Wikia

Conlang

Avrekel

3,214articles on
this wiki
Talk0
Avrekel
Avärikelaenä
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Head-initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Three (Masculine, Feminine, Neuter)
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 92%
Statistics
Nouns 95%
Verbs 97%
Adjectives 93%
Syntax 98%
Words  ? of 1500
Creator Mattia Tosin

Avrekel language (Avärikel Aenä or Avärikelaenä in Avrekel, also called language of the West-elves by humans, Sänäranilavathaenä or simply Sänäraenä by some kinds of elves, which can be translated as "language of the west-ancestors") is mainly spoken in Anhmor and Mifmor, where it is recognized as national language, but some speakers can be found in other countries because of the migration to other lands or because they were colonies in ancient times.

Classification and DialectsEdit

This language is an elfic language (kel) which comes from the Ancient Gordhur (once a sort of common elfic language) and Aniskel (spoken in the west of Kahaymah). They were both Gordhurish languages contrasting with the languages of Anthuraal, but as Avrekel started beign spoken only in the West this language is considered a Western Gordhurish language.

Officially, only the "traditional" form of Avrekel is accepted, although there are quite a lot dialects. For a West-elf it is very important to speak this language with a correct grammar and pronunciation, because it is considered sacred. Grammar rules and pronunciation are strictly fixed and it is offensive to speak a different type of Avrekel in public; even foreigners have to use a different language if they don't speak Avrekel very well.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal /m/ /ɱ/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/
Plosive /p/ /t/ /d/ /c/ /k/ /g/ /q/
Fricative /ɸ/ /f/ /v/ /θ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /x/
Affricate /ʈ/ /ɖ/
Approximant /ʋ/ /ð/ /h/
Trill /r/ /ɻ/
Flap or tap /ɾ/ /ɽ/
Lateral app. /l/ /ɭ/ /ʎ/

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close /i/ /y/ /u/ /ɯᵝ/
Close-mid /e/ /ø/ /ɘ/ /o/
Open-mid /ɛ/ /ɔ/
Near-open /æ/ /ɐ/
Open /a/ /ɒ/

Writing SystemsEdit

There are three different writing systems in Avrekel.

The eldest one is called Malähanena or Malävhanena, "Malähan's one", which consists in a complicated connection between basic consonant sounds and diacritical marks which explicate the vowel sounds, read from left to right. With this alphasyllabary the terminations of declensions are specific symbols which are put after the word in a clear order.

Almost at the time another writing system was born: it is called Näranä, "ideogram". In fact, it consists of ideographs which represent a concept. But this alphabet was just invented for military and political using, so it is possible to write only some of the whole words in Avrekel. It is read from left to right, but terminations are put upon and below the ideograph.

In the middle of the Second Era, a member of the Dheran Anol (the council of the Elves), Nwmäl, invented a new, simplified writing system called Nwmälena, "Nwmäl's one". It is an alphasyllabary like the Malähanena, but has less consonants and simpler diacritical marks and rules. It has been a success and soon became the most used writing system among Avrekel's speakers. Like the others, it is read from left to right.

Alphasyllabary Nwmäl (Nwmälena)Edit

Here are the basic vowel symbols used in Avrekel language. They are written only at the beginning of a word (if there are no consonants before) and at the beginning of a termination.

Symbol Transliteration Sound Corresponding diacritic mark
A-avrk
A /ɒ/, /a/ or /ɐ/
A1-avrk
Ä /a/ or /æ/ None
E-avrk
E /ɛ/ or /e/
I-avrk
I /i/
O-avrk
O /ɔ/ or /o/
O1-avrk
Ö /ø/
Y-avrk
Y /y/
W-avrk
W /ɯᵝ/
AE-avrk
AE /a͡ɛ/ or /ɒ͡e/
EO1-avrk
/ɘ͡ø/
OW-avrk
OW /uː/


Here are the consonants in Avrekel language. It is also showed the sound of the letter when it is mollified (by putting a specific diacritical mark), although these alterations of some consonants aren't used very often.

