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Rangyayo or Rangyan (琅野語; /ɾaŋ.ja.jɔ/) is the native language of the Rangyan people and an official language of the Kingdom of Rangya, an island nation in East Asia. It is classified as a language isolate, with proposed ties to the hypothetical Altaic language family. Rangyayo is notable for its mixed-logographic and featural orthography, its agglutinative grammar, and its organic mixture of native and Sinitic vocabulary.

Name: Rangyayo

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: No

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Geographic distributionEdit

Official statusEdit

Rangyan is the national language and one of the two official languages (together with English) of the Kingdom of Rangya. The standard form of the Rangyan language is called "standard language" (pyotsunyo標準語; /pjɔ.tsun.jɔ/), which was initially based on the Ponto dialect (ponto pangyen本島方言; /pɔn.tɔ.paŋ.jɛn/) on the main island. The standard Rangyan is taught in schools and used on news and in official communications. The regulatory body for Rangyan is the National Institute of the Rangyan Language (kokrip kokyo wen国立国語院; /kɔk̚ .ɾip.kɔk̚ .jɔ.wɛn/), which is a special body of the Rangyan Ministry of Culture, Education, Science and Technology (munkokhwagi-bu文教科技部; /mun.kɔ.kʰwa.gi.bu/).

DialectsEdit

There are three main dialects spoken in Rangya. They are

  • Ponto dialect (ponto pangyen本島方言; ), the initial basis of Standard Rangyan
  • Jakang dialect (jakang pangyen茶岡方言; ), and
  • Dukhyu dialect (dukhyu pangyen豆丘方言; ).

The formation of dialects is due to the long history of internal isolation of the population living on isolated islands in Rangya. Dialects typically differ in terms of pitch accent, inflectional morphology, vocabulary, and particle usage.

CreoleEdit

Kuiyungyo or Kuiyung Creole (kuiyungyo帰融語; /kuɪ.jʊŋ.jɔ/), meaning "mixed language", is a creole language derived mainly from Dutch, Rangyan, English and Indonesian, which was originally spoken by the Kuiyung community of the Dutch colony of Rangya. It is now considered as a critically endangered language spoken only by very few people in Rangya.

This is the Kuiyungyo version of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1) compared with Dutch, English and Rangyan.

Kuiyungyo Olle mensen zelfhevul en reten in heleik en vrei heborenorden.
Zeinun verstont en heweten met behiftitzein, en brudershop tu hêst in elkonder yehens zihedrohente-behoren.
Dutch Alle mensen worden vrij en gelijk in waardigheid en rechten geboren.
Zij zijn begiftigd met verstand en geweten, en behoren zich jegens elkander in een geest van broederschap te gedragen.
English All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Romanised
Rangyan
Mogi oro wi bomün yu jiyu'i rü tai tsonyem ta gwenri ti bengtüng'i rü.
Oro wi riseng ta rangshim ye thenpyuim kibemotü tai dungpo tu tsengjin yo mobim hangdungnusü.

PhonologyEdit

Consonants Edit

The following are phonemic transcriptions of Rangyan consonants.

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ1
Plosive plain p b t d k g
aspirated
Fricative s z2 h3
Affricate plain ts dz4
aspirated tsʰ4
Liquid ɾ~l5
Approximant w j
  1. /ŋ/ appears only in the syllable coda.
  2. /s, z/ are palatalised [ɕ, ʑ] before /i, j/
  3. /h/ is palatalised [ç] before /i, j/; and is bi­la­bialised [ɸ] before /u, w/
  4. /ts, dz, tsʰ/ are palatalised [tɕ, dʑ, tɕʰ] before /i, j/
  5. /ɾ/ is an alveolar flap [ɾ] in the syllable onset; and is [l] in the syllable coda.

VowelsEdit

MonophthongsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i1 ʉ u2
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a
  1. /i/ is pronounced /ɪ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
  2. /u/ is /ʊ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/

DiphthongsEdit

In the Rangyan language, because semivowels /j/ and /w/ may follow consonants in initial position in a word, which no other consonant can do, and perhaps due also to yenmun orthography, which transcribes them as vowels, they are sometimes considered to be elements of diphthongs and triphthongs rather than separate consonant phonemes.

j- w- -i
ja wa
ɔɪ
ju1 uɪ~wi2
  1. /ju/ is pronounced /jʊ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
  2. /uɪ/ is a falling diphthong [uɪ] after a consonant in an open syllable; and is a rising diphthong [wi] when it is a syllable of its own or in a closed syllable.

TriphthongsEdit

j- w-
jaɪ waɪ
jeɪ weɪ

Positional allophones Edit

Rangyan consonants have two principal positional allophones: initial and final. The initial form is found at the beginning of a syllable and the final form is found at the end of a syllable.

Phoneme p t k ɾ
Initial allophone p t k ɾ
Final allophone l

All plosives [p, t, k] are unreleased [p̚, t̚, k̚] at the end of a syllable. Final [ɾ] is a liquid [l].

