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Bahasa Panau (bah-HAH-sah pah-NAW) is an Austronesian language spoken in the Island of Panau, Malay Archipelago. This is based on the island nation of Panau in Just Cause 2.

Bahasa Panau, also called as Panauan in English, is a variant of Malay spoken in the Panauan archipelago. Due to influence with its neighbors as well as various races (Malaysians, Indonesians, Filipinos, and native Ulars) living in the archipelago, it has mixed words from the races living here.

The language uses Latin, Tamil, and Thai alphabets. Due to religious reasons, Devanagari is used by the Buddhist community and Arabic script by the Muslim community in the southwest.

Author's Note: Updates every 2 days or 1 week depending on my schedule!!

History of the Language (Sejarah Bahasa) Edit

The earliest settlers in Panau were the Ular people from the Pacific Islands. They spoke a language called Ular (Pasa Ular), which was related to other Austronesian languages. They adopted Hindu and Tibetan scriptures, gained their religion, built temples, and got some loanwords.

Because of the ongoing growth of Islam in the Malay Archipelago, Panau was influenced by Arab merchants during the 13th century. Islam spread quickly, however the native Ular people stopped the spread of Islam, thus only the southwest portion of Panau became Muslim. Also, lots of people from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines migrated to Panau. This resulted in more loanwords from Arabic, Malay, Indonesian (Javanese, Sundanese), and Filipino (Tagalog, Bisaya).

During the Age of Exploration, most lands were conquered by the Spanish, however, other islands were controlled by the Portuguese, Dutch and British. Most words obtained were from Indo-European.

During World War II, the Japanese controlled Panau. Many Japanese people migrated to Panau, and learned how to speak any dominant languages of Panau depending on region: Malay, Indonesian, Filipino and Ular. The Japanese also influenced Panauan culture, explains why there are lots of pagodas in Panau.

After Panau declared its independence led by Papa Panay, the government decided to make a language that can unify people. They chose Malay as a basis of a unifying language, added some words from the four dominant languages in order to balance the cultures of every ethnic group. And the result was Bahasa Panau.

This is the text from one Panauan article after the independence movement:

"Bahasa ini akan menjadi bahasa ofisial Panau untuk bersatu semua orang-orang yang hidup di tanah raya ini, untuk kita mempersatu semua yang memiliki budaya dan adat berbeda, dan bahasa ini membuat pembelajaran mudah untuk semua orang Panau dan orang lain dari luar bangsa ini. Ini bisa digunakan untuk setiap hari, edukasi, perdagangan, komunikasi antara ras lain, dan lainnya."

"This language will become the official language of Panau for unifying all people living in this great land, for us to unite all who have different cultures and traditions, and this language makes easy learning for all Panauan people and other people from outside the country. This can be used everyday, education, trade, communication between different races, and others."

Alphabet (Alpabet) Edit

Latin, Tamil and Thai are dominantly used throughout Panau, Devanagari is used by Buddhist monks, and Arabic by the Muslim minority.

Sound Latin Tamil Thai Devanagari Arabic
/a/ a อะ ا (beg., end or long v.)
/b/ b ப் ب
/ch/ , /tdz/ c च / छ چ
/d/ d த் د
/e/ e เอ ع (beg. or end)
/g/ g க் گ
/h/ h ه / ح
/ee/ i อิ ى
/dz/ j ج
/k/ k ك
/l/ l ل
/m/ m م
/n/ n ن
/o/ o โอ ۆ (beg. or end)
/p/ p ڤ / پ
/r/ r ر
/s/ s س
/t/ t ت
/u/ u อุ ۇ
/w/ w و
/y/ y ي
/bah/ (De.) bah ப்`ஹ به
/ng/ ng ந`க न्ग ڠ / ڭ

Example:

(ee-NEEH ah-dah-LAH EEHN-duh)

Ini adalah indah.

இநி அத்ல: இநத்:.

อินิ อะทละ: อินทะ:.

इनि अदलः इंदाः

يني ادلاه ينداه.

Greetings Edit

Hello! = Halo!

