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B'la'ajà

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Overview


Setting Edit

...


Developed from a language with a syllabic root structure based on (C)VV(VV).  Vowel combinations became tonalized, rounded, aspirated, or rhotic, or a combination of these, instead of diphthongisation.  Some simple clear vowels are considered combinations of unstressed vowels. 

Agglutinative transitioning into a fusional language.






Phonology Edit

...


  • Consonants

Consonants pronounced as in English.  Consonants with a different manner of articulation than indicated by orthography.  Consonants with a non-standard English transliteration (i.e., ĥ) are explained below.  Unvoiced members of a pair appear before the unvoiced members, 0 indicating that that member of the pair does not occur in the standard dialect of B'la'ajà of Tkalkalis and the eastern North Sea coastal cities. Paranthized consonants are rare or only occur in certain environments and are noted.  Consonants after / are ejective or "strong" versions of the same sound.

 

 

                        place of articulation -->

/manner of articulation

 

labial

coronal

dorsal

radical

 

 

bilabial

labiodental

dental

alveolar

post alveolar

retroflex

palatal

velar

uvular

pharyngial

epiglottal

glottal

nasal

m

 

n

 

nj

n[1]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

plosive

b/b'  (p[2])

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

t/t'  d

 

 

k/k'  g

 

 

 

'

fricative

 

f  v'

0  đ

s/s'  (z[3])

ś  (ž[4])

 

c  0

h  gh

 

0  ĥ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

approximate

v

w

r

(ŗ[5])

j

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

trill

 

 

ḑ[6]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

tap/flap

 

 

 

ḑ[7]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lateral fricative

 

 

 

ll[8]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lateral approximate

 

 

 

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

affricate

 

 

 

ts  dz

 

 

tj

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vowels:


æ  = at

i = bee

ö = cooed

œ = feh

e = day

y = cut

a =father

û = put

o = dote

î = (lax vowel, as in Korean)

u = do


Tones:

Tones are a newly developing feature of the language, usually found in environments where word forms change for morphological reasons, i.e. verb conjugations.


Four tones,  à   high falling, á  low rising, ã mid falling/rising, a  neutral


 


Morphological phonotactics

final:

æ

i

ö

œ

e

y

a

û

o

î

u

initial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

æ

i

éj

éw

hwè

hwe

hwé

hw

él

hwò

ér

jéw

i

œ

jíw

je

ja

jo

jr

ju

ö

wíj

æ

we

wa

wo

wr

wu

œ

e

he

ha

ho

hr

hu

e

ej

ew

jẽ

y

hjẽ

hjã

el

hjõ

er

Jew

y

hjé

àj

àw

hjè

hje

a

hja

hjú

hjo

àr

jàw

a

ãj

aj

aw

ẽj

hwã

hwà

û

al

hwõ

ar

jaw

û

új

úw

le

la

o

lo

úr

júw

o

wẽ

oj

ow

hwo

juj

hwa

ol

î

or

jow

î

ŗžij

re

ra

ro

u

ru

u

wéj

uj

uw

wèj

wej

wàj

waj

wúj

woj

ur

œ

 
Nasal after vowels.
/b/ Before another consonant in a cluster.
Only found after /d/ and before /v/ in a specific verbal morphological construction
Only found after /t/ and before /f/
Only found in environments adjacent to silibants, often a regional variant
Allophonic with the alveolar flap


[8] The lateral fricative is the manifestation of a doubled lateral approximate.  In some dialects a doubled l is pronounced /đ/.

Basic GrammarEdit

...

Pronouns  Pronouns have number, person, exclusivity, gender (in the third person singular only), and case.  The subject pronouns are used to mark the verbal phrase.  Subject pronouns in this role may have an etymological root in common with the articles, which may explain morphological similarities between noun and verb phrases.  Number
  • Singular and plural.
  • Many plural forms are similar.
  • Plural pronouns exhibit exclusivity.  Some speakers may use the fourth person when trying to avoid explicitly making this distinction in sensitive contexts.

Person

  • The usual 1,2,3, with the addition of a possible "4th" person, which can be translated as "one" or "they".  It is used whenever when the subject (or object) of the sentence is uncertain.