Phonotactics Edit

Rangyan syllable structure is maximally CgVC, where the first C is the initial consonant; g is a semivowel glide /j/ or /w/; V is a vowel; the second C is a coda. Any consonant but /ŋ/ may occur initially, whereas only /m, n, ŋ, p, t, k, s, l/ may occur finally.

Below is the table of all syllable finals (gVC) in Rangyan.

Finals Codas
(none) m n ŋ p t k s l
Monophthong
nuclei
a a am an ap at ak as al
ɛ ɛ ɛm ɛn ɛŋ ɛp ɛt ɛk ɛs ɛl
ɔ ɔ ɔm ɔn ɔŋ ɔp ɔt ɔk ɔs ɔl
u u um un ʊŋ up ut ʊk us ul
ʉ ʉ ʉm ʉn əŋ ʉp ʉt ək ʉs ʉl
i i im in ɪŋ ip it ɪk is il
Diphthong
nuclei
ja ja jam jan jaŋ jap jat jak jas jal
jɛm jɛn jɛŋ jɛp jɛt jɛk jɛs jɛl
jɔm jɔn jɔŋ jɔp jɔt jɔk jɔs jɔl
ju ju jum jun jʊŋ jup jut jʊk jus jul
wa wa wan waŋ wat wak was wal
wɛn wɛŋ wɛt wɛk wɛs wɛl
wi wi1 wim win wɪŋ wip wit wɪk wis wil
ɔɪ ɔɪ
2
Triphthong
nuclei
jaɪ jaɪ
jeɪ jeɪ
waɪ waɪ
weɪ weɪ
  1. pronounced [wi] when it is a syllable of its own or before codas /n, t̚, s, l/; and pronounced [wɪ] before codas /ŋ, k̚/
  2. pronounced [uɪ] after an onset in an open syllable.

Additional finals /wam/, /wɛm/, /wap/, /wɛp/ can be found in foreign loanwords.

Vowel harmonyEdit

Traditionally, the Rangyan language has had strong vowel harmony; that is, in pre-modern Rangyan, not only did the inflectional and derivational affixes change in accordance to the main root vowel, but native words also adhered to vowel harmony. However, this rule is no longer observed strictly in modern Rangyan. In modern Rangyan, it is only applied in certain cases such as onomatopoeia and interjections.

There are three classes of vowels in Rangyan: positive, negative and neutral. The vowel classes loosely follow the vowel heights. Exchanging positive vowels with negative vowels usually creates different nuances of meaning, with positive vowels sounding fast, hot, dry, hard, solid, focused or aggressive, and negative vowels sounding slow, cold, wet, soft, insubstantial, diffuse or tranquil.

Monophthongs Diphthongs Triphthongs
Positive a, ɔ ja, wa, aɪ, jɔ, ɔɪ jaɪ, waɪ
Negative ɛ, u jɛ, wɛ, eɪ, ju, uɪ~wɪ jeɪ, weɪ
Neutral i, ʉ

Pitch accentEdit

Rangyan pitch accent can be presented with a two-pitch-level model. In this representation, each syllable is either high (H) or low (L) in pitch.

  1. If the accent is on the first syllable, then the first syllable is high-pitched and the others are low: HLL...
  2. If the accent is on a syllable other than the first, then the first syllable is low, the following syllables up to and including the accented one are high, and the rest are low: LHLL..., LHHLL..., LHHHLL...
  3. If the word does not have an accent, the first syllable is low and the others are high: LHH... This high pitch spreads to unaccented grammatical particles that attach to the end of the word, whereas these would have a low pitch when attached to an accented word.

Examples are given in the table below. The number before each pitch pattern tells you the syllable where the last high pitch is.

Pitch pattern Sample word Meaning
(0) LHH... kigomi 기꼬미 I
(1) HLL... khophi 코피 coffee
(2) LHLL... jin'ai 찐애 dust
(3) LHHLL... asobeda 아소뻐따 he/she/it
(4) LHHHLL... aneruminun 아너루미눈 you

GrammarEdit

Word classes and phrase classesEdit

NounsEdit

Rangyan has no grammatical number, gender or articles. Thus, Rangyan nouns are non-inflecting. The noun iku (; /i.ku/) can be translated as "dog", "dogs", "a dog", "the dog", "some dogs" and so forth, depending on context. However, as part of the extensive pair of grammatical systems that Rangyan possesses for honorification and politeness, nouns too can be modified. Nouns take politeness prefix ya- (; /ja/) to produce their respectful forms. A few examples are given in the following table.

Plain Honorific Meaning
kao (; /ka.ɔ/) ya-kao (야夫; /ja.ka.ɔ/) husband
nori (; /nɔ.ɾi/) ya-nori (야名; /ja.nɔ.ɾi/) name
bu (; /bu/) ya-bu (야目; /ja.bu/) eye
hiku (; /çi.ku/) ya-hiku (야毛; /ja.çi.ku/) hair (on body)

Rangyan does not differentiate between count and mass nouns. A small number of nouns have collectives formed by reduplication, for example, oro (; /ɔ.ɾɔ/) "person" and orooro (人々; /ɔ.ɾɔ.ɔ.ɾɔ/) "people". However, reduplication is not productive. Words in Rangyan referring to more than one of something are collectives, not plurals. Orooro, for example, means "a lot of people" or "people in general". It is never used to mean "two people". A phrase like rangya tu orooro (琅野두人々; /ɾaŋ.ja tu ɔ.ɾɔ.ɔ.ɾɔ/) would be taken to mean "the people of Rangya", or "the population of Rangya", not "two people from Rangya" or even "a few people from Rangya".