Goodbye! = Selamat tinggal!

How are you? = Apa kabar? / Anda baik?

I'm fine. = Saya baik.

I'm not fine. = Saya tidak baik.

What is your name? = Apa nama anda?

My name is ... = Nama saya ...

Where are you from? = Anda dari mana?

I'm from ... = Saya dari ...

Where do you live? = Anda hidup di mana?

I live in ... = Saya hidup di ...

How old are you? = Berapa umur anda?

I am ... years old. = Umur saya ...

Nice to meet you. = Gembira bertemu dengan anda.

Good morning. = Indah pagi.

Good noon. = Indah tengahari.

Good afternoon. = Indah sore.

Good night. = Indah malam.

Yes. = Iya.

No. = Tidak.

Maybe. = Mungkin.

Thank you. = Terima kasih. / Makasih.

Thank you so much. = Terima kasih banyak.

You're welcome = Sama-sama. / Kembali.

Excuse me. = Maafkan. / Maaf.

Sorry. = Maafkan. / Maaf.

Numbers (Bilangan-bilangan) Edit

Numbers Panauan Cardinal Numbers Panauan Cardinal
0 sero 0th kesero
1 satu 1st kesatu, pertama
2 dua 2nd kedua
3 tiga 3rd ketiga
4 empat 4th ke-empat
5 lima 5th kelima
6 enam 6th ke-enam
7 tujuh 7th ketujuh
8 lapan / delapan 8th kelapan / kedelapan
9 bilan / sembilan 9th kebilan / kesembilan
10 sepuluh 10th kesepuluh
11 sebelas 11th kesebelas
12 duabelas 12th keduabelas
13 tigabelas 13th ketigabelas
20 duapuluh 20th keduapuluh
50 limapuluh 50th kelimapuluh
100 seratus 100th keseratus
1,000 seribu 1,000th keseribu
10,000 sepuluh ribu 10,000th kesepuluh ribu
100,000 seratus ribu 100,000th keseratus ribu
1 million sejuta / semiliun 1 millionth kesejuta / kesemiliun
1 billion sebiliun 1 billionth kesebiliun
1 trillion setriliun 1 trillionth kesetriliun

Colors (Warna-warna) Edit

red = merah

orange = jeruk / jingga / orenja

yellow = kuning

green = hijau

blue = biru

purple = ungu

brown = warna coklat / warna kopi

black = hitam

white = putih

pink = warna rosa / merah muda

Language, Do you Speak ...? Edit

Do you speak ...? = Boleh anda bercakap ...?

I speak ... / I speak ... language. = Saya bercakap bahasa ...

Do you understand? = Boleh anda memaham?

Yes, I understand. = Iya, saya paham.

No, I do not understand. = Tidak, saya tidak paham.

Questions (Tanya-tanya) Edit

English Panauan
who siapa
what apa
when bila / kapan
where mana / di mana
why mengapa
which kaling
how bagaimana / kenapa
how many berapa
how much berapa wang

