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Atráve

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Atráve /at̪ɾaβe/ (formerly known as Yechevic) is a constructed language. Originally created for a fantasy novel in late 2014, Atráve has become far more fusional and complex. Originally drawing influences from languages such as Irish, Spanish, Cherokee, Japanese, Hawaiian, and Hindi, Atráve changed both sound-wise and grammar-wise; having initially been an English-like language with little inflection (perhaps even less than English itself), throughout its development numerous things, such as gender, case, and verbal inflection, have been added, and Atráve is no longer based on any natural language.

Atráve is now a heavily-inflected, generally fusional language (with a few instances of other types of inflection) with a VSO word order; nouns are inflected for gender (masculine or feminine, depending on the noun's beginning), noun class, case (common, genitive, dative, and ablative), count (mass or count) and number (singular, dual, and plural). Verbs are inflected for aspect (simple, continuous, habitual, and perfect), tense (present, past, imperfect, and future), mood (indicative, subjunctive/conditional, and imperative), person (first, second, and third), and number (singular, dual, and plural). Adjectives are inflected for number (singular, dual, and plural), and often gender.


Atráve
Atrábhe
Type Mostly fusional, sometimes agglutinative or isolating
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Right-leaning
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Statistics
Nouns Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Verbs Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Adjectives Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Syntax 0%
Words 686 of 1500
Creator The Cypress Station


Etymology Edit

The word Atrábhe has no clear meaning, although it is purposefully etymologically similar to the word ebhe "tongue".

In English, as the /β/ sound does not exist, it is approximated as a v and thus called Atráve /ɑtʃɹʌveɪ/. the accent mark on the á is optional, although since it is easy in this case, this article will spell it with the accent mark. The adjectivial form is also Atráve.

The word Atrábhe itself in Atráve is an abstract, count, feminine noun. Its declension is shown below:

Singular
Common Atrábhe
Genitive Atrábhén
Dative Atrábheid
Ablative Atrábhezu

Note: As a specific language cannot be a plural (Englishes?), dual and plural forms do not exist for the noun Atráve. Despite being strictly a singular noun, it is not a mass noun.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Atráve is a constructed language with just one speaker (its own creator), and thus it is technically a language isolate. It only has one standard language, with no deviation whatsoever (although this is due to having only one speaker).

Atráve is almost entirely a written language, with no practical spoken usage; as such, its grammar is far more developed than its pronunciation. It is written in the Latin alphabet with almost no orthographical depth.

Atráve is not based on a fictional culture or nation, but would hypothetically be spoken by humans and lacks any serious differences from natural human languages, containing inflection, a fully-developed syntax, and irregularity (although, in practice, it has too small of a vocabulary to be used realistically by an advanced civilization). Although it (roughly) grammatically resembles the Indo-European languages (especially the Celtic languages, which share Atráve's VSO word order and mutated adjectives), its vocabulary shows no particular resemblance to any existing language. If it were classified as a real language, it would certainly be classified as an isolate.

Technically, Atráve's only ancestral form is its various older stages of creation, particularly Alomian (coming from Alomia, a fictional world whose language Atráve has its roots in). However, these languages were very similar to English and contained little inflection. This means that Atráve is one of few languages to have gained more inflection throughout its 'evolution'.

Shown below are a sentence written in proto-Atráve in August 2015, as opposed to its counterpart from July 2016. The older version of the language lacks gender, VSO word order, case, contractions, and uses as the copula instead of san.

Mimshe Zhanutiká sé ya mimshe uni'isdira àzh sha taman bant sha Cypress Station jaskila mimat shenslam Alfa Odahot Omega.

San na mimshe atrábhe mimshe asraitat le sa Cypress Station ve taran mimatid Alfazo Omeghaéd.

The Atráveic language is a language created by the Cypress Station for his book From Alpha to Omega.

Atráve went through its most radical period of change in fall 2015, when concepts such as subject dropping, (some) verb conjugation, and noun gender were added in September-October 2015. As opposed to that, some of the latest additions were the division of the definite article into two forms (sa and na), as well as the imperfect and impersonal tenses, which were all added in summer 2016. Atráve is still subject to change.

PhonologyEdit

Atráve features a somewhat complicated consonant system, with about 30 consonants total. There is considerable allophony in Atráve, especially with the palatal and velar-uvular consonants. The consonant y is notably unpredictable: it can either be pronounced /j/ as in yexev /jɛχev/ "person" or /ʝ/ as in yelesat /ʝel̪ɛsat̪/ "nature".

Shown below are the consonants. If a sound's orthography does not match with its IPA symbol, then the way it is written is shown in italics below. Two phonemes are also listed in parentheses, as they are marginal consonants:

- /ŋ/ is not a distinct phoneme, and does not occur in native Atráve words. Whenever nk and ng occur, the two consonants are pronounced on different syllables. For example, mánka "used to happen" is pronounced /man̪ka/.