Lacking grammatical number, the noun haya (; /ha.ja/) may refer to a single bird or several birds. Where number is important, it can be indicated by providing a quantity (often with a counter word). For example, both pu ik tu haya (2翼두鳥; /pu ɪk̚ tu ha.ja/) and haya i ik (鳥二翼; /ha.ja i ɪk̚/), or simply pu haya (2鳥; /pu ha.ja/), mean two birds.

PronounsEdit

First person Speaker Speech Note
khi ; both plain often written in yenmun by women
mora male plain
kigo 기꼬 both humble
kigomi 기꼬미 both humble the most formal polite version
otto male humble
ube ; 우뻐 female humble sometimes written in yenmun for a more feminine feel
Second person Speaker Speech Note
one both plain
ebi ; 어삐 both plain female singular you
ane 아너 both respectful
anemi 아너미 both very respectful
anerumi 아너루미 both very respectful the most formal polite version
soka both respectful male singular you
imme 임머; both respectful female singular you; often written in yenmun
Third person Speaker Speech Note
hoda both plain
oda 오따 male plain slang version of hoda used by men; rarely used in written Rangyan
suki ; 수기 both plain she; sometimes written in yenmun for a more feminine feel
aso 아소 both respectful
asoda 아소따 both very respectful
asobeda 아소뻐따 both very respectful the most formal polite version

Suffixes are added to pronouns to make them collective, for example, kigomi-te (기꼬미더; /ki.gɔ.mi.tɛ/) "we" and asobeda-nun (아소뻐따눈; /a.sɔ.bɛ.da.nun/) "they".

Suffix Speaker Speech Note
te ; both plain
humble
added to plain or humble forms of pronouns
usually written in yenmun (khite 我더); sometimes in hanji if appended to pronouns written in hanji (morate 吾等); almost never in hanji for pronouns in yenmun (kigomite 기꼬미더)
nun ; both respectful added to respectful forms of pronouns
usually in hanji (sokanun 君輩) unless appended to pronouns written in yenmun (aneruminun 아너루미눈)

Reflexive pronounsEdit

Rangyan has three reflexive pronouns jishin, jiki and osu, all meaning "self". However, there are subtle differences in usage among the three reflexive pronouns.

  • jishin (自身; /dʑi.ɕin/) tends to take a local antecedent and is used more often for first person antecedents;
  • jiki (自己; /dʑi.ki/) takes long-distance antecedents much more than local ones;
  • osu (; /ɔ.su/) is less used than the other two and takes local and long-distance antecedents equally well. The antecedent to which it refers can be inferred by context, which is generally the subject of the sentence.
khi1 wi jishin2 ye kyoterü 1自身2여護르。 I1 protect myself2.
hoda1 wi jishin2 ye kyoterü 1自身2여護르。 He1 protects himself2.

The examples below demonstrate the difference in usage between jishin and jiki.

khi1 wi hoda wa jiki tu2 tobe ye kinuwei 1위彼와自己두2冊여予누웨。 I1 gave him my own2 book.
khi wi hoda1 wa jishin tu2 tobe ye kinuwei 我위1自身두2冊여予누웨。 I gave him1 his own2 book.
hoda1 wi khi wa jiki tu2 tobe ye kinuwei 1위我와自己두2冊여予누웨。 He1 gave me his own2 book.
hoda wi khi1 wa jishin tu2 tobe ye kinuwei 彼위1自身두2冊여予누웨。 He gave me1 my own2 book.

VerbsEdit

Verbs are the most complex lexical category in Rangyan. Their structure when used as the predicate of a clause is verb stem + up to six suffixes, and can be illustrated with this table.

Verb stem Mood Polarity Voice Aspect Tense Honorific
yab-
eat
-
indicative1
-
affirmative
-
active
-
simple

present
-
plain
yon-
drink
-iss-
causative2
-om-
negative
-em-
passive
-an-
progressive
-uwei
past
-ya
polite
yer-
speak
-ams-
deliberative3
-ot-
perfective
-ioi
future
hakk-
laugh
-uk-
hortative4
gub-
depart
-es-
imperative5
gok-
go
-us-
necessitative6
dot-
come
-atts-
obligative7
khitj-
hunt
-oh-
permissive8
khetts-
kill
-ag-
desiderative9
og-
sit
-eik-
optative10
it-
stand
-ich-
assumptive11
tsur-
buy
-air-
dubitative12
tsog-
sell
-ints-
potential13
gar-
arrive
-oir-
subjunctive14
hont-
fly
-eng-
tentative15
kwah-
crawl
-üg-
conditional16