Animals (Hiwan-hiwan) Edit

dog = anjing / asu

cat = kucing

cow = sapi

horse = kuda

goat = kambing

bird = burung

chicken = ayam

parrot = burung loro

duck = itik

lizard = cicak

crocodile = buaya

bee = lebah

ant = semut

mosquito = nyamuk

housefly = lalat

monkey = monyet

pig = babi

lion = singa

tiger = harimau

bear = beruang

elephant = gajah

squid = sotong

deer = rusa

rhino = badak

snake = ular

owl = burung bahau

rabbit = arnab

fish = ikan

Flavors (Rasa-rasa) Edit

sweet = manis

sour = masim

salty = masin

spicy =pedas

bitter = pahit

fresh = sewari

delicious = sedap

hot = panas

cold = sejuk

Parts of the Body (Bahagian-bahagian badan) Edit

hair = rambut

eyes = mata

ears = telinga

nose = hidung

mouth = mulut

tongue = lidah

head = kepala

face = muka / wajah

neck = leher

shoulder = belikat

arms = lengan

hands = tangan

fingers = jari tangan

chest = dada

belly = perut

hips = pinggul

legs = tuhur

knees = lutut

feet = kaki

toes = jari kaki

heart = jantung / hati

liver = hati

blood = darah

skin = kulit / kutis

Seasons (Musim-musim) Edit

spring = musim bunga

summer = musim panas / musim hari

autumn = musim jatuh

winter = musim sejuk / musim salju

Members of the Family (Anggota-anggota keluarga) Edit

father = bapa

mother = ibu

child = anak

sibling = saudara

grandfather = datuk

grandmother = nenek

parent = induk

cousin = sepupu

uncle = paman

auntie = bibi

in-law = mertua

husband = suami

wife = isteri

niece / nephew = keponakan

Plurality (Pluraliti) Edit

Just repeat a noun, like for example, children = anak-anak, goats = kambing-kambing, etc.

Pronouns (Pronun-pronun) Edit

person singular form possessive singular form plural form
1st per. exclusive aku / saya (I, me) -ku (my, mine) kami (we, excluding you)
1st per. inclusive kita (we, includes you)
2nd person kamu / anda (you) -mu (your) kalian (you people)
3rd person dia / beliau (she, he) -nya (her, his) mereka (they)

Since there are no possessive forms for plural pronouns, use the formula: (noun) + (pronoun).

Alternative form of "kamu" is "engkau" and "kau".

To use the noun "anjing", which means dog, there is a lot of possessive combinations:

  • anjingku = my dog
  • anjingmu = your dog
  • anjingnya = his / her dog
  • anjing kami = our dog (not you included)
  • anjing kita = our dog (you included)
  • anjing kalian = your dog (you guys, you people)
  • anjing mereka = their dog

However, plural pronouns should not be confused with the sentences:

Anjing-anjing mereka = Their dogs

Mereka adalah anjing-anjing. = They are dogs.

The notable difference is seen, in which in the second sentence, the word "adalah" is placed, which means is or am.

There are some pronouns for objects like:

Ini -----> "This"

Itu -----> "That"

In order to tell "this one" or "that one", place the word "yang" in order to be "yang ini" or "yang itu".

Sini----> "Here"

Sana --------> "There"

Seperti ini =====> "Like this"

Seperti itu =====> "Like that"

Nature (Alam) Edit

sun = matahari

moon = bulan

star = bintang

sky = langit

cloud = awan

rain = hujan

water = air / danum

wind = angin

snow = salju

land, soil = tanah

mountain = gunung

hill = bukit

valley = lembah

plains = datar / kedataran

tree = pohon / pokok

flower = bunga

desert = gurun

forest = hutan

sand = pasir

grass = rumput

island = pulau

archipelago = kepulauan

river = sungai

sea = laut

ocean = lautan

earthquake = gempa

tsunami = cunami

storm = ribut

typhoon = badai / taifun

snowstorm = ribut salju

Basic Connectives (Penghubung Basik) Edit

Connective Panauan Connective Connective Panauan Connective
for, to untuk, kepada, ke like (comparison) seperti, bagai
and dan that (stating) yang, bahawa
nor maupun because kerena
but, yet tapi of, from dari
or atau is adalah
so jadi at, on, in di
if jika about tentang, mengenai
except cuali according to... menurut
has, have, with dengan, miliki should harus
than (comparison) daripada by oleh
meanwhile sementara while sementara, hebang
let mari since sejak
before sebelum after setelah
even, even if pun as sebagai
without tanpa again lagi
don't jangan only hanya, sahaja
can bisa, boleh, dapat really sungguh
until sampai

Percentage of Loanwords (estimate)Edit

Language Percentage (estimate)
Austronesian ~85%
Indo-European ~10%
Afro-Asiatic ~5%

Subjects (Sabjek-sabjek) Edit

Mathematics = Matematik

Social Studies = Pelajaran Masyarakat

History = Sejarahan

Geography = Geografi

Economics = Pelajaran Ekonomik

Civics = Pelajaran Sivik

Science = Agama

English = Bahasa Inggris

Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) = Musik, Seni, Pelajaran Fisikal, dan Kesehatan