- The uvular fricative /χ/ or /ʁ/ occurs marginally in various cases in Atráve. /χ/ is sometimes used in place of /x/ for x, as well as gh word-finally in some cases (such as talágh "group" or "union", which is usually pronounced /t̪əl̪aɣ/ but sometimes /t̪əl̪aχ/). Meanwhile, /ʁ/ is often used as an allophone of /ɾ/ in non-carefully-pronounced speech, usually after a plosive. For example, matraya "direction" can be pronounced /mət̪ɾaja/ (standard) or as /mət̪ʁaja/.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Alveolo-

Palatal

Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m

n

(ŋ)

nk or ng

Plosive p b f v t̪ d̪

t d

c

ç

k g
Fricative β

bh

θ ð

th dh

ɕ ʑ

sh zh

ç ʝ

h y

x ɣ

x gh

(χ ~ ʁ)

varies

Affricate tʃ dʒ

c j

Approximant w j

y or i

Flap or tap ɾ

r

Lateral fric. ɬ

hl

Lateral app.

l

Lateral affricate

tl

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High
Near-high
High-mid
Mid
Low-mid
Near-low
Low

PhonotacticsEdit

Vowel Strength Edit

Atráve features a system of vowel strength. The vowels a, e, and i all have "strong" and "weak" forms:

/a/ (strong); /ə/ (weak)

/e/ (strong); /ɛ/ (weak)

/i/ (strong); /ɪ/ (weak)

The vowels o, u, and ü are not affected by vowel strength.

Although the strength of a vowel is variable in many cases, there are a few rules that dictate when a vowel is strong:

- If a vowel has an accent mark, such as in éra /eɾə/ "true" or imíd /ɪmid̪/ "rain"

- If a vowel is part of an diphthong (two or more vowels in a row without an accent), such as in solua /sol̪wa/ "(I) see"

Homophones Edit

Due to Atráve's heavy inflection, sometimes multiple words are pronounced the same. Although the presence of the acute and grave accents help reduce the number of homophones in writing, sometimes even that doesn't cover it all. For example, these words are all pronounced /mim/:

mím "word", mim "name", meme "meme", mím "I were" (subjunctive), mìm "he/she/it catches on fire"

Writing SystemEdit

Atráve is written with the Latin alphabet. It consists of 24 letters (the English letters minus q and w). In addition, the five vowel letters (a e i o u) can be written with an accute accent, a grave accent, or in the case of u, the diaresis. There are numerous digraphs, formed usually with h: bh, dh, gh, hl, sh, th, and zh.

An important note is that /w/ and /j/ are written as u and variably y and i, respectively. They occur only in diphthongs without jahi.

The accute accent (Atráve: jahi) is used roughly once every five or six words in Atráve. It serves multiple important purposes:

- Distinguishing homophones, such as o "not" and ó "without" or ta "you (informal)" and "new (masculine)".

- Indicating a strong (stressed) vowel; in most Atráve words, stress is variable, while it is fixed in words with jahi.

- Indicating that two adjacent vowels are not pronounced together as a diphthong; this results in the vowel without the jahi being weak as well. For example, tais "square" is pronounced /t̪ajs/ while táis "same" is pronounced /t̪a:ɪs/.

- Breaking up a diphthong with /j/ or /w/. For example, io /jo/ "type" and ío /i:o/ "ethnicity".

The grave accent (Atráve: jahi òt) is far less common than the accute accent, usually used in a handful of common words that have it. It serves a couple of purposes:

- Distinguishing a homophone if there is already a form of the word without a jahi and with a jahi. For example, se "(he/she/it) pays", "(he/she/it) is (subj.)", and "annoying (fem.)".

The diaresis on the u (Atráve: na ù ázh táp) is added to write /ʊ/. For example, nüshda "food" is pronounced /n̪ʊʃda/.

The vowel /u/ can be written in two distinct ways: u or ou. In the language's fictional history, u and ou were once distinct vowels, with ou being pronounced /œ/, but it has long since merged into the much more common /u/.

GrammarEdit

Atráve grammar tends toward agglutination and fusion, while in general being a fairly inflected language, with about two in every three written words containing inflection.

Questions Edit

Atráve questions take two forms: open-ended questions that use the particle lót (which by itself means "what") in various ways, and yes-no questions that do not have lót. This is similar to English, where questions either have a (w)h- word or are yes-no questions. It is also worth noting that Atráve uses inverted question marks (¿?).

However, the main difference between English and Atráve questions is word order. In English (and many other European languages), wh- words as objects are moved up to the front of the sentence, while in Atráve they remain in place:

¿San is lótel? She is who? / Who is she?

¿Zhanrad ila lót vetó? You found that how? / How did you find that?

The particle lót is inflected for class, as well. The main distinction is between the abstract/inanimate form lót and the sapient form lótel.

Abstract/Inanimate lót
Plant lóto
Animal lótou
Human lótel

Yes-no questions are far more simple. However, in Atráve, the verb must always come first in questions (as well as plain statements):

¿San an? He is?

¿San an? Is he?

Pronunciation note: in Atráve, the verb is almost always intoned higher, rather than the variable intonation of English questions. Usually, interjections, such as "yes?" "no?" or "right?" are not emphasized.

Numbers Edit

In Atráve, numerals do not fall under any distinct part of speech, although they could be described as adjectives, nouns, or adverbs. The numbers do not inflect (except for dei (0), which inflects for class, and yi (1), which inflects for gender and case), and always come after the noun (again, except for dei and yi). Listed below are the examples of usage for each number 0-10, with notes on usage:

  • dei da - 0 things, no things

The number dei has five inflected forms, one for each noun class. In addition, dei can be used as a determiner meaning "no", and the form del can also be used as a pronoun, meaning "nobody".

