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Baremi
qsjip baremu
Type
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect




Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant ɹ
Trill
Flap or tap ɾ j
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Ejective

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i y u
Near-high ɪ
High-mid e
Mid ə
Low-mid ʌ ɔ
Near-low æ ɐ
Low

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter A a Á á Ā ā B b C c D d Dj dj Dʒ dʒ E e É é Ē ē F f
Letter name a a i-na a mekron bu ci di di djet di ʒu e e i-na e mekron ef
Sound /ɐ/ /ɐɪ/ /æ/ /b/ /t͡s/ /d/ /d͡z/ /d͡ʒ/ /ɛ/ /eɪ/ /ʌ/, /ə/ /f/
Letter G g Ḡ ḡ H h I i J j* K k Kj kj L l M m N n O o P p
Letter name ḡi ḡi mekron ha i igoxja ke kje el em en o pi
Sound /j/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /ɪ/ /k/ /t͡ʃ/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ɔ/ /p/
Letter Q q* R r Rr rr S s Sj sj T t Tj tj U u Ū ū V v X x Xj xj
Letter name qafu rota rrem es sji ti tjak u upsilu mekron vge xi ixj
Sound /k'/ /ɾ/ /r/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /t͡ʃ/ /u/ /y/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/
Letter Z z Ʒ ʒ
Letter name zet ʒu
Sound /z/ /ʒ/

The letter J (igoxja) is used exclusively at the end of words as a replacement of the acute accent. For example, the word maj (shoe) ends in igoxja because it ends with the same phoneme as the letter á (a i-na). However, if a suffix is appended to a word ending in igoxja, the acute accent is restored. The plural of maj is mák, which appends the -(i)k plural suffix and discards the igoxja for a i-na. The same rule applies for ej like in korrej (heart), which pluralizes to korrék.

The letter Q (qafu) is used exclusively at the beginning of words as a prefix.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Baremi nouns are not gendered but they do decline to two numbers (singular and plural), and fourteen cases. They can be marked with a definite article, but there is no indefinite article. The fourteen cases are:

  • nominative - the subject of the sentence
  • accusative - the direct object of the sentence
  • dative - the indirect object of the sentence
  • locative - correlating to in, on, and at
  • allative - correlating to to, towards
  • instrumental and instructive - by what means or objects an action is performed
  • genitive - indicating possession
  • causal - indicating a reason (e.g. because of the delay) or translating to in terms of/in respect to
  • essive - indicating a specific time (used when referring to past and future events)
  • semblative - indicating similarity
  • sociative and abessive - respectively correlating to with and without
  • vocative - to address others

Number Edit

Nouns can be numbered in singular and plural forms. The suffix -k (for words ending in vowels) or -ik (for words ending in consonants) is the standard plural marker; there are very few deviations. For example, the word simi (bird) is pluralized as simik, while the word reʒ (house) is pluralized as reʒik. When specifying a certain amount of an object, however, the singular is used in lieu of the plural. "Two birds" would be translated as tok simi, not tok simik.

Definite Article Edit

The letter Q (qafu) is an ejective consonant (pronounced as a short k) that serves as the definite article. It is appended to the beginning of a noun without any connecting vowel. For example, "the bird" would translate to qsimi /k'simi/. It is never appended to adjectives; "three houses" would translate to trige qreʒ.

DeclensionsEdit

Five declensions exist for all Luluo nouns, with the first and second declensions being the most common and the last (fifth) being the least. Singular and plural endings are indicated on either sides of a slash. Only the fifth declension does not possess a plural form.

