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Bactrian
Baktrana
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Front
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and DialectsEdit

The Bactrian language is an Indo-European language and part of the Indo-Iranian branch. The language was heavily influenced by Ancient Greek and has so a lot of Greek loanwords : γη (ge) -- geo (=Erde) / ηλιος (helios) -- helio (=Sonne) etc. 

Writing SystemEdit

Letter a b c d e f g h i j k l
Sound a b ts d ɛ f g h i / j ʒ k l
Letter m n o p q r s t u v x z
Sound m n o p kj r s t u v x z
Letter ç ş
Sound ʃ

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

In Bactrian three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) are to differentiate and nine cases (nominative, vocative, accusative, dative, genitive, ablative, locative, instrumental and prepositional).

MASCULINE

The masculine always ends in a consonant in the nominative singular :

katen (=stone)

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nominative

katen

kateni

Vocative

katene

kateni

Accusative

katenem

katenos

Dative

kateno

katenoi

Genitive

katena

katenexa

Ablative

kateneia

katenoi

Locative

katenei

katenose

Instrumental

katenex

katenai

Prepositional

katenu

katenax

FEMININE

The feminine always ends in -a in the nominative singular :

iana (=woman)

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nominative

iana

iane

Vocative

iana

iane

Accusative

ianam

ianas

Dative

iane

ianais

Genitive

iani

ianex

Ablative

iana

ianais

Locative

ianai

ianis

Instrumental

ianax

ianei

Prepositional

ianu

ianis

NEUTER

The neuter always ends in -o in the nominative singular :

moro (=sea)

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nominative

moro

mora

Vocative

moro

mora

Accusative

moro

mora

Dative

more

morai

Genitive

mori

moraxa

Ablative

morei

moroi

Locative

moreis

moru

Instrumental

morex

moras

Prepositional

more

morai

USE OF THE CASES

  • Nominative : used for subject and attribute to the verbs buditi (=to be) and axdati (=to become) : Evir orda rebam hadioş. = The man eats everyday fish. / Evir aşt divad. = The man is big. / Axdaş divad. = You'll become big. (=You become big - literally)
  • Vocative : exclamation : Vire, aşti divad! = O man, you're big.
  • Accusative : used for direct object, for the direction towards somewhere and for a duration of time : Evir orda rebam hadioş. = The man eats everyday fish. / Germaniam xem pariti nei şalei. = I'll fly to Germany this year. / Xem buditi do maxos Germaniai. = I'll be in Germany for two months.
  • Dative : used for indirect objects and for the passing through somewhere : Am danşe eviro doro. = I'm giving the man a gift. / Amerikam xem pariti Germanie nei şalei. = I'll fly to America via Germany (=through Germany) this year.
  • Genitive : used for possession : Na doma aşt edoma na vira. = This house is this man's house.
  • Ablative : used for the motion from somewhere and for the by-agent in a passive sentence : Amerikam xem pariti Germania nei şalei. = I'll fly from Germany to America this year. / Eciba ordar evireia. = The apple is eaten by the man.
  • Locative : used for location and for time expression : Xem buditi Germaniai nei şalei. = I'll be in Germany this year. / Xem buditi Germaniai nei şalei. = I'll be in Germany this year.
  • Instrumental : used for the with-agent : Epratero xem harabeti ştirex. = I'll destroy the window with a hammer.
  • Prepositional : used for objects followed by a preposition : Bar edomu eşag xabide. = The dog sleeps outside (=outside of the house).

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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