Abstract dei
Material den
Plant
Animal dou
Sapient del

It should also be noted that nouns with dei always take the singular:

Le dalüd, dei kacfa gim sa jabal. Please, no cigarettes (lit. "cigarette") in the building.

San mimatshun ázh den mimat savrat má ázh dei lavíl. A library with no books is like a body with no soul.

  • yi da - 1 thing

The number yi inflects for number, two cases (common/dative/ablative, genitive), and, ironically, number. This is because it also functions as the indefinite article (although it is usually dropped as the object of a copula or in reference to an object in general rather than one specific object).

Unmarked Genitive
Singular Feminine yi yen
Singular Masculine ya
Dual yan
Plural yat

Due to its two functions, the singular yi or ya can translate as either "a" or "one", although often one of the two can be inferred by context. However, yen, yan, and yat are not numerals in the truest sense. Yi and ya also contract to y' before vowels.

yi hlamahl "an apple" or "one apple"

ya ghoma "a car" or "one car".

yen ghomán vacdim "a car's wheels"

yan aínan "a pair of eyes", "a couple of eyes"

yat ayastoula "a group of people", "a few people", "some people"

  • dain shi - 2 things

The number shi is the first number to follow the noun, rather than precede it. It is also the only number with which the noun has the dual number (for example, mímin instead of mím (singular) or míma (plural)).

The other independent numbers (that all take the plural and follow the noun) are:

  • - 3
  • tilkeê - 4
  • ashdu - 5
  • nisut - 6
  • nó - 7
  • tamra - 8
  • iten - 9
  • sat - 10
  • ça - 11
  • çi - 12

Atráve numbers begin to agglutinate (gather smaller numbers to form bigger ones) starting with 13 (. Smaller numbers following larger ones are added to the larger one, while smaller numbers preceding larger ones are multiplied. Numbers beginning with twelve are usually written as numerals - for example, 14 instead of sat-tilkeê.

sat-tì - 13 (lit. ten-three)

tì-sat - 30 (lit. three-ten)

naizh al tì-sat - 130 (lit. hundred and three-ten)

Negation Edit

Atráve has two different particles used for negation: o and de. (As mentioned in the "Numbers" section above, the particle dei can be used to the same effect before a noun). Both particles are placed before the verb. Unlike in English, which places the verb "to do" before the verb in many cases, the Atráve negative particle is used with no auxiliary support.

- O (pronounced /o/ before a consonant, but /w/ before a vowel) is used before indicative verbs.

O ára hlatasiga taran bene alirir. He could not defend his fracturing country.

O bárant sara xeltar. They don't have social skills.

- De (/d̪e/) is used before verbs in the subjunctive or imperative mood, as well as the infinitive, adjectives, and adverbs. It contracts to d' before vowels (it can be distinguished from the contraction of trá "the" by whether or not the word is a noun or verb).

Fadhua hos de mé an lahanak. I hope that he won't be there. (subjunctive)

¡De zeile ben nistromím! Don't read my journal! (imperative)

Vira xiva, ax de xiva xím. It was quiet, but not too quiet. (adjective)

Nouns Edit

Pronouns Edit

Atráve personal pronouns are complex, inflecting for gender, number, person, and case. As the subject of a sentence, they can be dropped, as verbs inflect for the person and number of the verb's subject. Although they may seem complex at first, many (especially the dative and ablative) pronouns are predictably derived and are rarely used.

First Person Pronouns

Note: the pronoun la/be is the only remaining word in Atráve that distinguishes between the nominative and accusative. This stems from the fact that be is also the first person singular reflexive pronoun, as will be discussed down below.

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative
Singular la be ben béd bezo (masculine)

bezu (feminine)

Dual vin vinan vint vino (masc.)

vinu (fem./mixed)

Plural ves vesan vesat veso (masc.)

vesu (fem./mixed)

Second Person Pronouns

Second person pronouns distinguish between two levels of formality, represented by the basic pronouns ta "you" (informal) and esenu "you" (formal).

  • Ta /t̪a/ is used with friends, family members of the same generation or younger, and children. It is considered an insult to purposefully use ta with a person of higher authority.
  • Esenu /esɛn̪u/ is used with strangers, people of higher authority (such as parents, bosses, or officials), and the elderly. It is also always used in formal or business settings, unless the speaker and the addressee know each other well.
Common Genitive Dative Ablative
Singular Informal ta tan taed (masc.)

taid (fem.)

tazo (masc.)

tazu (fem.)

Singular Formal esenu esenun esenued (masc.)

esenuid (fem.)

esenuo (masc.)

esenú (fem.)

Dual suan suanan suanéned (masc.)

suanínid (fem./mixed)

suano (masc.)

suanu (fem./mixed)

Plural lau laun laud lauzo (masc.)

lauzu (fem.)

Note: The phrase á lo kelne "to the people" may be used as a more formal version of "lau", especially if one were to be making an official speech or presentation.

Third Person Human Pronouns

Third person pronouns are by far the most complex. When referring to mixed groups with they, the gender of the pronoun should match up with the majority of the group's gender: saizh if most or all of the group is female, and taizh if most or all is male. If the group is about half-and-half, saizh is more appropriate.