Symbol Transliteration Sound Mollification (sound and transliteration)
K /k/ /q/ (Q or K')
CH /x/ No
R /r/ or /ɾ/ /ɻ/ (Ř or R')
LLR /ɭ͡ɽ/ No
DH /ð/ No
D /d/ /ɖ/ (Ď or D')
T /t/ /ʈ/ (Ť or T')
TH /θ/ No
F /f/ No
V /v/ No
VH /ʋ/ No
L /l/ /ʎ/ (Ĺ or L')
LL /ɭ/ No
G /g/ No
Ç /c/ No
S /s/ No
SH /ʃ/ No
M /m/ No
MN /ɱ͡ŋ/ No
N /n/ /ɲ/ (Ñ or N')
MR /m͡r/ No
NL /ɳ͡l/ No
P /p/ No
PH /ɸ/ No
  • There are also three diacritic marks which are put before the other marks, if used. These consist in a mollification mark (used only with some consonants), a vowel-stop mark which remove the vocalic sound after a consonant one, and an aspirate mark only for vowels, used to aspirate the vocalic sound (what is transliterated with a "H" at the beginning of the word).

GrammarEdit

Gender and NumberEdit

In Avrekel there are three genders which are masculine, feminine and neuter. The identification of the gender is useless because declensions don't care of it, but it is helpful for native speakers in rhetoric and literature.

There are also three numbers: singular, paucal and plural. The terminations are put according to the last letter of the word. In fact, if the word ends in a vocalic sound terminations are different from a word which finishes with a consonant sound.

Singular Paucal Plural Meaning
Vowel ending merow (-n) merown (-(a)na) merowana/merowna* land
Consonant ending hädon (-a) hädona (-ali) hädonali mountain
  • If a word ends with sound "A" the termination -na is the only one which is allowed.

CasesEdit

In Avrekel languages there are eighteen cases which consist in one termination for each case, neglecting the number. They are divided in two categories: vowel-ending words and consonant-ending words.

When a termination begins with a vowel, this one is never written as a diacritic mark, but as a basic symbol.

Vowel-ending Consonant-ending
Nominative [zero]

merow, merown, merowana

[zero]

hädon, hädona, hädonali

Accusative [zero]

merow, merown, merowana

-ne

hädonne, hädonane, hädonaline

Essive -te

merowte, merownte, merowanate

-ae

hädonae, hädonaae, hädonaliae

Abessive -nw

merownw, merownnw, merowananw

-w

hädonw, hädonaw, hädonaliw

Adessive -ae

merowae, merownae, merowanaae

-ae

hädonae, hädonaae, hädonaliae

Ablative -tasi

merowtasi, merowntasi, merowanatasi

-asi

hädonasi, hädonaasi, hädonaliasi

Allative -nesi

merownesi, merownnesi, merowananesi

-esi

hädonesi, hädonaesi, hädonaliesi

Elative -to

merowto, merownto, merowanato

-ato

hädonato, hädonaato, hädonaliato

Illative -ti

merowti, merownti, merowanati

-ati

hädonati, hädonaati, hädonaliati

Locative -i

merowi, merowni, merowanai

-i

hädoni, hädonai, hädonalii

Possessive -en

merowen, merownen, merowanaen

-en

hädonen, hädonaen, hädonalien

Respective -ena

merowena, merownena, merowanaena

-ena

hädonena, hädonaena, hädonaliena

Dative -ne

merowne, merownne, merowanane

-ne

hädonne, hädonane, hädonaline

Comitative -nwd'

merownwd', merownnwd', merowananwd'

-nwd'

hädonnwd', hädonanwd', hädonalinwd'

Prolative -sä

merowsä, merownsä, merowanasä

-sä

hädonsä, hädonasä, hädonalisä

Instrumental -teö

merowteö, merownteö, merowanateö

-eö

hädoneö, hädonaeö, hädonalieö

Confective -lle

merowlle, merownlle, merowanalle

-alle

hädonalle, hädonaalle, hädonalialle

Reputative -no

merowno, merownno, merowanano

-no

hädonno, hädonano, hädonalino

  • The respective, confective and reputative cases are invented. Respective states an affinity or a mode (Note: Nwmälena, the alphabet related to Nwmäl), confective is the case of the agent in a passive sentence and reputative expresses a evaluation or a quality.
  • Cases which express a position in space can be also related to a position in time: for example, if we consider the elative and the illative cases, the "inner" is the present and the "external" is the future and/or the past.
  • Adjectives (also numerals) have the same terminations used for nouns but don't change in number.