MoodEdit

  1. indicative :
  2. causative (-iss-):
  3. deliberative (-ams-): asks whether the speaker should do something
    e.g. "Shall I go to the market?"
  4. hortative (-uk-): express plea, insistence, imploring, self-encouragement, intent, purpose or consequence
    e.g. "Let us"
  5. imperative (-es-): expresses commands or requests
    e.g. "Paul, do your homework now"
    e.g. "Do not go!"
  6. necessitative (-us-):
  7. obligative (-atts-): signals the speaker's estimation of the necessity that the proposition expressed
    e.g. You must do as I say.
    e.g. She has to leave.
  8. permissive (-oh-): indicates that the action is permitted by the speaker
    e.g. You may have another cookie.
  9. desiderative (-ag-): expresses wishes and desires
  10. optative (-eik-): expresses hopes
  11. assumptive (-ich-): indicates that the statement is assumed to be true, because it usually is under similar circumstances
    e.g. They'll be on holiday at the moment.
    That'll be the postman.
  12. dubitative (-air-): expresses doubt or uncertainty
    e.g. Someone seems to be coming here.
  13. potential (-ints-): indicates that, in the opinion of the speaker, the action or occurrence is considered likely
  14. subjunctive (-oir-):
  15. tentative (-eng-):
  16. conditional (-üg-): express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual
    e.g. If I win, he will be disappointed

Conjugation tableEdit

This is a conjugation table for the verb yabü (食쁘; /ja.bʉ/) "eat". Honorific and mood are not included to keep the table shorter.

Verb stem + Conjugation Meaning
present yabü eat
past yabuwei 뿌웨 ate
future yabioi 삐외 will eat
present progressive yabanü 빠느 is eating
past progressive yabanuwei 빠누웨 was eating
future progressive yabanioi 빠니외 will be eating
present perfect yabotü 뽀드 have eaten
past perfect yabotuwei 뽀두웨 had eaten
future perfect yabotioi 뽀디외 will have eaten
passive present yabemü 뻐므 is eaten
passive past yabemuwei 뻐무웨 was eaten
passive future yabemioi 뻐미외 will be eaten
passive present progressive yabemanü 뻐마느 is being eaten
passive past progressive yabemanuwei 뻐마누웨 was being eaten
passive future progressive yabemanioi 뻐마니외 will be being eaten
passive present perfect yabemotü 뻐모드 have been eaten
passive past perfect yabemotuwei 뻐모두웨 had been eaten
passive future perfect yabemotioi 뻐모디외 will have been eaten
negative present yabomü 뽀므 do not eat
negative past yabomuwei 뽀무웨 did not eat
negative future yabomioi 뽀미외 will not eat
negative present progressive yabomanü 뽀마느 is not eating
negative past progressive yabomanuwei 뽀마누웨 was not eating
negative future progressive yabomanioi 뽀마니외 will not be eating
negative present perfect yabomotü 뽀모드 have not eaten
negative past perfect yabomotuwei 뽀모두웨 had not eaten
negative future perfect yabomotioi 뽀모디외 will not have eaten
negative passive present yabomemü 뽀머므 is not eaten
negative passive past yabomemuwei 뽀머무웨 was not eaten
negative passive future yabomemioi 뽀머미외 will not be eaten
negative passive present progressive yabomemanü 뽀머마느 is not being eaten
negative passive past progressive yabomemanuwei 뽀머마누웨 was not being eaten
negative passive future progressive yabomemanioi 뽀머마니외 will not be being eaten
negative passive present perfect yabomemotü 뽀머모드 have not been eaten
negative passive past perfect yabomemotuwei 뽀머모두웨 had not been eaten
negative passive future perfect yabomemotioi 뽀머모디외 will have not been eaten

Compound verbsEdit

Rangyan has many compound verbs, reflecting the agglutinative nature of the language. A Rangyan compound verb is a multi-word compound that acts as a single verb. The main component of the compound is a verb in its conjunctive participial form, which carries most of the semantics of the compound, and determines its arguments. The other component is a vector, which carries any conjugations, indicating tense, mood, or aspect, but provides only fine shades of meaning.

For example, in yuttsubirü (讀주始르; /jut̚.tsu.bi.ɾʉ/) "start reading", the vector verb birü (始르; /bi.ɾʉ/) "start" changes according to tense, mood, aspect, and the like, while the main verb yuttsü (讀즈; /jut̚.tsʉ/) "read" stays in its conjunctive participial form yuttsu (讀주; /jut̚.tsu/) "reading" and remains unchanged.

Attributive verbsEdit

A Rangyan attributive verb is a verb which modifies (gives the attributes of) a noun as an attributive, rather than expressing an independent idea as a predicate. Unlike English, Rangyan allows regular verbs to be attributive. In Rangyan, predicative verbs come at the end of the clause, after the nouns, while attributive verbs come before the noun. These are equivalent to relative clauses in English as Rangyan does not have relative pronouns like "who", "which", or "when".