Common Genitive Dative Ablative
Singular Feminine is saran isid ísu
Singular Masculine an taran aned áno
Dual esebh esebhan esebhed (masc.)

esebhid (fem./mixed)

esebho (masc.)

esebhu (fem./mixed)

Plural Feminine saizh saizhan saizhat saizhu
Plural Masculine taizh taizhan taizhat taizho
Third Person Non-Human Pronouns

Non-human nouns tend to have less complex and more regular inflection. They are divided into two categories: animal pronouns are used for animals only (animals are never referred to using human pronouns, like in English), while inanimate pronouns are used for plant, physical, and abstract nouns.

It is worth noting that the animal pronoun nou inflects like a feminine pronoun, but is technically genderless (as the default conjugation form in Atráve is the feminine). However, inanimate pronouns inflect for gender (masculine or feminine), depending on the object's gender.

Common Genitive Dative Ablative
Animal Singular nou noún nouid nouzu
Animal Dual/Plural noun nounit nouítid nouzunt
Inanimate Singular set (masc.)

men (fem.)

taran (masc.)

saran (fem.)

seted (masc.)

menid (fem.)

seto (masc.)

menu (fem.)

Inanimate Dual setan (masc.)

menin (fem.)

seténed (masc.)

menínid (fem.)

seton (masc.)

menun (fem.)

Inanimate Plural ustulai ustulaid ustulaizu

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object of the sentence are identical. They should not be confused for object pronouns.

Singular Dual / Formal Plural
1st Person be en in
2nd Person lou in
3rd Person go

Sometimes, these pronouns are present where they would not be in English. This is in verbs that require an object in Atráve that don't in English, so the reflexive pronoun is used.

Lehlua be. I wash (myself).

Ud lou el daceked. You go (yourself) to the mountain.

Another common use for these pronouns is the "it's X" construction:

Sua be. It's me. (lit. "I am me/myself")

Séu lou. It's you. (lit. "You are yourself")

They are also often used to emphasize a pronoun, such as in the ázh go construction, meaning "by __self/ves" or "together":

San go savak 2014. This is him in 2014.

Nacürtad ta lou men! You did it! / It was you who did it!

Som ázh la be. I am by myself / I am alone. (lit. "am with I me")

Majibhéim esdi ázh ves in. Let's sing this together. (lit. "sing this with we us")

NumberEdit

Atráve nouns inflect for three grammatical numbers: singular, dual, and plural (dual is not present in English).

Generally, the dual and plural suffixes of nouns (in the common case) are predictable; dual suffixes are based off the stems -an- and -in- for masculine and feminine nouns, respectively, while plural suffixes are based off the stems -st- and -zd- for masculine and feminine nouns, respectively. However, a large number of nouns have irregular suffixes, as will be discussed below.

The standard suffixes are as follows:

Abstract Physical Plant Animal Sapient
Dual Feminine -in -in -in -inou -ini
Dual Masculine -an -an -an -anou -ani
Plural Feminine -zdi -zdim -zdo -zdou -stoula
Plural Masculine -sti -stim -sto -stou -stoula
The suffixes elide in some cases:
  • For feminine nouns ending in -i and masculine nouns ending in -a, the vowel of the suffix is taken off. For example, sunei > sunein "girl" and tastá > tastán "journal".
  • The consonants of the plural suffixes are affected by sibilant phonological rules in Atráve: the -s- in masculine nouns is elided in nouns ending in -s, -z, -sh, -zh, or -hl, while the -z- in feminine nouns is elided in all of the same but -s (where the -s itself is elided, such as in shéas > shéazdi "interest")

However, a number of nouns, predominantly feminine ones, have irregular plural forms, with a couple having irregular dual forms as well. The two most common trends are:

Feminine plurals ending in -a: fána, moila, mára, natara

Feminine plurals ending in -ím: náním, aíním, thaterím

Masculine plurals ending in -an: kanarán, tabhan

Two nouns have an fully irregular dual, as well as a fully irregular plural: yexev > hevni > ayastoula, meaning “person/people”, and shabh > shaubhán > zhebhól, meaning “life/lives”.

English loanwords have the dual and plural suffix -’s. For example, album > album's.

GenderEdit

Atráve nouns have two genders: feminine, and masculine. While feminine nouns make up approximately 51% of the dictionary, they make up approximately 61% of the nouns used in written text. The fact that feminine nouns make up the majority of Atráve's lexicon makes it stand out in contrast to most other gendered languages.

Unlike European languages, in Atráve, the gender of a noun is determined by its beginning, rather than its end. Although the tendency is for "soft" sounds to be feminine and the rest masculine, there are a few rules:

  • Vowels tend to be somewhat irregular. While most nouns beginning in i- or u- are feminine and almost all beginning in o- are masculine, a and e are unpredictable.
  • Very few nouns begin in h, but it does have an unusual system of assigning gender: nouns beginning in ha- or ho- are masculine, while those that begin in he-, hi-, or hu- are feminine. Thus, hán is masculine while hizh and hiá are feminine.
  • A few nouns have a gender that is contrary to its initial sound. Most of them are common words: da "thing", don "neck" and kradha "tomato" are feminine, while miskith "fish", mathíl "size", and ghoma "car" are masculine.
  • A few nouns can take either gender - some (mostly referring to animals) take a specific gender in each usage depending on the gender of its subject.