Technology and Livelihood Education = Pelajaran Teknologi dan Kehidupan

Home Economics = Pelajaran Ekonomik Rumah

Countries (Bangsa-bangsa) Edit

U.S.A. = Amerika / Bersatu Negeri-negeri Amerika

Philippines = Filipinas

Panau = Panau

Malaysia = Malaysia

Indonesia = Indonesia

Vietnam = Vietnam

Thailand = Thailand

China = Cina

Japan = Yapun / Japon

Korea = Koria

U.K. = Kerajaan Bersatu / Kerajaan Bersatu Britanya

India = Baharata

Saudi Arabia = Saudi Arabia / Kerajaan Saudi Arabia

France = Perancis

Spain = Spania / Kastila

Italy = Italia

Russia = Rusia

Germany = Germania

Brazil = Brasil

Mongolia = Mongolia

Kazakhstan = Kazakstan

Pakistan = Pakistan

Iran = Iran

Iraq = Irak

Israel = Israyel

Turkey = Turkia

Greece = Helinika / Griega

  • bangsa = country, nation
  • satu = one
  • ber- = have, had
  • raja = king

Vehicles (Kenderaan-kenderaan) Edit

car = kereta

motorcycle = motorsiklet

bicycle = duasiklet, bisiklet, sepeda

tricycle = tigasiklet, trisiklet

unicycle = satusiklet, unisiklet

pedicab = becak, pedikab

scooter = skuter

truck = trak

bus = bus

van = van

train = tren

boat = perahu

ship = kapal

airplane = pesawat, erplen

helicopter = helikopter

Directions (Arah-arah) Edit

north = utara

south = selatan

west = barat

east = timur

up = atas

down = turun

left = kiri

right = kanan

front = hadap

back = kembali

Affixes (Afiks-afiks) Edit

Prefix (Prefiks) Edit

ora-, peng- = states where the person is from, what his/her job or doing is.

ber- = to be, to have

mem- , meng- = to do

di- = was done, did

nan- = more, less (comparative)

ter- = most, least (superlative, adj.) / accidentally (verb)

se- = one thing (Filipino sang-), (Malay / Indonesian se-)

pada- = to have an ability

ben-, peng- = states what thing is used for (Filipino pang-)

ke-, ker- = sets the gloss of an adjective (Fil. ma-, ka-)

ta- = makes a noun change into a verb (ex. to color = tawarna)

Suffix (Sufiks) Edit

-kah = asking a question curiously

-lah = saying politely, stressing the sentence

-in = suffix that makes new words

-i = (verbs)

-kan = results in a verb indicating causation; making or causing something to happen.

Confix (Konfiks) Edit

ke- -an, ker- -an = (English -ness), noun referring to a place or region, etc. (Malay / Indonesian ke- -an), (Filipino ka- -an)

ketidak- -an = (English in/un- -ness), negation of ke- -an

pe- -an, per- -an = noun referring to a place or region

memper- -i / mempel- -i = to do

di- -i = was done

Basic Words (Kata Basik) Edit

person = orang, rakyat, manusia

man = lelaki, pria, lakilaki

woman = gadis, betina, wanita, perempuan

city = kota

town = bandar

country = bangsa, negara

animal = hiwan, binatang

plant = tanaman

house = rumah

language = bahasa

province = wilayah, provinsi

region = rantau

race (people) = ras

earth = bumi, dunia

Technology (Teknologi) Edit

computer = komputer

cellphone = selpon

tablet = tablet

television = televisi

radio = radio

refrigerator = refrijeretor, kulkas

microwave = mikrowaif

CD disk = disk CD

bulb = bombila

Government (Pemerintah) Edit

government = pemerintah

president = penghulu, presiden

vice president = penghulu visi

senator = senator

senate = senat

law = hukum

court = hukuman

community, society = masyarakat

politics = politik

economics = ekonomik

factory = pabrik

product = produk

Mathematical Operations (Operasi Matematikal) Edit

addition = tambahan, adisi

add = tambah

subtraction = bausan, subtraksi

subtract = baus

multiplication = biakan, multiplikasi

multiply = biak

division = kilahatian, divisi

divide = kilahati

fraction = fraksi

... over ... (... / ...) = ... per ...

