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Baremi
qsjip baremu
Type
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect




Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant ɹ
Trill
Flap or tap ɾ j
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Ejective

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ ʏ
High-mid e
Mid ə
Low-mid ʌ ɔ
Near-low æ ɐ
Low

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter A a Á á Ā ā B b C c D d Dj dj Dʒ dʒ E e É é Ē ē F f
Letter name a a i-na a mekron bu ci di di djet di ʒu e e i-na e mekron ef
Sound /ɐ/ /ɐɪ/ /æ/ /b/ /t͡s/ /d/ /d͡z/ /d͡ʒ/ /ɛ/ /eɪ/ /ʌ/, /ə/ /f/
Letter G g Ḡ ḡ H h I i J j* K k Kj kj L l M m N n O o P p
Letter name ḡi ḡi mekron ha i igoxja ke kje el em en o pi
Sound /j/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /ɪ/ /k/ /t͡ʃ/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ɔ/ /p/
Letter Q q* R r Rr rr S s Sj sj T t Tj tj U u Ū ū V v X x Xj xj
Letter name qafu rota rrem es sji ti tjak u upsilu mekron vge xi ixj
Sound /k'/ /ɾ/ /r/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /t͡ʃ/ /u/ /ʏ/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/
Letter Z z Ʒ ʒ
Letter name zet ʒu
Sound /z/ /ʒ/

The letter J (igoxja) is used exclusively at the end of words as a replacement of the acute accent. For example, the word maj (shoe) ends in igoxja because it ends with the same phoneme as the letter á (a i-na). However, if a suffix is appended to a word ending in igoxja, the acute accent is restored. The plural of maj is mák, which appends the -(i)k plural suffix and discards the igoxja for a i-na. The same rule applies for ej like in korrej (heart), which pluralizes to korrék.

The acute accent, in some more colloquial settings, can replace g in a VCV sequence if the preceding vowel is á or é. For example, the word fráat (friend) is theoretically pronounced as frágat. This holds true in the case of agglutination, like how the verb root gorvi (to select) becomes ʒáorvi, kéorvi, etc.

The letter Q (qafu) is used exclusively at the beginning of words as a prefix.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Baremi nouns are not gendered but they do decline to two numbers (singular and plural), and fifteen cases. They can be marked with a definite article, but there is no indefinite article. The fourteen cases are:

  • nominative - the subject of the sentence
  • accusative - the direct object of the sentence
  • dative - the indirect object of the sentence
  • genitive - indicating possession or close affliation
  • locative - correlating to in, on, and at
  • allative - correlating to to, towards
  • instrumental and instructive - by what means or objects an action is performed
  • causal - indicating a reason (e.g. because of the delay) or translating to in terms of/in respect to
  • essive - indicating a specific time (used when referring to past and future events)
  • semblative - indicating similarity
  • sociative and abessive - respectively correlating to with and without
  • vocative - to address others

Number Edit

Nouns can be numbered in singular and plural forms. The suffix -k (for words ending in vowels) or -ik (for words ending in consonants) is the standard plural marker; there are very few deviations. For example, the word simi (bird) is pluralized as simik, while the word reʒ (house) is pluralized as reʒik. When specifying a certain amount of an object, however, the singular is used in lieu of the plural. "Two birds" would be translated as tok simi, not tok simik.

Definite Article Edit

The letter Q (qafu) is an ejective consonant (pronounced as a short k) that serves as the definite article. It is appended to the beginning of a noun without any connecting vowel. For example, "the bird" would translate to qsimi /k'simi/. It is never appended to adjectives; "three houses" would translate to trige qreʒ.

DeclensionsEdit

As Baremi does not have gendered nouns, all nouns decline in a similar manner. Slight differences are made for nouns that end in vowels or igoxja and plural nouns. The table below demonstrates the declension of gatu (cat), gatuk (cats), xasjim (shirt), xasjimik (shirts), and maj (shoe) in all cases.

gatu gatuk xasjim xasjimik maj
nominative gatu gatuk xasjim xasjimik maj
accusative gate gatuke xasjime xasjimke e
dative gatu gatuku xasjimu xasjimku u
genitive gatej gatukej xasjimej xasjimkej ej
locative gatim gatukim xasjimim xasjimkim im

allative gatra gatukra

xasjimra xasjimkra ra
instrumental and instructive gata gatuka xasjima xasjimka a
causal gatuʒ gatukéʒ xasjiméʒ xasjimkéʒ ʒ
essive gatudj gatukédj xasjimédj xasjimkédj dj
semblative gatukj gatukj xasjimikj xasjimkikj ikj
sociative gatuna gatukna xasjimna xasjimikna mána
abessive gatuḡa gatukja xasjimḡa xasjimkja ḡa
vocative gato gatuko xasjimo xasjimiko o

Personal Pronouns Edit

Pronouns decline to number, but not gender or case. Pronouns can be singular or plural, like nouns, but also have a dual form. This dual form is used more in colloquial conversation, while it is often replaced by the plural in more formal and written communications. Also present is the fourth person, which is used to describe a theoretical person (translating to someone or they in hypothetical context). In the table below, the nominative form is shown with the dative form shown in parentheses. Declension method is the same as in the table above.

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
animate
3rd person
inanimate
4th person
singular djo (dju) ha (hu) vej (véu) lē (lu) rri (rru)
dual djoril (djorilu) haril (harilu) véril (vérilu) lēril (lērilu) rri (rru)
plural djok (djoku) hak (haku) vék (véku) lēk (lēku) rrik (rriku)

The third-person pronouns are declined depending on whether the object is animate or inanimate. The dative case is used in lieu of reflexive pronouns (e.g. ʒazaméi dju, to kill oneself).