The general gender of each beginning is:

Masculine: bh-, b-, p-, t-, g-, k-, l-, r-, c-, j-, ha-, ho-, ç-, tl-, o-

Feminine: m-, v-, f-, z-, s-, dh-, th-, gh-, x-, n-, sh-, zh-, he-, hi-, hu-, y-, hl-, i-, u-

Gender affects numerous things in Atráve, many of which will be discussed later:

  • The gendered form of adjectives. Each adjective beginning in a consonant has a distinct masculine and feminine form, with consonants forming in gendered pairs. For example, tór "big" is the masculine form, while sór is the feminine form.
  • The articles. Most notably, sa is the basic masculine definite article, while na is the feminine.
  • The case inflections. For example, the feminine dative suffix is -id, while the masculine is -ed.
  • Some determiners inflect for gender as well, such as esdi (masc.) and azdi (fem.), meaning "this". Some, such as ila "that", don't change based on gender.

Case Edit

Atráve features four functioning noun cases: common (essentially the merger of the nominative and accusative), genitive, dative, and ablative; in addition, a vocative case can be invoked with particles. With the exception of the common singular, which is the uninflected plain form of the noun, suffixes are always present on the noun to indicate number, case, and gender.

  • The common case is used for the subject and direct object of a sentence, as well as the object of most prepositions and the default form of the noun.

The articles for the common case are:

Singular Dual Plural
Feminine na / n' no sout
Masculine sa / s' to lo
Mass trá / d' trá / d' trá / d'

Note: sa and trá contract before all vowels, while na contracts only before a and e.

  • The genitive case is used to show either possession of an object or to form an adjective-like noun, usually for compound words. A small few verbs take their object in the genitive case.

The genitive suffix is a bit of a messy affair that changes depending on the noun’s gender, number, and ending. Especially confusing are nouns ending in a vowel: the final vowel either has an accent added (or taken away if there already is one), and then it is followed by -n.

The suffixes are as follows:

Singular Genitive Dual Genitive Plural Genitive
Masculine nouns ending in a consonant -e -ek -et
Feminine nouns ending in a consonant -i -ik -it
Nouns ending in an unaccented vowel -´n

(i.e. zele > zelén)

-´k -´t
Nouns ending in an accented vowel -n

(i.e. má > man)

-k -t
* Some nouns have an irregular genitive form, such as bene > bené, shabh > shaubhi, and yexev > yexebhi.

The articles for the genitive case are:

Singular Dual Plural
Feminine sha / sh' noi sout
Masculine sha / sh' toi lo
Mass trá / d' trá / d' trá / d'

The genitive case in Atráve has two main jobs: to mark possession, and create an adjective-like form of the noun.

With possession, the genitive suffix is put on the noun that possesses or owns the other object, with the possessed object (which can be in any case) coming after. Oftentimes, both nouns will have an article.

Sén sha suneín no aínin sílov. The girl’s eyes are blue.

Sometimes, the possessed noun is genitive itself, possessing another noun:

Mav sha háne sha dhen na zóthe. It’s the end of the semester. (lit. "is the year's the half's the end")

With the adjectivial form, the genitive is also used where in English, a plain form of the noun would be used. In Atráve, nouns can be used as adjectives (such as in “football player”, “photo album”, or “movie theater”), but they are put in the genitive case:

San Paul fútboli türneixev. Paul is a football player. (lit. "football's player")

Damua stí thaskrát album’s. I have many photo albums. (lit. "photos' albums")

Yé go sout simaxát hanaked. He went to the movie theater. (lit. "movies' theater")

A few verbs take their object in the genitive case, as well:

Mánka ila shalxán. It happened to that city a lot. (lit. "happened that city's often")

  • The dative case is used to show both the indirect object of sentences, as well as marking a general movement toward the noun.

The dative suffix changes depending on the gender and the number of the noun, but it is much more straightforward than the genitive case:

Singular Dual Plural
Feminine -id -ínid -ítid
Masculine -ed -éned -éted

*If a feminine noun ends in -i or a masculine noun in -e, then the final vowel is accented and -d is added. For example, kelne > kelnéd "people".

The articles for the dative case are:

Singular Dual Plural
Feminine il noi sout
Masculine el toi lo
Mass trá / d' trá / d' trá / d'

*The dative article el has no connection to the Spanish article el.

The dative case's uses are very straightforward. Firstly, it plays a grammatical role marking the indirect object of the sentence. Usually, the indirect object is placed after the object.

Ótra sa tunei na mimat skai el okosed. The boy put the book on the table.

Bosarav hlamahl béd. (They) gave an apple to me.

It is also used whenever indicating motion towards something. It is thus always used after the prepositions ras "to", rasnal "into/toward", odahot "through", skai "on/onto", and ve (when it means "for"):

Umes be ras el Coloradoed. I will be going to Colorado.

Kamats go rasnal taid. He/she walks towards you.

Faiz is odahot noi safraínid. She looks through the glasses.

San azdi v'esenued. This is for you.

  • The ablative case indicates motion outward or from something.