Personal PronounsEdit

Singular personsEdit

1st Formal 1st 2nd Formal 2nd 3rd Undefined 3rd
Nominative allä wllä edh dow val tenin
Accusative alläne wlläne edhäne downe valne teninne
Essive alläte wlläte edhäte dowte valte teninte
Abessive allw ellw edhäw dw valw teninw
Adessive allae ellae edhäae dae valae teninae
Ablative atasi etasi edhasi dhasi valasi tenasi
Allative anesi enesi edhesi dhesi valesi tenesi
Elative ato eto edho dhato valato tento
Illative ati eti edhi dhati valati tenti
Locative alli elli edhäi di vali tenini
Possessive allen ellen edhäen den valen teninen
Respective alla ella edhäa da vala tenina
Dative ane ene edhe dhane valane tene
Comitative allwd' ellwd' edhäwd' dwd' valwd' teninwd'
Prolative asä esä edhä dhasä valä tenä
Instrumental aeö edheö dheö valeö teneö
Confective alle elle edhäe de vale tenine
Reputative allo ello edhäo do valo tenino

Plural personsEdit

1st Formal 1st 2nd Formal 2nd 3rd Undefined 3rd
Nominative lesin wlläna nällr nimn vollä anlan
Accusative lesinne wllänane nällräne nimnne volläne anlanne
Essive lesinte wllänate nällräte nimnte volläte anlante
Abessive lesinw ellänw nällräw nw vollw anlanw
Adessive lesinae ellänae nällräae nae vollae anlanae
Ablative lasi ellätasi nällrasi nimnasi vollasi anlasi
Allative lesi ellänesi nällresi nimnesi vollesi anlesi
Elative lo elläto nällro nimnato vollato anlo
Illative li elläti nällri nimnati vollati anli
Locative lesini elläni nällräi ni volli anlani
Possessive lesinen ellänen nällräen nen vollen anlanen
Respective lesina elläna nällräa na volla anlana
Dative le elläne nällre nimne vollane anle
Comitative lesinwd' ellänwd' nällräwd' nwd' vollwd' anlanwd'
Prolative ellä nällrä nimnasä vollasä anlä
Instrumental leö ellö nällreö nimneö volleö anleö
Confective lesine elläne nällräe ne volle anlane
Reputative lesino elläno nällräo no vollo anlano

Demonstrative and possessive suffixesEdit

Demonstrative and possessive adjectives are suffixes which are put after the terminations of number and case in a word.

Demonstrative suffixes depend on the ending of the word (if the last sound is vocalic or consonant) and they are divided in demonstrative adjectives for near and far objects and both these categories consist of fixed objects and unfixed ones.

Suffix Example
Fixed near objects Vowel ending: -lamne

Consonant ending: -amne

merowlamne, merownlamne, merowanalamne

hädonamne, hädonaamne, hädonaliamne

Unfixed near objects Vowel ending: -qämne

Consonant ending: -iqämne

merowqämne,...

hädoniqämne,...

Fixed far objects Vowel ending: -tallre

Consonant ending: -allre

merowtallre,...

hädonallre,...

Unfixed far objects Vowel ending: -sillre

Consonant ending: -illre

merowsillre,...

hädonillre,...

Possessive suffixes work like demonstrative ones. There are five suffixes (ten, if we consider the differences between vowel-ending and consonant-ending, although the last is just made of the vowel-ending suffix plus "i" at the beginning).

Relation to person Suffix Example
1st singular Vowel ending: -sela

Consonant ending: -isela

merowsela, merownsela, merowanasela

hädonisela, hädonaisela, hädonaliisela

2nd singular Vowel ending: -sowla

Consonant ending: -isowla

merowsowla,...

hädonisowla,...

1st plural Vowel ending: -rena

Consonant ending: -irena

merowrena,...

hädonirena,...

2nd plural Vowel ending: -rowna

Consonant ending: -irowna

merowrowna,...

hädonirowna,...

3rd singular/plural Vowel ending: -tynae

Consonant ending: -itynae

merowtynae,...

hädonitynae,...

Morphology of nounsEdit

Every noun can be made of five sections put in a specific order. The first one is of course always present because it is the root of the noun (the noun itself) and the other four correspond in order to the terminations of number, case, demonstration and possession.

Let's consider the locution: Nowsäal allä vhadänalineamneisowla, I eat (better "I'm eating") these your apples. This is what we find if we analyze the noun vhadänalineamneisowla.