VerbsEdit

Baremi nouns do not conjugate by person, but by mood, number, and tense. There are four moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive), two numbers (singular and dual/plural), and eight tenses (present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect, preterite, future, conditional, and hypothetical). Verbs are usually conjugated with a prefix for mood and suffixes for number and tense.

The infinitive and standard prefix for verbs is ʒa and all verbs end in the letter i. The imperative can be seen as either a command or suggestion (translating to should). Below is the conjugation for verb ʒabelpi (to drink).

Mood Tense Singular Dual/Plural
Infinitive ʒabelpi
Indicative Present kébelpi kébelpin
Imperfect kébelpu kébelpun
Perfect kébelpitje kébelpitjen
Preterite kébelpicu kébelpicun
Pluperfect kébelpicutje kébelpicutjen
Future kébelpa kébelpan
Conditional kébelpid kébelpidan
Hypothetical kébelpive kébelpiven
Subjunctive Present sjobelpi sjobelpin
Imperfect sjobelpu sjobelpun
Perfect sjobelpitje sjobelpitjen
Preterite sjobelpicu sjobelpicun
Pluperfect sjobelpicutje sjobelpicutjen
Future sjobelpa sjobelpan
Conditional sjobelpid sjobelpidan
Hypothetical sjobelpive sjobelpiven
Imperative Affirmative abelpi abelpin
Negative labelpi labelpin

Syntax Edit

LexiconEdit

Swadesh Edit


No. English Baremi
1Idjo
2you (singular)ha
3hevej
4wedjok
5you (plural)hak
6theyvék
7thisq____sto, eto
8thatq____ste, ete
9hereki
10thereata
11whosjto
12whatsjtē
13wheresjtē vgarim
14whensjtēdj
15howsjta
16notnge
17allrivu
18manymusti
19someelora
20fewa
21othera
22oneenē
23twotok
24threetrige
25fourfūra
26fivefev
27biga
28longa
29widea
30thicka
31heavya
32smalla
33shorta
34narrowa
35thina
36womanmosa
37man (adult male)máej
38man (human being)ūmanu
39childa
40wifesposa
41husbandmarto
42mothermatrē
43fatherparē
44animala
45fishpāska
46birdsimi
47doga
48lousea
49snakelivrā
50worma
51treea
52foresta
53sticka
54fruita
55seeda
56leafa
57roota
58barka
59flowerplom
60grassa
61ropea
62skina
63meata
64blooda
65bonea
66fata
67eggvufa
68horna
69tailspalid
70feathergáre
71haira
72heada
73eara
74eyeogo
75nosezanud
76mouthbokja
77toothtentē
78tonguelānva
79fingernaila
80footpudid
81lega
82kneea
83handmano
84winga
85bellya
86gutsa
87necka
88backa
89breasta
90heartkorrej
91livera
92drinkʒabelpi
93eatʒakoni
94biteʒáarḡi
95suckʒarespikoni
96spitʒaespeli
97vomita
98blowa
99breatheʒarespi
100laugha
101seeʒaolvái
102hearʒaolsiri
103knowʒáenti
104thinka
105smella
106feara
107sleepʒadomēri
108liveʒavivi
109diea
110killʒazaméi
111fighta
112hunta
113hitʒamati
114cuta
115splita
116staba
117scratcha
118diga
119swima
120flya
121walka
122comeʒaluti
123liea
124sita
125standa
126turna
127falla
128giveʒaxjuti
129holda
130squeezea
131ruba
132washa
133wipea
134pulla
135pusha
136throwa
137tiea
138sewa
139counta
140sayʒaxji
141singʒakanti
142playʒakaxi
143floata
144flowa
145freezea
146swella
147sunsalu
148moonmuá
149starzáxje
150waterháméra
151rainʒahámeri (v), hámerina (n)
152rivera
153lakea
154seaa
155saltsau
156stonea
157sanda
158dusta
159eartha
160clouda
161foga
162skycelo
163windharo
164snowa
165iceháméra selzonidna
166smokea
167firefoko
168asha
169burnʒafoki
170roada
171mountaina
172reda
173greena
174yellowa
175whitea
176blacka
177nighta
178daya
179yeara
180warma
181colda
182fulla
183newnigū
184oldfecgo
185goodḡot
186bada
187rottena
188dirtya
189straighta
190rounda
191sharpa
192dulla
193smootha
194weta
195drya
196correcta
197neara
198fara
199righta
200lefta
201at____im
202in____im
203with____na
204andga
205if____ve, fej
206because____ʒ
207nameivker


Example TextEdit

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 1Edit

Kéxulin liralov ga mensāv ráspatéʒ ga ḡurvtkéʒ rivu ūmanuk. Kéxjutin uárana ga dʒitjna véku kjo frátovna atrabin véku.

English translation
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Syntax Breakdown
become-plural-present liberal-ly and equal-ly respect-concerning and right-s-concerning all human-s. Give-plural-present rationality-with and awareness-with them-dative also brother-ly-with act-imperative them-dative.
Literal Translation
All humans become free and the same concerning respect and rights. Given to them are rationality and awareness, implored to act to them with brotherhood.
IPA Transcription
keɪθulin lirɐlɔv jɐ mɛnsæv rɐɪspɐteɪʒ ja guɾft.keɪʒ ɾivu ʏmɐnuk. keɪðutin u.ɐɪɾɐnɐ ja d͡ʒit͡ʃna veɪku t͡ʃɔ frɐɪtɔvnɐ ɐtɾɐbin veɪku.

Example textEdit

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