Exclusivity

  • First person plural inclusive includes the audience, the exclusive excludes it.
  • Second person plural inclusive is genera
  • Third person plural exclusive indicates a distinction between two groups (it can also be used in a singular or general sense) - "they" but "not some others"

Case

  • Subject and object. 
  • All properly formed verbal phrases must have an explicit subject pronoun which marks the verbal phrase, and is used even when the subject has been stated.  b' can be used when the subject must be inferred, and is often used for almost all subjects in colloquial speech (although subject-subject pronoun non-agreement is considered ungrammatical, uneducated, or rude speech).  Verb phrases marked with b' often take on the appearance of noun phrases, but there are limitations on the degree to which it may truly behave as them. 
      • S'u(d) nwú-mjœs.  She gives it/her/him to me.  [1Ssubj + i: (class I verb set) elided with i:d]
      • S'i:fai nwú-mjœs.  She gives all of you to me.  [1Ssubj + i: + fai, no elision).
        • B'îd îd nwú-mjœs.  She gives it/her/him to it.
        • B'ai eu nwú-mjœs.  She gives me to them, as opposed to others.
    • K'eu nwú-mjœs.   She gives me to you.
    •  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Singular

Plural inclusive

Plural exclusive

Subject

Object

Subject

Object

Person

1M

1F

1N

1

s'

eu

îś

fai

ős

fii

2

k'

ai

ai

3

m'

n'

îd

îd

idi

em

ai

(4)

b'

în

Full forms (nominitive only)

1

 

 

s'eu

 

îśśai

 

ősfii

 

 

2

 

 

k'ai

 

agai

 

 

 

 

3

m'îdd'œ

n'îdd'œ

îdd'œ

 

vœdd'œ

 

mőj

 

 

(4)

 

 

b'înnœ

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dual (ul')

1

 

 

 

 

(u)l'îś

uffai

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

(u)l'iĥ

(u)l'ai

 

 

 

3

ummî

unnî

(u)l'îd

(u)l'îd

(u)l'idi

(u)l'idi

(u)l'em

(u)l'ai

 

(4)

 

 

ubbœ

ubbîn

 

 

 

 

 

Nullative (not me, none of us, none of them, none of you, not any of it, no one, nobody)

1

 

 

k'eu

k'eu

k'î

k'ef

k'ő

k'ef

 

2

 

 

k'ai

k'ai

k'iĥ

k'ai

 

 

 

3

 

 

k'îd

k'îd

k'idi

k'idi

k'em

k'e

 

(4)

 

 

k'în

k'în

 

 

 

 

 

Partative (often partative possessive) used either as some of us, some of you, some of our x, some of my x...or even, some among you, some among them/these

1

 

 

ć'eu

ć'eu

ć'î

ć'ef

ć'ő

ć'ef

 

2

 

 

ć'ai

ć'ai

ć'iĥ

ć'ai

 

 

 

3

ć'mî

ć'nî

ć'îd

ć'îd

ć'idi

ć'idi

ć'em

ć'e

 

(4)

 

 

ć'în

ć'în

 

 

 

 

 


Singular

Plural inclusive

Plural exclusive

Subject

Object

Subject

Object

Person

1M

1F

1N

Exclusive (only...) t'

1

t'eu

t'eu

t'î

t'ef

t'ő

t'ef

2

t'ai

t'ai

t'iĥ

t'ai

3

d'mî

d'nî

t'îd

t'îd

t'idi

t'idi

t'em

t'e

(4)

t'în

t'în

Diminutive (dear, less, few, only) k'*n

1

 

 

k'eun

k'eun

k'în

k'efme

k'őn

k'efme

 

2

 

 

k'ain

k'ain

k'iĥme

k'ain

 

 

 

3

gmîn

gnîn

k'îdme

k'îdme

k'idin

k'idin

k'emme

k'en

 

(4)

 

 

k'înme

k'înme

 

 

 

 

 

Conjunctive (and) dhy'

1

 

 

dh'eu

dh'eu

dh'ai

dh'ai

dh'ii

dh'ii

 

2

 

 

dh'ai

dh'ai

dh' iĥ

dh'ai

 

 

 

3

dh'um

dh'un

dh'îd

dh'îd

dh'idi

dh'idi

dh'e

dh'e

 

(4)

 

 

dh'aj

dh'in

 

 

 

 

 

Optative (or) noe'

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The four classes of verbs also have a spatial dimension.  (î) = in, inner, through, to  (ö) = out, outside, around, from (û) = above, up, expressed and (ö)+(û)= wŭ = down, below, hidden, covered.  These particles have developed into postpositions, similar to Japanese, and once exhibited vowel harmony with the related verbal phrase.  û-mjœs = to give.