The ablative suffix is based off -u for feminine nouns, and -o for masculine nouns, with a z- added before the stem after nouns ending in a vowel:

Singular Dual Plural
Feminine -(z)u -(z)un -(z)unt
Masculine -(z)o -(z)on -(z)ont

The articles for the ablative case are as follows:

Singular Dual Plural
Feminine sha noi sout
Masculine toi lo
Mass trá

The ablative case is the least common case overall, but it still serves an important purpose, always being used after the prepositions dhém "from", bén "from/out of/out from", and vega "outside of":

Dra go bén sha nánu al ras taran ghomaed. He went out of the house and to his car.

Masta is dhém sha benezo tue seshun. She is from the country north of here.

Óhenelent vega e sha nelesatu. They travel outside of the village.

Imíru imírid zhenserar. From sea to shining sea.

Verbal Nouns Edit

Verbal nouns are nouns that represent a verb. In Atráve, there is a distinct system that generates verbal nouns from verbs, depending on its verb class and the "gender" of the verb (Atráve verbs can be argued to have gender because adverbs inflect for gender depending on the verb's first sound).

The verb's gender is easy to discern, and there is only one case of irregular gender: sadega, which is masculine.

Feminine Masculine
-ega verbs -a -em
-siga verbs
-oga verbs -a -oi
-iga verbs -ha

There are some irregular verbal nouns:

gega > ge

viga > vi

kisavatega > kisné

Verbs which themselves derive from nouns (such as óhenelega "to travel, journey", from óhenel "journey") do not have verbal nouns.

Verbs Edit

(For more on verb conjugation, as well as the conjugation tables for irregular verbs, please visit this article here)

Atráve verbs are conjugated for person, number, mood, tense, and aspect. They are divided into four conjugation groups, depending on the 3rd person singular form's ending, which are each marked with a distinctive -ga suffix (which acts as the infinitive, plain form of the verb, as well as the gerund in some cases.)

-ega verbs are most verbs that end in a consonant.

-siga verbs are most verbs that end in a vowel.

-oga verbs are most verbs that end in -hl or -s.

-iga verbs are most verbs that end in -ra, -re, -c, -r, as well as a few outliers.

Overall, Atráve verbs have 8 tenses. Examples given are panega "to praise", fasiga "to notice, see", ahloga "to think", and miriga "to say through writing", four short regular verbs from each class. Only the third-person singular forms are given below; these tenses also inflect for person and number.

  • The basic present, marked by the verb without the -ga suffix (pan, se, ahl, mir)
  • The preterite, marked by plain verb with a -ra or -ta suffix (panra, fara, ahlta, mirta)
  • The future, marked with a -(e)s or -(dh)ez suffix (panes, fas, ahlez, mirez)
  • The (uncommon) imperfect past, marked by a -ka suffix (panka, faka, ahlka, mirka)
  • The (uncommon) present/future conditional, marked by a -(n)ai suffix (panai, fanai, ahlai, mirai)
  • The present/future subjunctive, marked by a suffix (pané, faé, ahlé, miré)
  • The past subjunctive/conditional, marked by an suffix (paní, faí, ahlí, mirí)
  • The imperative, marked by an -e on verbs ending with a consonant (pane, fa, ahle, mire)*

*Exceptions are -iga verbs with vowel-final roots, such as páiga "to stand" - its imperative form is páe "stand!", with the -e suffix.

For the sake of conjugating adjectives, verbs also have a sort of gender, which almost always corresponds to the first sound of the infinitive (for example, gega is masculine and viga feminine). There is one exception; sadega, including its verbal noun sad, take masculine adjectives.

In addition, Atráve verbs have a number of impersonal forms:

  • The -ga form (panega, fasiga, ahloga), which acts as the infinitive, the verbal noun, and takes auxiliary verbs to form aspects
  • The past participle, marked with an -(a)t suffix (panat, fat, ahlat), which also acts as the perfect tense, passive form, and verbal adjective
  • The present participle, marked with an -(a)r suffix (panar, far, ahlar), which also acts as a verbal adjective (but is used more sparingly in Atráve than in English)

This is the present simple conjugation of four regular -ega, -siga, -oga, and -iga verbs.

panega fasiga ahloga miriga
1st singular panua fam ahlam mire
1st dual panén faén ahlén mirén
1st plural panim faim ahlim mirim
2nd singular (informal) paneu fad ahlad mireu
2nd dual/plural/formal panunt fal ahlal mirunt
3rd singular pan fa ahl mir
3rd dual panent fabh ahlabh mirent
3rd plural panant fav ahlav mirant
Nil Subject panu fau ahlu miru

Passive-Impersonal Form Edit

In Atráve, a passive-impersonal form for verbs is created by the suffix -u. The passive-impersonal is used whenever a sentence would be passive, yet there is not a clear subject of the noun.

Pravu is. She is accepted. (lit. "X accept her")

Uniîsdiru na simaxa. The movie was made. (lit. "X made the movie")

Adjectives Edit

In Atráve, adjectives have either three forms (if they begin with a vowel) or six (if they begin with a consonant). Adjectives inflect for gender (at its beginning) and number (at its end). It is a strict rule that adjectives always follow the nouns or verbs that they describe:

Na nán sór "the big house" (lit. "the house big")

Trá lal cif "the cold water" (lit. "the water cold")

Gender Edit

Most adjectives have two distinct gender forms. With the exception of adjectives with a masculine form beginning in l or r, the feminine form is used as the default form of the adjective. Each consonant comes in gender pairs:

Masculine Feminine Neutral
bh m
p f
b v
t th, s
d dh, z
l, r n
tl hl
c sh
j zh
ç y, h(i/e)
k x
g gh
a/e/i/o/u
ha/ho/hu

For example:

Mav aleta xaci. "It is a hot day." (feminine)

Mav lazhoula kaci. "It is a hot night." (masculine)

Mav aleta adar. "It is an important day." (feminine, but gender isn't shown because the adjective begins with a vowel.)