Example:

ne oro wi dotuwei (너人위来두웨; /nɛ ɔ.ɾɔ wi dɔt̚.tu.weɪ/)
"That person came."

ne oro-wi dot-uwei
that person-SBJ come-PST

ne dotuweit oro wi (너来두웯人위; /nɛ dɔt̚.tu.weɪt̚ ɔ.ɾɔ wi/)
"That person who came"

ne dot-uwei-t oro-wi
that come-PST-ATTRIB person-SBJ

CopulaEdit

The Rangyan copula (; /ɾʉ/) is a verb-like word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement). Rangyan sentences with most often equate one thing with another, that is, they are of the form "A is B".

Example:

khi wi ontso rü (我위兵르; /kʰi wi ɔn.tsɔ ɾʉ/)
"I am a soldier."

Subject Predicate
khi-wi ontso
I-SBJ soldier COP

Copula can also link predicative adjectives to the noun or pronoun they modify.

Example:

muse wi ha'i rü (雪위白이르; /musɛ wi ha.i ɾʉ/)
"Snow is white."

Subject Predicate
muse-wi ha'i
snow-SBJ white COP

Demonstratives and indefiniteEdit

Demonstratives occur in the i-, ne-, and ko- series. The i- (proximal) series refers to things closer to the speaker than the hearer, the ne- (mesial) series for things closer to the hearer, and the ko- (distal) series for things distant to both the speaker and the hearer. With ma-, demonstratives turn into the corresponding interrogative form.

Proximal
(i-)
Mesial
(ne-)
Distal
(ko-)
Interrogative
(ma-)
Negative
(mu-)
Universal
(so-)
Assertive
existential
(di-)
Elective
existential
(ha-)
Adjective i
this
ne
that
ko
that over there
ma
what
mu
no
so
every
di
some
ha
any
Thing (-ko) iko 이고
this one
neko 너고
that one
koko 고고
that one over there
mako 마고
which one
muko 무고
nothing
soko 소고
everything
diko 띠고
something
hako 하고
anything
Person (-we) iwe 이워
this person
newe 너워
that person
kowe 고워
that person over there
mawe 마워
who
muwe 무워
nobody
sowe 소워
everybody
diwe 띠워
somebody
hawe 하워
anybody
Place (-su) isu 이수
here
nesu 너수
there
kosu 고수
over there
masu 마수
where
musu 무수
nowhere
sosu 소수
everywhere
disu 띠수
somewhere
hasu 하수
anywhere
Time (-tsa) itsa 이자
now
netsa 너자
then
kotsa 고자
at that other time
matsa 마자
when
mutsa 무자
never
sotsa 소자
always
ditsa 띠자
sometime
hatsa 하자
anytime
Manner (-ne) ine 이너
in this manner
nene 너너
in that manner
kone 고너
in that other manner
mane 마너
how
dine 띠너
somehow
Quantity (-do) ido 이또
this many / much
nedo 너또
that many / much
kodo 고또
in that other quantity
mado 마또
how many / much
Kind (-chi) ichi 이치
like this
nechi 너치
like that
kochi 고치
like that other kind
machi 마치
what kind of
Reason (-ka) maka 마가
why

Demonstratives limit, and therefore precede, nouns; thus i maro (이石; /i ma.ɾɔ/) for "this stone", ne maro (너石; /nɛ ma.ɾɔ/) for "that stone", and ko maro (고石; /kɔ ma.ɾɔ/) for "that stone over there".

AdjectivesEdit

All Rangyan adjectives end in -i, for example, kho'i (大이; /kʰɔ.i/) "big" and hyogi (重끼; /çjɔ.gi/) "heavy". Their syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about the noun or referent of pronoun. In Rangyan, adjectives form an open class of words, that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation.

A given occurrence of a Rangyan adjective can generally be classified into one of the two major kinds of uses:

  • Attributive adjectives are part of the noun phrase headed by the noun they modify, for example, kho'i is an attributive adjective in kho'i haku (大이牛; /kʰɔ.i ha.ku/) "big cow". Since Rangyan is a head-final language, attributive adjectives always precede their nouns.
  • Predicative adjectives are linked via a copula to the noun or pronoun they modify, for example, kho'i is a predicate adjective in haku wi kho'i rü (牛위大이르; /ha.ku wi kʰɔ.i ɾʉ/) "cow is big".

Adjective orderEdit

In Rangyan language, attributive adjectives usually occur in this default order, with other orders being permissible:

  1. demonstrative
  2. intensifier (adverb of degree)
  3. opinion
  4. size
  5. age
  6. shape
  7. colour
  8. proper adjective (e.g. nationality, origin, material)
  9. noun adjunct (noun used as adjective)
  10. head noun

Example:

i wa'i nitsi gani haya (이良이小지赤니鳥; /i wa.i ni.tsi ga.ni ha.ja/)
"this good small red bird"

Dem. Intensifier Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Proper adj. Noun adjunct Head noun
i
this
wa'i
good
nitsi
small
gani
red
haya
bird

ComparativeEdit

Rangyan adjectives, unlike their English counterparts, do not have a comparative form. To compare two things (NP1 and NP2), the noun phrase being compared (NP2), together with the postpositional comparative particle pe, are placed between the subject noun phrase (NP1) and the predicative adjective in a sentence ended with a copula.