Either we or them will go.  N'idi nœfii ć'wákje.  You and I are friends.  Ðy'eu đy'ai tmœdjatje'în.  She doesn't give it (the food) to it (the dog).  B'îd îd ni:nkwú-mjœs b'annœ b'vœm ni:nkwú-mjœs.  (Because dog is class II animate, it does not require io marker)

She gave it (the food) to it (the dog). B'îd îd ntwú-mjœs b'annœ b'vœm ntwú-mjœs. She did not give it (the food) to it (the dog). B'îd îd n'kwú-mjœs b'annœ b'vœm n'kwú-mjœs.

She will give it (the food) to it (the dog).  B'îd îd n'tywú-mjœs b'annœ b'vœm n'tywú-mjœs.
She will not give it (the food) to it (the dog).  B'îd îd n'kywú-mjœs b'annœ b'vœm n'kywú-mjœs.   She put the (waste food) in the sink. Sink b'usuj  B'alt-usujt ky'vœm n'twú-ĥrû.     
Substantives  Nouns in b'La'ajà have class, number, and sense (which can be described as "partitiveness" or social proximity to the speaker).  There is one article which changes form for number and sense.  Class is indicated when objects are quantified, and the class marker becomes part of the article.    The usage of the article is not as clear cut as in English or as in Spanish, and bears some similarities to the usage of the article in Arabic.  In colloquial usage it is common to drop the article but not the classifier, and in some idiomatic expressions only the article is used. As in modern English, there is no gender per se, but there are words that are either typically used by men as opposed to women or children (gendered usage) or words that relate specific information about the actual sex or perceived gender of the word.   Class  There are 11 classes of nouns which can be grouped into three "superclasses" based on morphological behavior.  Members of a class share characteristics, including common epenthic endings in vowel-final words, and they dictate which type of adjectives may follow and how they are to be declined, and which verb morphology is to be used when that noun is the subject of the sentence.  Group I includes classes I-III.  Each take their own adjectective set, but they share Verb Morphology I which applies when they are the subject.
  • Class I contains mainly people and anthropomorphosed objects or creatures
  • Class II mostly animals
  • Class III languages, origins, countries, edible plants and animals (often used for the meat of animals and not the animals alive)
Group II includes classes IV-VIII.  Each take their own adjectective set, but they share Verb Morphology II which applies when they are the subject.
  • Class IV mostly long or cylendrical objects
  • Class V flat, thin, flexible, or objects easily broken into pieces (pile of hair, dust, glass)
  • Class VI large things, liquids, augmentative
  • abstract nounsnegativeverbal nouns
  • Class VIII general class - foreign loan words, neologisms, and anything that does not apply to other classes.
Group III includes classes IX-XII.  They share one adjective set, which is superficially the same as that for class VIII (except some irregularities in the plural). Class IX uses Verb Morphology I, Class X, XI and XII use Verb Morphology 0.
  • Class IX pejorative forms, taboo words
  • infinitivesaffirmativeverbal nouns
  • (ch') Class XI, which has no singular–plural distinction, is used for mass nouns and partitives.  it can also be used in the "general" sense. 
  • (k') Class XII is the nullative of XI

 

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

Name

n./adj epenthe

k

k

k

m

m

m

m

m

s

s

s

s

verb epenthe

u

oe

u

oe

oe

u

u

oe

y

y

y

y

article set

b'

ny

b'

b'

t'

p'

s'

b'

ky

m'

ch'

k'

adjective set

i:

soe

i:

soe

soe

i:

i:

tae

tae

tae

tae

tae

verb set

i:/oe

i:/oe

i:/oe

o:/e

o:/e

o:/e

o:/e

o:/e

u:/oe

u:/oe

u:/oe

u:/oe

Nominal phrase Subject nominal phrases can be very complex, or as simple as an article+noun.  The nominative phrase is always introduced with the article, followed by cardinal or ordinal numbers, counters, classifiers, then any adjectival phrases, then the noun which is modified.  b':s ku:\ ram    =   two people (art+number+counter word+noun) b'twe\ kasi:ti:sstoe ram vuw'a'hreg.   The couple who want to be married are smiling. *Epenthic consonants in substantive phrases: All nouns that end in a vowel possess an inherent epenthic final consonant which is expressed when the noun precedes a word beginning with a vowel, semivowel, or liquid.  Which epenthe is used depends on the context and the class of the noun.  A general epenthe, often used for a rarely encountered word or in colloquial speech (when the speaker is unsure or has forgotten the proper class) can always default to "n", although this is sometimes considered rude speech, or sloppy.

b'annoe-k-lawd           the wild dog    or b'annoe-n-lawd

b'oerbu:-m-idje            the tall reed     or b'oerbu:-n-idje

m'mjoes b'argul           to give gifts, giving gifts

m' ĥnœś b'ram             to talk about people, gossip

m' ĥyœ-s-awi:n            to say truthfully, telling the truth

m' ĥyœ dawt               to say deceptively, to deceive

m'œköl-s-uwejt           to walk home, walking home

m' tîprœ-s-aljol            to eat

 

                        The article is used for status constructus genitive, especially in simple forms when adjectives are not used.

 

 

De'i(k)               father

b'de'i              the father

De'in              the father of

De'in b'ram     The man's father

  As in Arabic, only the noun in the genitive bears the article - possessive pronouns are formed by an article preceding the pronoun:

 

Kai'n b'ős m'rùjn.  He is our King.

Kai'n b'iĥ s'rùjn.  I am your king.

De'in b'eu vt'ìr/azv/.  My parents were kind.

B'mhà b'ram  The man on the hill.  mak, hill    b'ma ma'n

[b'ma-û = B'mhà]

 

B'ma b'ram.  The man of the hill.

B'máw b'ram.  The man from the hill.

Máw b'ram  The article has a singular plural, dual, nullative (none), partitive (some of), exclusive (none of these participate or have X) form. A so-called diminutive is a special usage of the nullative.  The static form of the noun reacts to most of these. As in Arabic, the article in b'La'ajà may change pronunciation depending on the sound that immediately follows it.  However, in b'La'ajà the critical difference is whether the following sound is voiced or unvoiced (except before the self-same sound), unless the consonant is palatized, in which case it is always the original value.  b'ku:\ ram   (the) one person    b'ka jiddeh  one tree            b'lli\ soem  one seed    b'ko~ de'i  father ul twe\ ram  (the) two people     ulka jiddeh  two trees          ul'lli\ soem                        ulko~ de'i si. ku:\ ram   three people          si.ka jiddeh   three trees        si.lli\ soem                        si.ko~ de'i b'ram            person, people       u:jjiddeh  tree, trees            u:ssoem   the seed, seeds     b'de'i f'ram             people                    f'jjiddeh  trees                      f'soem                            f'de'i k' ku:\ ram     no people                k'ka jiddeh  no trees              k'lli\ soem                        ch ku:\ ram some people              chka jiddeh  some trees           ch'lli\ soem dhy ku:\ ram  and people noe ku:\ ram

   

singular

plural

diminutive

conjunctive (and)

optative (or)

before voiced: 

b'La'ajà  

f'La'ajà 

kyLa'ajà 

đy'La'ajà 

nœ'La'ajà 

    • before vocal: 

b'æđ

f'æđ

ky'æđ

đy'æđ

nœ'æđ

    • before b: 

ûbbitji

f'bitji

k'bitji

đy'bitji

nœ'bitji

    • before unvoiced:

ûttil

f'til

k'til

đy'til

nœ'til

    • before p:

ûppwû    

û'pwû

k'pwû

đy'pwû

nœ'pwû

    • before palatized voiced:

ûb'gje                          

f'gje

k'gje

đy'gje

nœ'gje

    • before palatized unvoiced: 

b'the       

f'the

k'the

đy'the

nœ'the

before f

ûb'fœ

ûf'fœ

k'fœ

đy'fœ

nœ'fœ

before v

b'vödn

ûvvödn

k'vödn

đy'vödn

nœ'vödn

                        b'vœm, ûvvœm  the food b'annœ, f'annœ  the dog Numbers

0

ijk

20

aelb

1

uj\

21

aelbuj\

2

js

22

aelbejs

3

ae/d

23

aelbae/d

4

hoer\

30

u:paelb

5

ae~r

31

u:paelbuj\

6

aest/

40

(ej)saelb

7

wu:\dh

41

(ej)saelbuj\

8

we/th

50

(ej)saelbu:(p)

