre: i to give, let; aux to have just (done)

voro: i & t to speak; to talk, discuss

Example textEdit

Tônô uôto votô. You (the man) have spoken.

Nânô tavi votâ. We (women) are going to speak.

Xo voro ve. You talking.

Nu voro ve. It's not your speech.

Vobumu. Talkatively (of a male)