Example:

ne iku wi i haya pe kho'i rü (너犬위이鳥버大이르; /nɛ i.ku wi i ha.ja pɛ kʰɔ.i ɾʉ/)
"That dog is bigger than this bird."

NP1 NP2 Predicate
ne iku-wi i haya-pe kho'i
that dog-SBJ this bird-COMP big COP

SuperlativeEdit

Rangyan adjectives also lack a superlative form. The adverb tsum (; /tsum/) "most" is placed before adjectives for superlative degree of comparison.

Example:

ne iku wi tsum kho'i rü (너犬위줌大이르; /nɛ i.ku wi tsum kʰɔ.i ɾʉ/)
"That dog is the biggest."

ne iku-wi tsum kho'i
that dog-SBJ most big COP

AdverbsEdit

An adverb is any word that modifies verbs, adjectives, clauses, sentences and other adverbs. Not all but many Rangyan adverbs are formed by adding -m to adjectives. For example, nepi (怒비; /nɛ.pi/; "angry") yields nepim (怒빔; /ne.pim/; "angrily") and wa'i (良이; /wa.i/; "good") yields wa'im (良임; /wa.im/ "well"). This derivation is quite productive but there are a few adjectives from which adverbs may not be derived.

ParticlesEdit

Particles in Rangyan are postpositional, as they immediately follow the modified component.

Case markersEdit

Particle Süngkwetkatsya Function
wi nominative case; subject
wei additive case; inclusive subject
ye accusative case; direct object
wa 哇洼 dative case; indirect object
tu 覩都妬 genitive case; possession
yo 舁妤 instrumental case; by means of
ti locative case; location
hi allative case; direction
yu 庾喩愈 ablative case; from
to 忉朷 up to; until; as far as; indicates a time or place as a limit
pe comparative

Other particlesEdit

Particle Süngkwetkatsya Function
ta conjunction; and
tai moreover; and
wai 崴嵬 for
tsoi 栽哉 as
kwe 圭邽 concerning; about
ton when
ten although
gwa but; however
yai because
khui 巋虧 thanks to
mo 芼皃氂 interrogation; question
ho 号毫 tag question; asks agreement or confirmation
re emphasis; certainty
yei 曀曵 indirect speech; reported speech

Sound symbolic wordsEdit

Sound symbolic words or mimetic words occur more often in Rangyan than in English. They are found in formal as well as vernacular language.

These words cannot all be considered onomatopoeia. Many mimetic words in Rangyan are for things that do not make any noise originally.

Mimetic words can be classified into three main categories:

  • Phonomime or onomatopoeia (isengzhi 擬声詞 or iimzhi 擬音詞): words that mimic actual sounds; isengzhi refers to sounds made by living things, while iimzhi refers to sounds made by inanimate objects;
  • Phenomime (ithaizhi 擬態詞): mimetic words to represent non-auditory senses;
  • Psychomime (ijengzhi 擬情詞): mimetic words that represent psychological states or bodily feelings.

In Rangyan grammar, sound symbolic words function as adverbs, and most of them can be applied to only a handful of verbs or adjectives (heads).

Examples:

Mimetic word Head Meaning
puppup 붑붑 "do" beat fast with a throbbing heart
khingringkhangrang 킹링캉랑 "do" make clinking sounds; cling-clang
tingringtongrong 딩링동롱 "do" make tinkling sounds; jingle-jangle
piripara 비리바라 yerü 言르 "talk" chatter away; rattle on; talk endlessly
kirikuru 기리구루 yerü 言르 "talk" talk in an indistinct manner

NumeralsEdit

The system of Rangyan numerals is the system of number names used in the Rangyan language. The Rangyan numerals in writing are entirely based on the Chinese numerals and the grouping of large numbers follow the Chinese tradition of grouping by myriads (10000) rather than thousands (1000). Two sets of pronunciations for the numerals exist in Rangyan: one is based on Sino-Rangyan readings of the Chinese characters and the other is based on the native Rangyan readings.

The distinction between the two sets of numerals is very important. Everything that can be counted will use one of the two sets, but seldom both. For example, the native Rangyan numerals are used for the hours while the Sino-Rangyan numerals are used to denote the minute of time, therefore, jopu-zhi uzhipruk-pun (12時56分) means "12:56". The native Rangyan numerals are also used for the five-minute interval of time khük (; /kʰək̚/), therefore, he-zhi me-khük (8時1刻) means "8:05" while he-zhi cho-khük (8時3刻) means "8:15".

When denoting the age of a person, one will use yumpi (; /jum.pi/) for the native Rangyan numerals, and sei (; /seɪ/) for Sino-Rangyan. For example, chojohe yumpi (38歳) and samzhippat sei (三十八歳) both mean "thirty-eight years old".

Basic numberingEdit

There are two ways of writing the numbers in Rangyan, in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) or in Chinese numerals (一, 二, 三). The Arabic numerals are more often used in horizontal writing, and the Chinese numerals are more common in vertical writing.