Mav lazhoula adar. "It is an important night." (masculine)

Number Edit

In addition, adjectives, regardless of their ending, inflect for number that agrees with the noun.

Singular Dual Plural
akratút akratútov akratútitam

An orthographical note: if an adjective ends in -o, then the dual suffix is just -v, while if it ends in -i, then its plural suffix is just -tam:

Na thevúl asolo "the common version", no thevúlin asolov "the (two) common versions"

Na salfat vini "the yellow shirt", sout salfatzdim vinitam "the yellow shirts"

Case Edit

Atráve adjectives do not have quite as complex inflection as nouns, but there are distinct dative and genitive/ablative suffixes in the singular:

Singular Dual Plural
Common akratút akratútov akratútitam
Dative akratútad
Genitive/Ablative akratútis

For example:

n'akoya sór "the big school", sh'akoyán sóris "the big school's", il akoyaid sórad "to the big school", sh'akoyazu sóris "out of / from the big school"

The -a- in the -ad suffix is dropped when an adjective ends in any vowel, while the -i- in -is is only dropped in adjectives that end in i.

General Information Edit

Adjectives remain the same both attributively (this tasty pizza) and predicatively (this pizza is tasty). Because the subject is often dropped in Atráve and the copula occurs before both the subject and the object, oftentimes the two forms are indistinguishable.

San madua xadh. "Music (in general) is bad."

San madua xadh. "(It) is bad music."

Usually, the difference can be determined by a combination of common sense (who really thinks that all music is bad?), context (i.e. is the speaker currently listening to bad music?), and in intonation (predicative adjectives tend to be pronounced with different tones, while attributive ones are intoned roughly the same).

Irregular Adjectives Edit

A small group of four adjectives are irregular: "good", éra "true", nakobu "different", and inako "different". While is outright irregular, éra and inako each have distinct gendered forms despite beginning in vowels, while nakobu does not.

"good"

Singular Singular Gen. Singular Dat. Dual Plural
Feminine súis súad sútov sútitam
Masculine tou túis túad tútov tútitam

In its singular forms, and tou are only irregular thanks to orthography (in Middle Atráve, u and ou were once separate vowels, but are now both pronounced /u/). However, in their dual and plural forms, a t is present between the stems and the suffixes (in Middle Atráve, the singular forms had the now-dropped final t - sut and tout.) The irregularity is likely due to its nature as the most common adjective in the language.

éra "true"

Singular Singular Gen. Singular Dat. Dual Plural
Feminine éra érais érad araov araitam
Masculine ara arais arad araov araitam

The adjective éra is a bit odd - despite having a distinct feminine singular form, in its dual and plural forms, the feminine merges into the masculine. Thus, the adjective's only irregularity is the plain form éra itself.

nakobu "different"

Singular Singular Gen. Singular Dat. Dual Plural
Feminine nakobu nakobuis nakobud nakobuov nakobuitam
Masculine

Nakobu has no gendered forms, despite beginning in a consonant. This is likely due to the instability of the consonant n having two masculine consonant counterparts (l and r, despite l being by far the most common).

inako "different"

Singular Singular Gen. Singular Dat. Dual Plural
Feminine inako inakois inakod inakov inakoitam
Masculine onako onakois onakod onakov onakoitam

Inako has distinct gender forms in all numbers, despite beginning in a vowel. Of curiosity is that it and nakobu come from the same etymology and share the same definition, despite having unrelated irregularities.

Adjective Comparison Edit

Adjectives do not have comparative forms; instead, they use a set of particles that come before the adjective (highly unusual, due to Atráve's highly right-branching syntax).

zhá = most (for example, zhá sú "best")

bhal = more (for example, bhal sú "better")

nún = less (for example, nún sú "worse")

me = least (for example, me sú "worst")

Verbal Adjectives Edit

Verbal adjectives are identical to either the present or past participle of the verb, depending on whether or not the adjective describes a static or finished action (past participle) or a continuous, dynamic action (present participle):

Na zele astaubhat "the closed door"

Na zele astaubhar "the closing door"

Verbal adjectives inflect for number, but not for gender:

Sout thazazdim raimanatitam "the broken windows"

Lo okostim raimanatitam "the broken tables"

Noun Adjectives Edit

Most nouns can be converted into adjectives by adding the suffix -rat (which has a meaning similar to -like). Unlike verbal adjectives, noun adjectives are inflected for both gender and number.

Syntax Edit

Atráve is almost always a VSO language, although SVO is also acceptable in most cases, usually used to emphasize the subject.

Sua la yexev. I am (a) person.

Lakou sa hún lal. The man drinks water.

As subject pronouns are often dropped, some Atráve sentences seem to be SVO.

Séu mimatxev. You are (an) author.

Whenever an auxiliary verb requires another form of the verb, usually the -ga form, then the -ga form is usually treated as the object of the sentence.