1/2 = satu per dua / separuh (half)

1/3 = satu per tiga / sengarat

1/10 = satu per sepuluh / sepulir

equals / equals to... = sama (same)

Emotions (Emosi-emosi) Edit

happy = gembira, senang

sad = sedih

angry = marah

laugh, laughter = tawa

worry = kuatir

doubt = ragu

pity, mercy = balas

scared, fear = takut, ketakutan

nervous = marudah

depression = kesedihan, depresi

Adjectives (Kata-kata sifat) Edit

beautiful = indah, cantik, bagus, ayu

ugly = jelek, hodoh

good = baik, bagus, enak

bad = buruk

right = tepat, benar

wrong = salah, kilaf

true = benar, betul

false = falsu, salah

real = nyata

fake = falsu, salah

tall = tinggi

short = pendek

big = besar, gedang

small = kecil, dikit, ketek, kincup

many = banyak

few = sedikit, beberapa

colorful = penuh warna

bright = terang, cerah

dark = gelap, gulita, redup

dim = redup

great = hebat, raya

famous = terkenal

hot = panas

warm = hangat

cold = sejuk

long = panjang

short (length) = pendek, ikli

smelly = berbau

tasty = lezat

delicious = sedap

School-related Things (Benda-benda berkaitan Sekolah) Edit

student = pelajar, student

teacher = pengajar, guru

learn, study = belajar

teach = ajar

school = sekolah

pencil = pensil

bolpen = bolpen

paper = paperis, kertas

book = buku, kitab, akolat

notebook = notbuku, kuaderna, buku catatan

chalk = kapur

crayon = krayon

draw = seri

paint = lukis

scholar = sekolar, sarjana

medal = medal

test, exam = kir, eksam

quiz = ulangan, kwiz

seatwork = kursi kerja, sitwerk

answer = sahut, jawab

chart = cart

globe = model dunia, glob

map = peta, map

Verbs (Kata-Kata kerja) Edit

speak, talk = cakap, berbicara, berbahasa

say = berkata

tell = mencerita

teach = ajar

learn, study = belajar

know = tahu

want = ingin, mahu, hendak

love = cinta, kasih

like = suka, gemar

sing = nyanyi, berlagu

dance = tari

walk = berjalan

run = berlari

jump, leap = lompat

see = lihat

hear = dengar

smell = bau

taste = cipi

feel = merasa

touch = sentuh

read = baca

write = tulis, surat

paint = lukis

cook = masak

eat = makan

live = hidup

stay = tinggal

leave = meninggalkan

play = main

try = coba

get = mendapatkan

take = ambil

create, make = membuat, mencipta

destroy = hancur

add = tambah

delete, remove = hapus

finish, finished = selesai

do = melaku

open = buka

close = tutup

become = menjadi

happen = terjadi

watch = tonton

wear = pakai

take off = lepaskan

start = mulai

end = berakhir

wash = cuci

dry = kering

rise = naik, bangun

fall = jatuh

stand = berdiri

sit = duduk

lie down = berbaring

tell the truth = menceritakan kebenaran

lie (telling a lie) = bohong

smile = senyum

frown = kerut

have a romantic excitement (kilig) = kilig

bring = bawa

go = pergi, tuju

aim = menuju

buy = beli

sell = jual, benta

keep = jaga

hide = sembunyi

show, point = menunjuk (tunjuk = point)

own = sendiri, memiliki

have = punya, memiliki

wait = tunggu

return = kembali, balik, pulang

reply = balas

post, send = kirim

chat = ubrul

save = simpan

need = butuh, perlu

hold = memegang

hurt = sakit, menyakit

accept = menerima

decline = menurun

respond = tanggap

recieve = beroleh

scold = memarahi

cheat = curang

trigger = icu

decieve = mengicu

sleep = tidur

Food (Makanan-makanan) Edit

eat = makan

food = makanan (notice the -an)