Root Termination of number Termination of case Termination of demonstration Termination of possession
vhadän- -ali- -ne- -amne- -isowla
apple PLURAL ACCUSATIVE these your

In spoken language, finding all five terminations together is rare, but it is quite common in written language and among nobles (who are supposed to speak properly).

VerbsEdit

All verbs in Avrekel language follow the same conjugation, according to a paradigm which can change from a verb to the other. Every model shows four tenses in a specific order: infinitive, present indicative, imperfect indicative and present imperative.

If we consider the verb seen above, nowsäal (to eat), we have a paradigm which can be considered "regular": nowsä, nowsäal, nowsänäwl, nowsäliasäl. Most of the verbs in Avrekel language have a similar model.

  • Same root for infinitive and present indicative.
  • Imperfect indicative signified by -nä-.
  • Present imperative signified by -li-.

Other verbs can have different roots, like lowsi, lwsäal, lenäsiwl, lwnäsiasäl (to sail), or can even change more, for example näni, denwal, onäwl, deniasäl (to exist materially, sometimes to be).

When we have a paradigm we know that the first root is used for non-finite moods (infinitive and participle), the second for present and future indicative, the third for imperfect and perfect indicative and the fourth for present and future imperative.
Verbs are conjugated according to the person and number and has two voices (active and passive).

Indicative moodEdit

PresentEdit
Person Active Passive Example
1st singular -al -allän nowsäal

nowsäallän

2nd singular -adh -adhän nowsäadh

nowsäadhän

3rd singular -in -inin nowsäin

nowsäinin

1st plural -alin -alinän nowsäalin

nowsäalinän

2nd plural -allr -allrän nowsäallr

nowsäallrän

3rd plural -anlin -anlinin nowsäanlin

nowsäanlinin

ImperfectEdit
Person Active Passive Example
1st singular -wl -wllän nowsänäwl

nowsänäwllän

2nd singular -wdh -wdhän nowsänäwdh

nowsänäwdhän

3rd singular -wn -wnin nowsänäwn

nowsänäwnin

1st plural -wlin -wlinän nowsänäwlin

nowsänäwlinän

2nd plural -wllr -wllrän nowsänäwllr

nowsänäwllrän

3rd plural -wnlin -wnlinin nowsänäwnlin

nowsänäwnlinin

PerfectEdit
Person Active Passive Example
1st singular -en -enän nowsänäen

nowsänäenän

2nd singular -edh -edhän nowsänäedh

nowsänäwdhän

3rd singular -eön -eönän nowsänäeön

nowsänäeönän

1st plural -elin -elinän nowsänäelin

nowsänäelinän

2nd plural -ellr -ellrän nowsänäellr

nowsänäellrän

3rd plural -enlin -enlinän nowsänäenlin

nowsänäenlinän

FutureEdit
Person Active Passive Example
1st singular -ol -ollän nowsäol

nowsäollän

2nd singular -odh -odhän nowsäodh

nowsäodhän

3rd singular -on -onin nowsäon

nowsäonin

1st plural -olin -olinän nowsäolin

nowsäolinän

2nd plural -ollr -ollrän nowsäollr

nowsäollrän

3rd plural -onlin -onlinin nowsäonlin

nowsäonlinin

Imperative moodEdit

PresentEdit
Person Active Passive Example
1st singular -asäl -asälän nowsäliasäl

nowsäliasälän

2nd singular -asädh -asädhän nowsäliasädh

nowsäliasädhän

3rd singular -asin -asinin nowsäliasin

nowsäliasinin

1st plural -asälin -asälinän nowsäliasälin

nowsäliasälinän

2nd plural -asällr -asällrän nowsäliasällr

nowsäliasällrän

3rd plural -asänlin -asänlinin nowsäliasänlin

nowsäliasänlinin

FutureEdit
Person Active Passive Example
1st singular -ashal -ashalän nowsäliashal

nowsäliashalän

2nd singular -ashadh -ashadhän nowsäliashadh

nowsäliashadhän

3rd singular -ashin -ashinin nowsäliashin

nowsäliashinin

1st plural -ashalin -ashalinän nowsäliashalin

nowsäliashalinän

2nd plural -ashallr -ashallrän nowsäliashallr

nowsäliashallrän

3rd plural -ashanlin -ashanlinin nowsäliashanlin

nowsäliashanlinin

Infinitive moodEdit

Tense Active Passive Example
Present [ZERO] -nä nowsä

nowsänä

Perfect -en -enown nowsäen

nowsäenown

Future -ellren -ellrenown nowsäellren

nowsäellrenown

Participle moodEdit

Tense Active Passive Example
Present -eshan -eshamnän nowsäeshan

nowsäeshamnän

Perfect -elown -elowmnän nowsäelown

nowsäelowmnän

Future -sivhan -sivhamnän nowsäsivhan

nowsäsivhamnän

  • Participles have the same terminations of names when need to be declined.