Number Character Native Rangyan Sino-Rangyan
0 零 / 〇 moi reng
1 me it
2 pu i
3 cho sam
4 ke shi
5 tha u
6 che ruk
7 ju chit
8 he pat
9 kon kyu
10 jo zhip
100 sottso pak
1000 hattso chen
10000 mittso men

The number 4 is considered unlucky in Rangyan, as 4, pronounced shi in Sino-Rangyan, is a homophone for death (). The number 13 is sometimes considered unlucky, though this is a carryover from Western tradition.

In large numbers, elements are combined from largest to smallest, and zeros are implied.

Number   Writing Native Rangyan Sino-Rangyan
11   十一 jo me zhip it
17   十七 jo ju zhip chit
151   百五十一 sottso tha-jo me pak u-zhip it
302   三百二 cho-sottso pu sam-pak i
469   四百六十九 ke-sottso che-jo kon shi-pak ruk-zhip kyu
2025   二千二十五 pu-hattso pu-jo tha i-chen i-zhip u

Decimal fractionsEdit

Rangyan has a traditional system of numerals for decimal fractions.

Number Character Native Rangyan Sino-Rangyan
10-1 (0.1) hittsi pun
10-2 (0.01) wi'tsi ri

This system, however, is not often seen in modern usage except for representing decimal fractions of rate or discount. For example, cho-pun u-ri heirün (三分五厘減른) "35% discount". Instead, decimal fractions are typically written with either Chinese numerals (in vertical writing) or Arabic numerals (in horizontal writing), preceded by a decimal point, and are read as successive digits, as in Western convention. Note that, in written form, they can be combined with either the traditional system of expressing numerals (42.195 四十二・一九五), in which powers of ten are written, or with the place value system, which uses zero (50.04 五〇・〇四). In both cases, however, the reading follows the traditional system (kejopu tem me kon tha for 42.195; thajo tem moi ke for 50.04).

Fractional valuesEdit

To construct a fraction, the denominator is written first, followed by pun tu (分두) "parts of" and then the numerator. This is the opposite of how fractions are read in English, which is numerator first. Each half of the fraction is written the same as a whole number. Mixed numbers are written with the whole-number part first, followed by ta (; /ta/) "and", then the fractional part.

Fraction Writing Reading
2/3 三分두二 cho-pun tu pu
3 5/6 三다六分두五 cho ta che-pun tu tha

Ordinal numbersEdit

Ordinal numbers are formed by adding tai (; /taɪ/) "sequence" before Sino-Rangyan numerals and by adding hin (; /çin/) after native Rangyan numerals.

Ordinal Native Rangyan Sino-Rangyan
Writing Reading Writing Reading
1st 一힌 me-hin 第一 tai-it
2nd 二힌 pu-hin 第二 tai-i

Negative numbersEdit

Negative numbers are formed by adding byu (; /bju/) "negative" before the number.

Formal numbersEdit

As with Chinese numerals, there exists in Rangyan a separate set of hanji for numerals called daishyuji (大数字; /daɪ.ɕju.dʑi/) used in legal and financial documents to prevent unscrupulous individuals from adding a stroke or two, turning a one into a two or a three. The formal numbers are identical to the Chinese formal numbers except for minor stroke variations. In some cases, the digit 1 is explicitly written like 壱佰壱拾 for 110, as opposed to 百十 in common writing.

Number Common Formal
In use Obsolete
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
100
1000
10000

Counter wordsEdit

In Rangyan, counter words can be used along with numbers to count things, actions, and events.

Unlike Japanese, Korean and Chinese, Rangyan numerals, if possible, can quantify nouns without counter words. Therefore to express the idea "two birds" in Rangyan one can either say pu ik tu haya 2翼두鳥 (lit. "two wing's bird"), haya i ik 鳥二翼 (lit. "bird two wing") or simply pu haya 2鳥 ("two bird"). Notice that native Rangyan number is used if the number comes before the head noun, while Sino-Rangyan number comes after the head noun. And here haya means "bird", pu / i is the number 2, and ik is the counter for birds. These counters are not independent words and always appear with a number (or question word) before them. If the number is unknown, a question word is used, most often ma , as in mameng 마名 "how many guests?", or maya 마夜 "how many nights?".

This is a selective list of some of the more commonly used counter words.

Writing Reading Usage
ka general measure word, used when there is no specific counter
in people
meng polite counter word for people (lit. means "name")
kwen books
men mirrors, boards for board games
pai cups and glasses of drink

Sentence and clause patternsEdit

Clause constructionsEdit

Relative clauseEdit

Rangyan does not employ relative pronouns to relate relative clauses to their antecedents. Instead, the relative clause directly modifies the noun phrase as an attributive verb, occupying the same syntactic space as an attributive adjective (before the noun phrase).

Example:

aso wi ne dotuweit oro ye bumuwei (아소위너来두웯人여見무웨; /a.sɔ wi nɛ dɔt̚.tu.weɪt̚ ɔ.ɾɔ jɛ bu.mu.weɪ/)
"He saw that person who came."

aso-wi ne dot-uwei-t oro-ye bum-uwei
he-SBJ that come-PST-ATTRIB person-OBJ see-PST

Speech constructionsEdit

Direct speechEdit

Direct speech is a sentence (or several sentences) that reports speech or thought in its original form, as phrased by the first speaker. In Rangyan, it is enclosed in quotation marks. The cited speaker is either mentioned or implied.

khi wi ajaboti ye yabanü aso wi yeruwei (「我위朝膳여食빠느。」아소위言루웨; /kʰi wi a.dza.bɔ.ti jɛ ja.ba.nʉ a.sɔ wi jɛ.ɾu.weɪ/)
" 'I am eating breakfast,' he said."