9

aj/

51

(ej)saelb(im)tu\m

10

u:(p)

52

(ej)saelb(im)es

11

imtu\m (tu\m)

53

(ej)saelb(im)ad

12

imes  (es)

54

(ej)saelb(im)a\r

13

imad  (ad)

60

(ae/)daelb

14

ima\r  (a\r, etc.)

61

(ae/)daelbuj\

15

imu/r

70

(ae/)daelbu:(p)

16

imsht

71

(ae/)daelb(im)tu\m

17

imu:th

80

(hoe/)raelb

18

imoeth

90

(hoe/)raelbu:(p)

19

imaj

100

vfe~

1000

u:vfe~

10000

vfe~de

100,000

ma/

1,000,000

u:ma/

10,000,000

ma/de

100,000,000

kej\


 

Sentences and Verbs Syntax B'La'aja\ is a SOV language, though there are some aspects which make this designation a little unclear.  It is a topic-centric language, like Japanese, and this topic manifests itself in b'La'aja as the noun phrase, which includes any modifiers to the noun before the noun is stated.  However, the actual morphological subject of the sentence is always the subject pronoun which marks the verb phrase.  Object noun phrases occur between the topic/subject and verb phrase, or a pronoun object/subject cluster can occur before the verb.  Verb phrases have the following composition: person + [aspect + (infixes)] + class/schema + verb + (adverbial phrase) Person

  • See pronouns

Tense [aspect+infixes]

  • Tenses in b'La'aja\, strictly speaking, are a matter of perfective/imperfective more than they are tenses in the sense of time.  However, there is a "future perfect" aspect which can be used to either state something that will be completed at a future time, or the current or past potential of something to happen.  With certain infixes it can also describe an ongoing action or a habitual one.
  • Morphologically, aspect memes act as markers to the "tense" clause (similar to articles), the predicate of which can be an infix which describes the state of the action in question.  
      •  

perfect

imperfect

future perfect

affirmative

t'

-

ty

negative

k'

nk

ky


          • (t' affirmative plain, t'h affirmative "i know it to be true", tj "i was told this and i'm pretty sure", d' "i'm not sure it's true" dj i was told this and i'm not too sure of its veracity"
          • (k', k'h, kj, g', gj...) negative
          • Willingness (modifies likeliness)
        • Permission
        • Ability
        • Want or wish
  • Class/schema
  • Verb
        • times done (once, over and over, finally)
        • speed (fast, slow)
        • nature (languidly, sleepily, with pride)
        • time of the action (now, today, five minutes ago)
        • location of action (at the store, on a boat, in the house)
      • adverbial phrases may hook into other clauses to create nested phrases)

 

Verbs do not conjugate for person, number, or gender.  It does conjugate for class, and register (low or high, distal or proximal), with modality coming in the form of suffixes which may also work in conjunction with an infix between the stem and the substantive particle.  personal pronouns are enclitic, and have a radically different form when used by themselves.  Register is used to indicate the speaker's attitude towards the subject of the sentence (the subject of the verbal predicate). Stative copula predicate î to be has an irregular copula form used in simple stative constructions, which is not usually necessary in more complex sentences with more than one clause.  It can be changed to indicate register. B'ram s'în.  I am a man. B'tuw n'în.  She is a girl. Mjedik m'rin.  He is a nurse. Kai m'rùjn.  He is King. F'ram îś'în.  We are people. Four Main Conjugation Schema (w/ Copulae)

 

a (neutral/low)

i (distal - high polite)

ö (polite)

y (proximal/friendly)

î (to be)

ra/în

rùj/rùjn

ri/rin

rà/în

ö (to have) (there is/are)

wá/id

wùj/ad

æ/id

wù/id

û (to do)

hwà/w'

új/j'

wí/w'

hàj/w'