SyntaxEdit

The basic structure in Avrekel language is VSO. When you have to make a question you use a SVO structure. For example, if we consider: "laenäen allä nämelne" (I visited the city), we have a verb (laenäen), a subject (allä) and an object (nämelne). If we want to ask someone "Did you visit the city?", we have to change the words' order and we obtain: "edh laenäedh nämelne?", a subject, a verb and an object.

But if we consider the phrase: "hisälläadh", "you read", we can't change the structure because we have just one word. In this case (and others) changing a declarative sentence into an interrogative one consists in emphasizing the last syllable a lot more than the others. There is a second way to change the phrase into a question: it is possible to add the subject, which will be put before the verb, of course, according to the SVO structure. So we have "edh hisälläadh?" which means "do you read?".

LexiconEdit

Here are some words and phrases which may be useful to speak in Avrekel.

  • Vhinäshalen / Vhinäshal / Vhinä; friendly and respectful greeting when meeting.
  • Näla vhinäshalae; answer to the previous greeting (lit.: "the same as hello").
  • Hällren'an / Henäqae; disrespectful greeting.
  • Edh galäte/galäena?; "What's your name?" (lit.: "You as name?". Both essive and respective cases are allowed).
  • Näal (NAME) galäte/galäena; "My name's (NAME)" (lit.: "I am (NAME) as name". Both essive and respective cases are allowed).
  • Syläna enäin edhäa?; "How are you?" (lit.: "How does it progress according to you?".)
  • Sälenäin / Hemädhenäin / Narälenäin; lit.: "It's great/fine/bad".
  • Dhällenashin; similar to "farewell".
  • Näqaeläashin; disrespectful greeting when leaving.

Example textEdit

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 1Edit

Denaeanlinin hal'en nowlenäana himäthanaliae ganäd'ianate saemänylano laneshänano sä nällräsaliashanlin anlan hynäelown nasämär'äneö kalaenäteö anlanwd' fänäshalenena.

  • Translation: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
  • Interlinear gloss: be_born(IND-PRES-3PL-PASS) all person-PL free_person-PL-ESS equal_person-PL-ESS dignity-PAUC-REP right-PAUC-REP and behave(IMP-FUT-3PL-ACT) they_undefined get(PART-PERFCT-ACT) reason-INSTR coscience-INSTR they_undefined-COMT brotherhood-RESPCT.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 2Edit

Nesät'aliashanlin laneshäna himäthirana nänieshana lanedhälaniamne hanlaline aemrälieshamnäna thanäna lömnena thavhälena nysaena aenäena hir'ashälanena nwsaläena anoläen ydhänaen siçänashänena sänäralen myllänen thänwlaena näleövhinänena nwsalinen ydhänaen sowr'ä haelänisäashanlinin thanäna anolanäena laneshenäena sylamnäena näleövhinänena myr'anänen merowen nänieshan nowlenäqämne valasi hysä kar'enälae ydhevhäshanoläte ydhanoläte helad'änarishanoläte.

  • Translation: Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs.
  • Interlinear gloss: concern(IMP-FUT-3PL-ACT) right-PAUC freedom-PAUC be(PART-PRES-ACT)-PAUC document-LOC-DEMN(fix.near) everyone-PL-DAT ignore(PART-PRES-PASS)-PAUC distinction-PAUC race-RESPCT skin_colour-RESPCT sex-RESPCT language-RESPCT religion-RESPCT opinion-RESPCT politics-POSS other-POSS origin-RESPCT ancestry-POSS social_class-POSS property-RESPCT condition-RESPCT birth-POSS other-POSS furthermore no_take(IMP-FUT-3PL-PASS) distinction-PAUC political-RESPCT jurisdictional-RESPCT international-RESPCT condition-RESPCT country-POSS territory-POSS be(PART-PRES-ACT) person-DEMN(unf.near) it-ABL if independent-ESS other_partial_governing-ESS other_governing-ESS no_self_governance-ESS.

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki