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Behru cesik

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Behru Cesik (Meaning Behru way of speaking) is the highest language of the Behru empire. The stage of the language represented in this article is that spoken when the empire conquered the Yamazi dynasty of Winanda and began imposing its culture over a wide area.

PhonologyEdit

PhonemesEdit

All Behru consonants except /h/ have voiced and voiceless counterparts. Voiceless consonants are usually weakly aspirated, the voiceless sonorants strongly so. Voiceless consonants are listed after their voiced counterparts in the table. Devanagaarya is listed below the ipa. Romanization will be used in all sections of the article other than the phonology section.

Consonants मुह्लंमलेघिलीं
Labial Alveolar Post alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive

p b

प ब

t d

त द

g k

ग क

h

Afrricate

tɕ dʑ

च  ज

Fricative

ɸ β

 फ भ

s z

स घ

ɕ   ʑ

 ष झ

x ɣ

ख घ

Nasal

m m̥ʰ

म ह्म

n n̥ʰ

न ह्न

ɲ  ɲ̥ʰ

ञ ह्ञ

ŋ   ŋ̥ʰ

 ङ ह्ङ

Approximant

w w̥ʰ

व ह्व

l l̥ʰ

ल ह्ल

r r̥ʰ

र ह्र

j j̥ʰ ɥ ɥʰ

य श ळ ह्ळ


Vowels लंमोधिलीं
Front Back
Close

i y

इ ऒ

u

 उ

Mid

ɛ œ

एॅ

o

 औ

Mid-p[en

æ

Open

a

 अ

ɒ

अाॅ घिलीं

All behru vowels may be long or short. They may also carry a high or low tone. High tone vowels are marked by a canrdabindu अं.

Phonotactical restraints and SandhiEdit

Rule 1

All syllables start with 1 to 4 consonants and contain only 1 vowel, no more, no less.

j̥ʰa, mút, cen, xoo, ɲɛ are all permitted.

ɛt, u and itɕ are not permitted due to not having an initial consonant.

sɛun, lai, and ɣə̆if are not permitted due to having 2 vowels.

tpt, xn, mj̥ʰ are not permitted due to having no vowels.

*exception: kl̥t and zrn are permitted because /l/ and /r/ may optionally function as reduced vowels.

Rule 2

All consonants in a consonant cluster must agree in voicing if they do not, the voicing of the first consonant of the second syllable controls the voicing. kx, tɸ, n̥ts, bw, dɣy and m̥y̥ʰ are all permitted due to all members of the cluster agreeing in voice. sʊ̆ɸk+zwáan must be changed to sʊ̆βgzwáan because they do not agree in voicing. As z is the first consonant of the second syllable and is voiced, it changes all unvoiced consonants in the cluster to voiced, changing k to g and ɸ to β l̥ʰən+ksɛ must become l̥ʰən̥ksɛ, because k, the first consonant of the second syllable, is unvoiced, changing the voiced n to voiceless n̥.

Rule 3

Syllable initial consonant clusters are permitted, they may consist at most

Stop + Fricative + Liquid (/l/ or /r/) + /w/ or /j/, or 

Nasal+ /w/ or /j/ in that order.

kfr̥j̥ is permitted as it contains a stop fricative, liquid, and  /j/ in the right order, and all consonants agree in voicing, as specified in rule two. kn̥ and ŋr are not permitted as nasals may not coexist with stops, fricatives, or liquids in consonant clusters. skj̥ is not permitted as fricatives may not precede stops, sɲ̥ is not permitted as fricatives may not precede nasals. mj is permitted as /j/ may come after a nasal. zlw is permitted as all constituents are in the right order, fricative>liquid> /w/ or /y/ wzl and lzw are not, however, they are not in the right order. βj is permitted, the constituents are in the right order and of the right type. Rule 4 any alveolar consonant followed by /j/ is transformed to its palatal counterpart. tj̥ and dj become tɕ and dʑ respectively. sj̥ and zj become ɕ and ʑ respectively nj and n̥j̥ʰ become ɲ and ɲ̥ʰ respectively.

Rule 5 The combinations /ji:/ and /jɪ/ are always converted to /ʑi:/ and /ʑɪ/ respectively. In the same manner, /wʊ/ and /wu:/ are always converted to /βʊ/ and /βu:/ respectively. This rule overrides rule 3, the syllable /zlji:/ will be converted to /zlʑi:/ even though /zlʑ/ is otherwise forbidden at the beginning of a syllable due to having a fricative after a liquid. The /β/ and /ʑ/ will be converted into /ɸ/ and /ɕ/ if it would violated rule 2, /pl̥w̥ʰʊ/ would be converted to /pl̥ɸʊ/, not /pl̥βʊ/, /kj̥i:/ to /kɕi:/, not /kʑi:/. Rule 6 The only consonants that may occur syllable finally are t/d, p/b/, ɸ/β, k/g, n/n̥, m/m̥, ɲ/ɲ̥, ŋ/ŋ̥, s/z and ɕ/ʑ. Voicing is not distinguished in the final position. Final stops and fricatives may have nasals preceding them, and s/z, ɕ/ʑ and ɸ/βmay precede any one of the others(but not each other). Two nasals may not occur in a row in these syllables. raβn is a permitted syllable, but raβʑ is not. ramβ is  permitted. l̥̥ʰʊm̥k is permitted, l̥ʰumn is not. kaβʑ and kaʑβ are not permitted, fricates may not be together at the end of a syllable. Rule 7 A sequence of vowels is always interrupted by glides and or  has the first vowel deleted to avoid violating rule 1. The change  depends on the first vowel, ɛ, ɪ, and ii insert /j/ in a sequence of vowels. /ɪ/ is deleted when /j/ is inserted. uu, u, o, and ʊ insert /w/ in a sequence of vowels. /u/ and /ʊ/ are deleted when /w/ is inserted. kaɛ would become kɛ kau would become ku kɛɛ would become kɛjɛ kɪo: would become kjo: ki:o would become ki:jo ku:a would become ku:wa kua and kʊa would both become kwa kɛi: would become kɛji:, which would then become kɛʑi: due to rule 5 kʊu and kuu would both become kwu, which would then become kβu due to rule 5, and then kɸu due to rule 1. sɪɪ would become sjɪ due to rule 5, which would then become ɕi due to rule 4.

GrammarEdit

Nearly all Behru words are verbs, with the exception of a few particles. Grammatical information is conveyed almost entirely through morphology and word order.

Stative verbsEdit

Stative verbs take these endings

Single Paucal Plural
First person ú(h)

ubu

(exclusive)

umu

(inclusive)

Second person (i)s (i)ski i(s)kige
Third person - i oon
Fourth person - or k u un
Fifth person l

Usage of Stative verbsEdit

Statements of Equivalence.Edit

In statements of equivalents all equivalent verbs agree in subject

Shundú: I am a person

Shundú myiigayú: I am the man who is leader (I am a man, I lead)

Donoon behrudoxo-bruínezoon: The women live in Behrudok. (They are woman, they live in Behrudok).

Continuous verbsEdit

Single Paucal Plural
First person oho obo omo
Second person inko inki inkogi
Third person - ni noon
Fourth person -n nu nun
Fifth person lo

Usage of Continuous verbsEdit

Continuous actionsEdit

Shuun myiik: The man leads

myinkoho: I lead

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