I am here.  I am not here.  I will be here.  I will not be here. Ðû s'ra.      Ðû s'ra nœ.  Ðû tys'ra.  Ðû dzas'ra nœ. Ðû s'rà.  Ðû s'rùj. Ðû s'ri. nœ is an adverb used to negate the imperfective in simple stative constructions, but also used commonly in colloquial speech instead of the more literary infix system of negation.  Use of both in the same sentence is considered emphatic negative. Ðû s'ra nœ.   I am not here (coll) Ðû s'nki:ra.   I am not here (formal) Ðû s'nki:ra nœ!  I am not here! P'mjedik'id.                      There is a doctor. P'mîk b'tvö'idjœ.               Where there is a will, there is a way. She had it.  She has it.  She won't have it.  I will have it.  She will have it.  I won't have it. Nt'wa'îd.     N'wa'îd.       źan'wa'îd nœ.      Tys'wa'îd.       Tyn'wa'îd.         źas'wa'îd nœ.

Kt'wá'îd.     K'wá'îd.        

                                            Present: I did it.            St'wá'îd.             S'wá'îd.  You did it.        Kt'wá'îd.             K'wá'îd. He did it.          Mt'wá'îd.            M'wá'îd.    She did it.        Nt'wá'îd.             N'wá'îd. It did it.            îdtwá'îd.            îd'wá'îd.  We did it.          îśt'wá'îd.            îś'wá'îd. We did it.          őst'wá'îd.            ős'wá'îd.     You all did it.        iĥt'wá'îd.            iĥ'wá'îd. They did it.        vœt'wá'îd.            *vœ'wá'îd.         vœ+û+a = uw'a == vuw'a'îd  They do it.   vœ+ö+a = vew'a'îd  They have it.   vœ+î+a = vìridi They are them. or coll. = vœ v'ìn.                singular         plural inclusive          plural exclusive First          s' [eu]          îś' [fai]                    ős' [fii]  (exclusive of listener) 2nd           k' [ai]           iĥ [ai]                      em [ai]  (exclusive of speaker, but also singular) 3rd         m'/n'/îd [îd]      vœ [idi]                                                          b' [i:n]  (one, they, a person, or a general filler for when the subject is unclear) The verbs to be (î), to have (ö), and to do (û) form the basis of the three conjugation schemes.  All fully formed verbs include one of these geminates, which precedes a verbal stem which may or may not be directly related to the meaning of the geminate.  Verbal stems often have substantive derivations, and are often found in forms which decline as nouns.  Thus, verbs are technically a compound of the geminates and a noun.  Some aspectival morphological changes are apophonic, and these verbal stems are classified by those that undergo apophonic changes and those that "resist" them.  û, for instance, has a bit more complicated relationship with its verbal stems, depending on agency - i.e., whether one is acting voluntarily or something is being coerced, or acted upon.  Verbs indicating self-willed action (such as û-djade "run") tend to resist lenition (*û-djœdhy) in most cases, whereas verbs in the other classes (which may be glossed as "to make do") exhibit "coercive apophony".  That these verbals are verbals and not fully substantive is the morphological change required for the past participle and the gerundive (the doing, the going).  Adjectives, as in Japanese, exhibit verbal tendencies.  to have (ö) and to do (û) share a fourth conjugation schema between them which encompases verbal expressions such as "to create" "to make" "to give rise to" "to bring forth".  The four classes also have a spatial dimension.  (î) = in, inner, through, to  (ö) = out, outside, around, from (û) = above, up, expressed and (ö)+(û)= wŭ = down, below, hidden, covered.  These particles have developed into pospositions, similar to Japanese, and once exhibited vowel harmony with the related verbal phrase.  û-mjœs = to give. to be (î) verbs tend to express aspect or description, to have (ö) a state or condition, or involuntary or passive activity, or to do (û) activity.


IO S V DO Sî nwú-mjœs'îd.  She gives it to me.  (emphasis on DO, or stative) IO DO S V S'rd nwú-mjœs. She gives it to me (usually in clause construction)   (-de is a common ending for repeated actions done quickly.  b'dja is a step.  so, run = to do a step repeatedly, quickly.  contrasted with û-djæmb = to walk, -amb indicated repetition that is more measured.  Reduplication is used for the superlative in these instances. û-tme = to eat.  û-tmœ'amb = to graze or eat carefully, û-tmœ'ambam = to ruminate, chew cud. û-tmede = to eat quickly, ravenously, û-tmedede can mean to devour or gnaw.)  <--these are fused morphemes and are considered separate verbs - they do not have anything to do with the aspect/tense/infix/adverb structure)

Verbal Aspects Either we or them will go. N'idi nœfii tywákje. You and I are friends. Ðy'eu đy'ai tmœdjatje'în. Ðy'eu đy'ai tmœdjatje îś'în.