Som la kisavatega. I am writing.

Relative Clauses and Pronouns Edit

Atráve uses three relative pronouns: , riv, and hos.

- is used when the subject of the relative clause is human (whether singular, dual, or plural). Thus, it translates very clearly to "who". It contracts to k' before vowels.

San sa kotreví zúrta ben azfozfa! He's the thief who stole my cake yesterday!

San is na zendrai k'anshot trá zhá shan. She is the police officer who works the hardest.

- Riv is used when the subject of the relative clause is a singular non-human object. It translates roughly to "that" or "which".

- Hos is used when the subject of the relative clause is dual, plural, or mass. It is also used after verbs, such as ajúsiga hos "to say that" or ahloga hos "to think that". In informal writing, hos contracts to ho' before some words beginning in s- or sh- such as san "is" or shé "yes".

Ajúrav béd hos heira móla lahanak. "They told me there was a battle there."

Riv construction Edit

An interesting thing in Atráve is how the pronoun "which" is formed, especially with a preposition before it. It is formed by placing the preposition, followed by the appropriate article that represents the noun, and then riv. This is also done when a preposition would be at the end of a clause. This is useful because the article used always reflects the noun that is being discussed in the relative clause.

San ila na simaxa le na riv sómta na vayasút. This is the movie with which he won the award. OR This is the movie he won the award with.

Here, the preposition le is followed by the article-turned-pronoun na (which is used as the noun is feminine and in the common case), and followed by riv, which introduces the relative clause.

San ben ghaiman deál na riv mad ajúsiga. That's my family about which you're talking. OR That's my family that you're talking about.

It is worth noting that in Atráve, prepositions ending clauses are almost always a big no-no (for lack of a better term). Thus, the riv construction is used to carry prepositions over from dangling at the end of the clause.

Passive Voice Edit

The passive voice in Atráve is remarkably similar to that of the Indo-European languages, relying on a simple construction involving the past participle and the instrumental preposition le:

Conjugated form of san + patient + past participle + le + agent

For example:

Kisavatra Charles Dickens ila mimat. Charles Dickens wrote that book.

Ra ila mimat kisavatat le Charles Dickens. That book was written by Charles Dickens.

As mentioned above, the past participle is formed by adding -at to verbs ending in a consonant, and -t to verbs ending in a vowel. There are two irregularities, though: verb stems ending in -abh or -agh have the past participle endings -aubhat and -aughat. For example, astabh "close", astaubhat "closed".

Subject-Dropping Edit

Atráve is a pro-drop language. Subjects, most commonly those represented by personal pronouns or simple pronouns such as esdi/azdi "this" or ila "that", can be dropped from the sentence. This is because verbs usually indicate the subject of the verb clearly, and the subject of the sentence can often be derived from previous sentences or context.

The magic of subject-dropping is demonstrated below:

Shevram la n'anüsi Friends. Ahlam la hos san men xotubh. I like the show Friends. I think that it is funny.

Shevram n'anüsi Friends. Ahlam hos san xotubh. (I) like the show Friends. (I) think that (it) is funny.

Although there are no environments in which a subject is needed, there are some times where they are needed for clarity. Atráve pronouns help disambiguate sentences very well, as they inflect for noun class, gender, and number.

Amua savuan, al amua pet. ¿Mav men lót hanak? I have a glass, and I have a cup. Where is it?

As savuan is feminine while pet is masculine, clearly the men pronoun refers to the glass. If the speaker had said set, then they would be talking about the cup.

LexiconEdit

Atráve's lexicon currently consists of about 372 nouns, 158 verbs, and 156 adjectives. This is about enough vocabulary to write about any subject in basic depth, although vocabulary runs dry quickly when talking about science and technology, philosophy, occupations, law, and even seemingly simple things like food and daily routines. Even some basic words remain missing; the word for "to look for" (vèdega) was not created until more than a year and a half after the language was created.

As a strict a priori language, loanwords make up a small amount (less than 5% of Atráve vocabulary) and are disappearing fast as new words are created. However, proper names (Tom, Jane) and names specific to popular culture or a place (Quiddich, baguette) remain the same in Atráve, spelling and all. However, in languages written with a non-Latin script, loanwords are spelled as per Atráve spelling rules (samurai, aníme).

In the one official dictionary (n'Atrábhén Mímtat na Mimat thá), nouns are typically listed by gender, verbs by their -ga ending, and adjectives by their feminine form. In future versions, each section will itself be listed alphabetically.

(Author's note: I'm not exactly sure when I'm going to upload the lexicon. It really needs to be organized before I post it, but that'll be a pain.)

Example textEdit

Atráve: San atrábhe mimshe uniîsdit savak hánsti shi-naot al sat-tilkêe. Savak sedo bár men teiga e míma nisut-naizh al nó-sat, le sout riv hu kisavatega stí dazdi, al kotebh hei stíl léur àj zóthesiga. Shé, san éra, mém la nasiga yagada bhot sedo, nám seún shak som, ajúr deál ben mimshe zhilafot savak s'asatakure.

English: Atráve is a language created in 2014. Right now, it has about 670 words, with which some things can be written, although there is still much to be finished. Yes, that's right, I could be doing almost anything right now, but here I am, talking about my made-up language on the Internet.


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