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Atráve/Irregular Verbs

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Atráve contains numerous irregular verbs. As each Atráve verb has about 50 distinct forms in up to 3 persons, 3 numbers, 2 voices, and 3 moods, numerous verbs, usually common or phonologically unusual ones, are irregular.

The majority of irregular verbs belong to the -ega and -siga verbs, with there being two irregular -iga verbs (nacuriga and báriga) and no irregular -oga verbs.

For each irregular verb, only the tenses that deviate from the normal conjugation (which is always based off the -ga form of the verb) are shown, as some verbs are only irregular in some tenses.

(This page is under construction)

Category I: Regular Verbs Edit

More than 90% of Atráve verbs are regular. There are four different ways to conjugate a regular verb, depending on which -ga ending it has (which in turn usually depends on the final sound of the verb's root). Given below are the conjugations of one regular verb from each class.

(Note: the formal singular "you" (esenu) is the same as the 2d (second-person dual) conjugation. In addition, im stands for "impersonal/passive".)

tevega "to answer/respond" (regular -ega verb) Edit

Infinitive: tevega

Past Participle: tevat

Present Participle: tevar

Present Past Simple Past Imperfect Future Subjunctive Non-Past Subjunctive Past Imperative
1s tevua tevram tevkam tevuas tevém tevím teve
2s teveu tevrad tevkad teveus tevéd tevíd
3s tev tevra tevka teves tevé teví
1d tevén tevrain tevkain tevines tevéin teviîn tevek
2d tevunt tevral tevkal tevuntes tevél tevíl
3d tevent tevrabh tevkabh teventes tevébh tevíbh
1p tevim tevraim tevkaim tevimes tevéim tevíîm
2p tevum tevral tevkal tevumes tevél tevíl
3p tevant tevrav tevkav tevantes tevév tevív
im tevu tevru tevku tevus tevéu tevíu

tomasiga "to know, meet" (regular -siga verb) Edit

Present Past Simple Past Imperfect Future Subjunctive Non-Past Subjunctive Past Imperative
1s tomam tomaram tomakam tomames tomaém tomaím toma
2s tomad tomarad tomakad tomades tomaéd tomaíd
3s toma tomara tomaka tomas tomaé tomaí
1d tomaén tomarain tomakain tomaines tomaéin tomaíîn tomak
2d tomal tomaral tomakal tomales tomaél tomaíl
3d tomabh tomarabh tomakabh tomabhes tomaébh tomaíbh
1p tomaim tomaraim tomakaim tomaimes tomaéim tomaíîm
2p tomal tomaral tomakal tomales tomaél tomaíl
3p tomav tomarav tomakav tomaves tomaév tomaív
im tomau tomaru tomaku tomaus tomaéu tomaíu

maisoga "to hurt, injure" (regular -oga verb) Edit

Present Past Simple Past Imperfect Future Subjunctive Non-Past Subjunctive Past Imperative
1s maisam maistam maiskam maisamez maisém maisím maise
2s maisad maistad maiskad maisadez maiséd maisíd
3s mais maista maiska maisez maisé maisí
1d maisén maistain maiskain maisinez maiséin maisíîn maisek
2d maisum maistal maiskal maisumez maisél maisíl
3d maisabh maistabh maiskabh maisabhez maisébh maisíbh
1p maisim maistaim maiskaim maisimez maiséim maisíîm
2p maisum maistal maiskal maisumez maisél maisíl
3p maisav maistav maiskav maisavez maisév maisív
im maisu maistu maisku maisus maiséu maisíu

íviga "to keep, retain, maintain" (regular -iga verb) Edit

Edit

Class II: Vowel-Mutation Verbs Edit

eusiga "to go" Edit

With the exception of the third-person singular eu "he/she/it goes", conjugated forms of eusiga delete the initial e-. In addition, the past tense has the stem dra-, likely originating from the same source as dramega "to go out, leave".

Present Past Simple Past Imperfect Future Subjunctive Non-Past Subjunctive Past Imperative
1s um dram ukam umes uém uím u
2s ud drad ukad udes uéd uíd
3s eu dra / yé uka us
1d uèn drain ukain uènes uéin uíîn uk
2d ul dral ukal ules uél uíl
3d ubh drabh ukabh ubhes uébh uíbh
1p uim draim ukaim uimes uéim uíîm
2p ul dral ukal ules uél uíl
3p uv drav ukav uves uév uív
im drau uku uûs uéu uíu

Class III: Stem-Mutation Verbs Edit

Class IV: Multi-Stem Verbs Edit

These are highly-irregular verbs whose infinitive stem differs from that of its present and past tense. This class comprises just two verbs, gega and viga. In addition to being the two most common verbs in the language (both meaning "to be"), they are the most irregular. Despite ending in -ega and -iga, these two verbs form a small pseudo-class of their own: the -ga verbs. Thus, their regular stems are ge- and vi- (which are observed in some tenses).

gega "to be" Edit

Infinitive: gega

Past Participle: get

Present Participle: ger

Present Past Simple Past Imperfect Future Subjunctive Non-Past Subjunctive Past Imperative
1s sua ram gékam gemes sém sím ge
2s séu rad gékad gedes séd síd
3s san ra géka ges
1d saén rain gékain geines séin síin gek
2d sén ral gékal geles sél síl
3d ran gékabh gebhes sébh síbh
1p saím raím gékaim geimes séim síim
2p sant ral gékal geles sél síl
3p rat gékav geves sév sív
im gu geru géku geus sèu síu

viga "to be" Edit

Infinitive: viga

Past Participle: vit

Present Participle: vir

Viga is arguably the most irregular verb in Atráve, having only regular imperfect and imperative forms. As opposed to gega, viga is used as "to be" in temporary aspects, such as condition, emotion, and location. With the infinitive, viga is used to mark the progressive aspect, albeit not as often as in English. Viga has two different, synonymous future tenses; one has the regular stem vi-, while the other has the unrelated stem la-. This could be used as a potential "dialectical difference".

(table in progress)

Present Past Simple Past Imperfect Future Subjunctive Non-Past Subjunctive Past Imperative
1s som trám vikam lám mém mìm vi
2s mad trád vikad lád méd míd
3s mav tráv vika
1d maén tráen vik
2d munt tráunt
3d ment
1p maím tráim vikaim láim méim míim
2p munt tráunt
3p mant tránt
im mu

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