Tmœdjatje îś'îmin.   We want to be friends.

Tmœdjatje îś'id s'imin.  I want us to be friends.

or

Tmœdjatje îś'î[mî]s'imin.  [That] we are in a state of friendship, it is what I wish.

Tmœdjatje îśt'în.  We were friends (but not anymore). Tmœdjatje îśt'înje.  We were friends (and still may be or not, but at that time we were). Tmœdjatje îśtih'înje.  We were in the process of being friends. Tmœdjatje îśtih'în-ś'waha.  We were [in the process of] becoming friends. Tmœdjatje îś'ih'în-ś'waha.  We are becoming friends. Tmœdjatje îśty'ih'în-ś'waha.  We will be becoming friends. Tmœdjatje îśty'în.  We will be friends at that point, but not now. Tmœdjatje îśty'înje. We will be friends, regardless of current condition. I want to be.  s'imin. I want to go.  S'imwákje I am sleeping.   s'wá-lwe I want to sleep.  s'imwá-lwe I put the book on the shelf.    How do I get to the South station? Station  ûb'fœttekœ Arrive, get to ni:dan to, toward  'ai\ South     b'dowb the South station:  ûb'fœttekœ b'dowb B'ai\ [û]b'fœttekœ [b]'dowb s'rá-ni:dan huwk choe? S'ai\ b'emoesh [îd]twá'meĥrû.        The idea came to me.

S'ai\ b'emoesh [îd]t[wá']i:meĥrû. S'ghe~s b'emoesh [îd]twá'meĥrû.  The idea came from me (it was my idea.)  


DictionaryEdit

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talk

x-ĥnœś

say, state

x-ĥyœ

to step

î-dja

follow, come after

ö-djœ

follow, imitate

û-djade

sleep

x-lwe

to walk

x- œköl

to smile

î-hreg

wash

x-ra

wash oneself

x

watch

x-mrœ

clean

x

smile

x-goĥœ

laugh

x-raĥ

stop

x-ĥmœl

cry (tears)

x-nkœ

try

x-kromrœ

eat

x-tîprœ

see

x-nosmœ

speak

x-śrœ

take

x-kîśrœ

make

x-źîgrœ

give

x-sgalœ

write

x-ĥœk

go

x-ĥû

sing

x-Ðyœ

drink

x-nmœ

sit

x-hwa\rœ

keep

x-tmœgyœ

feel

x-myu\rzœ

to think that something is so

x-ĥmou

hear

x-ka'kru

cut

x-kitzœ

hit

x-utzœ

set, put

x-ĥrû

come

x-meĥrû

run

x-kikœ

read

x-ĥmû

think

x-ĥmœ

bring

x-mœdkru

buy

x-ko'

sell

x-ko'ö

carry

x-mtzû

meet

x-ö

catch

x-tsûr

wish

x-nirû

move

x-śœrksu

arrive

x-ni:dan

drop

x-tsœgrû

love

x-mœdrû

 

hate

x-tsœnkû

 

hit

x-htœrû

 

hug

x-dœg

 

smash

x- śœrśur

 

rip

x- śœrśum

 

plant

x-wœr

 

sow

x-mkrû

 

kill

x- yœrû

 

die

x-cœn

 

give birth, bring forth

x-œmû

 

cross

x-mjwœrû

 

draw (or write)

x-kahû

 

bring forth

x-œgkû

 

rise

x-tsœpjœ

 

go up, rise

x-tsœlbrû

 

go down

x-hakbœr

 

lower

x-hakmurû

 

repeat

x-hakśrû

 

return

x-mundrœś

 

do over

x-tidœnkrû

 

sing

x-tsejr

 

recount, tell

x-yœdts

 

relate, give information

x-munśjakrû

 

shift

x-tsœnkrû

 


Example textEdit

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