As Baremi does not have gendered nouns, all nouns decline in a similar manner. Slight differences are made for nouns that end in vowels or igoxja and plural nouns. The table below demonstrates the declension of gatu (cat), gatuk (cats), xasjim (shirt), xasjimik (shirts), and máj (shoe) in all cases besides essive, which will be discussed later on.

gatu gatuk xasjim xasjimik máj
nominative gatu gatuk xasjim xasjimik maj
accusative gate gatuke xasjime xasjimke e
dative gatu gatuku xasjimu xasjimku u
locative gatim gatukim xasjimim xasjimkim im
allative gatra gatukra xasjimra xasjimkra ra
instrumental and instructive gata gatuka xasjima xasjimka a
causal gatuʒ gatukéʒ xasjiméʒ xasjimkéʒ ʒ
essive gatudj gatukédj xasjimédj xasjimkédj dj
semblative gatukj gatukj xasjimikj xasjimkikj ikj
sociative gatuna gatukna xasjimna xasjimikna mána
abessive gatuḡa gatukja xasjimḡa xasjimkja ḡa
vocative gato gatuko xasjimo xasjimiko o

Personal Pronouns Edit

Pronouns decline to number, but not gender or case. Pronouns can be singular or plural, like nouns, but also have a dual form. This dual form is used more in colloquial conversation, while it is often replaced by the plural in more formal and written communications. Also present is the fourth person, which is used to describe a theoretical person (translating to someone or they in hypothetical context). In the table below, the nominative form is shown with the dative form shown in parentheses. Declension method is the same as in the table above.

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
animate
3rd person
inanimate
4th person
singular djo (dju) ha (hu) vej (véu) lē (lu) rri (rru)
dual djoril (djorilu) haril (harilu) véril (vérilu) lēril (lērilu) rri (rru)
plural djok (djoku) hak (haku) vék (véku) lēk (lēku) rrik (rriku)

The third-person pronouns are declined depending on whether the object is animate or inanimate. The dative case is used in lieu of reflexive pronouns (e.g. ʒazaméi dju, to kill oneself).

VerbsEdit

Baremi nouns do not conjugate by person, but by mood, number, and tense. There are four moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive), two numbers (singular and dual/plural), and seven tenses (present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect, preterite, future, and conditional). Verbs are usually conjugated with a prefix for mood and suffixes for number and tense.

The infinitive and standard prefix for verbs is ʒa and all verbs end in the letter i. The imperative can be seen as either a command or suggestion (translating to should). Below is the conjugation for verb ʒabelpi (to drink).

Mood Tense Singular Dual/Plural
Infinitive ʒabelpi
Indicative Present kébelpi kébelpin
Imperfect kébelpu kébelpun
Perfect kébelpitje kébelpitjen
Preterite kébelpicu kébelpicun
Pluperfect kébelpicutje kébelpicutjen
Future kébelpa kébelpan
Conditional kébelid kébelidan
Subjunctive Present sjobelpi sjobelpin
Imperfect sjobelpu sjobelpun
Perfect sjobelpitje sjobelpitjen
Preterite sjobelpicu sjobelpicun
Pluperfect sjobelpicutje sjobelpicutjen
Future sjobelpa sjobelpan
Conditional sjobelpid sjobelpidan
Imperative Affirmative abelpi abelpin
Negative labelpi labelpin

Syntax Edit

LexiconEdit

Example TextEdit

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 1Edit

Rivu ūmanuk kéxulin liralov ga mensāv ráspatéʒ ga ḡurvtkéʒ. Kéxjutin véku uárana ga dʒitjna kjo atrabin véku frátovna.

English translation
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Syntax Breakdown
all human-s become-plural-present liberal-ly and equal-ly respect-concerning and right-s-concerning. Give-plural-present them-dative rationality-with and awareness-with also act-imperative them-dative brother-ly-with
Literal Translation
All humans become free and the same concerning respect and rights. Given to them are rationality and awareness, implored to act to them with brotherhood.
IPA Transcription
ɾivu ymɐnuk keɪθulʌn lirɐlɔv jɐ mɛnsæv rɐɪspɐteɪʒ ja guɾvt.keɪʒ. keɪðutʌn veɪku u.ɐɪɾɐnɐ ja d͡ʒit͡ʃna t͡ʃɔ ɐtɾɐbʌn veɪku frɐɪtɔvnɐ.

Example textEdit

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