breakfast = sarapan

lunch = makan siang, tengaharian

dinner = makan malam, malaman

snack = camilan, meryenda

meat = daging

beef = daging sapi

pork = daging babi

chicken = daging ayam

squid = daging sotong

fish = daging ikan

fruit = buah

vegetables = sayur

hotdog = hatdog

sausage = sosej

rice = beras, nasi

milk = susu

chocolate = coklat

salad = salad

egg = telor

apple = apal

orange = orenja

grape, grapes = anggur

pear = pair

mango = mangga

banana = pisang

tamarind = sempaluk

guava = jambu

candy = kendi

cracker, crackers = kraker

wafer = wafer

jelly = jeli

lollipop = lolipap

ice cream = ais krim

vinegar = cuka

soy sauce = sas soya

ketchup, catsup = kecap

sauce = sas

gravy = grefi

carrot = karot

cabbage = kobis

lettuce = saleda

celery = seleri

cheese = keju

oil = minyak

etc...

Date and Time (Tanggal dan Waktu) Edit

Date (Tanggal) Edit

Months (Bulan) Edit

January = Januari

February = Febrari

March = Marsi

April = April

May = Mayu

June = Junyu

July = Julayu

August = Agustu

September = September

October = Oktober

November = November

December = Desember

Days of the Week (Hari Minggu) Edit

Sunday = Minggu / Ahad (Muslims)

Monday = Senin

Tuesday = Selasa

Wednesday = Rabu

Thursday = Kamis

Friday = Jumat

Saturday = Sabtu

Other Terms Edit

month = bulan

day = hari

week = minggu

year = tahun

Time (Waktu) Edit

hour = pukul, jam

minute = minit

second = saat

am = pagi

pm (afternoon) = sore

pm (night) = malam

Example: November 27, 2:35 pm = November duapuluh tujuh, pukul kedua dan minit ketigapuluh lima sore

Frequency Edit

every = saban, setiap (saban hari, saban bulan, saban tahun)

People and Society, etc. (Orang-orang dan Masyarakat, etc.) Edit

people = orang / rakyat

community, society = masyarakat

living = kehidupan

religion, belief = agama / kepercayaan

technology = teknologi

government = pemerintah

culture = budaya

tradition = tradisi / adat

race of people = ras

species, specimen = spesi, spesimen

language = bahasa

native language = bahasa asli / bahasa asal (original)

sign language = bahasa isyarat (sign)

communicate = komunikat

communication = komunikasi

start = mulai / awak

end = akhir

conversation = konversasi / perbualan

inside = dalam

outside = luar

...

Romance (Percintaan) Edit

I love you. = Aku cinta kamu.

Do you love me? = Kamu cinta aku?

I love you so much. = Aku cinta kamu banyak.

I want you. = Aku mahu kamu.

You're beautiful. = Kamu adalah indah. / Indah kamu.

You're handsome. = Kamu adalah tampan. / Tampan kamu.

You're sexy. = Kamu adalah seksi. / Seksi kamu.

You're attractive. = Kamu adalah menarik. / Menarik kamu.

Can we have a moment? = Boleh kita jurus? (jurus = moment)

I'm (...) = Aku adalah (...). / (...) aku.

single = lajang

married = dinikah (nikah = marry)

widowed = dijanda (janda = widow)

divorced = dicerai (cerai = divorce)

complicated = dirumit (rumit = complicate)

...

Tenses (Tegang-tegang) Edit

Past: sudah & telah (already), dulu (distant past), tadi (recent past)

Present: setiap, sekarang (now), sedang (currently, in moderation)

Future: akan (will), harus (should), kelak (distant future), nanti (near future)

Events (Acara-acara) Edit

Happy Birthday! = Selamat Hari Lahir! (lahir = born, birth)

Happy New Year! = Selamat Tahun Baru!

Merry Christmas! = Selamat Krismas! / Selamat Hari Noel!

Happy Easter! = Selamat Hari Paskah!

Happy Anniversary! = Selamat Aniversari! / Selamat Hari Pernikahan (nikah = marry, pernikahan = marriage)

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