Direct speech statement
khi-wi ajaboti-ye yab-an-ü aso-wi yer-uwei
I-SBJ breakfast-OBJ eat-PROG-PRS he-SBJ say-PST

Indirect speechEdit

In Rangyan, indirect speech is not enclosed in quotation marks, and does not phrase the reported statement or question the way the original speaker did; instead, person is changed when the person speaking and the person quoting the speech are different.

aso wi ajaboti ye yabanü yei aso wi yeruwei (아소위朝膳여食빠느아소위言루웨; /a.sɔ wi a.dza.bɔ.ti jɛ ja.ba.nʉ jeɪ a.sɔ wi jɛ.ɾu.weɪ/)
"He said that he is* eating breakfast."

Indirect speech statement Particle
aso-wi ajaboti-ye yab-an-ü yei aso-wi yer-uwei
he-SBJ breakfast-OBJ eat-PROG-PRS he-SBJ say-PST

Writing systemEdit

The modern Rangyan writing system uses two main scripts:

  • Hanji (漢字; /han.dʑi/), ideographs from Chinese characters, and
  • Yenmun (諺文연문; /jɛn.mun/), a Korean phonemic alphabet organised into syllabic blocks that make up words.

To a lesser extent, modern written Rangyan also uses the Latin alphabet. Examples include abbreviations such as "CD" and "DVD".

Romanised Rangyan, called romaji (로마字; /ɾɔ.ma.dʑi/), is frequently used by foreign students of Rangyan, who have not yet mastered the two main scripts, and by native speakers for computer input.

Usage of scriptsEdit

HanjiEdit

YenmunEdit

Yenmun is a phonemic alphabet organized into syllabic blocks. Each block consists of at least two of the 24 yenmun letters (jimu), with at least one each of the 14 consonants and 10 vowels. These syllabic blocks can be written horizontally from left to right as well as vertically from top to bottom in columns from right to left. Originally, the alphabet had several additional letters for pre-modern Korean, however, these letters have never been used in Rangyan.

JimuEdit

Jimu (字母찌무; /dʑi.mu/) are the units that make up the yenmun alphabet. Ji means letter or character, and mo means mother, so the name suggests that the jimu are the building-blocks of the script.

There are 39 jimu, of which 24 are equivalent to letters of the Latin alphabet. The other 15 jimu are clusters of two or sometimes three of these letters. Of the 24 simple jimu, 14 are consonants (tsiim子音; /tɕi.im/; "child sounds") and 10 are vowels (muim母音; /mu.im/; "mother sounds"). 5 of the simple consonant letters are doubled to form the five voiced consonants (see below). The 10 basic vowel jimu can be combined to form 10 more complex ones. Here is a summary:

  • 14 simple consonant letters: ㄱ, ㅋ, ㅇ, ㄷ, ㅌ, ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅍ, ㅁ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅅ, ㅎ, ㄹ
  • 5 double letters (voiced): ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅉ, ㅆ
  • 6 simple vowel letters: ㅏ, ㅓ, ㅗ, ㅜ, ㅡ, ㅣ
  • 4 simple iotized vowel letters (semi consonant-semi vowel): ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ
  • 10 compound letters: ㅐ, ㅒ, ㅔ, ㅖ, ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅚ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ

Four of the simple vowel jimu are derived by means of a short stroke to signify iotation (a preceding i sound): ㅑ /ja/, ㅕ /jɛ/, ㅛ /jɔ/, and ㅠ /ju/. These four are counted as part of the 24 simple jimu because the iotating stroke taken out of context does not represent /j/. In fact, there is no separate jimu for /j/.

Of the simple consonants, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, and ㅊ are aspirated derivatives of ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ, respectively, formed by combining the unaspirated letters with an extra stroke.

The doubled letters are ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅉ, ㅆ. Double jimu do not represent geminate consonants, but rather a voiced phonation.

Jimu orderEdit

The alphabetical order of yenmun does not mix consonants and vowels as Western alphabets do. Rather, the order is that of the Indic type, first velar consonants, then coronals, labials, sibilants, etc. However, the vowels come after the consonants rather than before them as in the Indic systems.

Historical orderEdit

The consonantal order of yenmun in 1446 in the document titled Funmintsengim (訓民正音; /ɸun.min.tsɛŋ.im/) "The Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People" was,

ㄱ ㅋ ㆁ ㄷ ㅌ ㄴ ㅂ ㅍ ㅁ ㅈ ㅊ ㅅ ㆆ ㅎ ㅇ ㄹ ㅿ

and the order of vowels was,

ㆍ ㅡ ㅣ ㅗ ㅏ ㅜ ㅓ ㅛ ㅑ ㅠ ㅕ

Modern Rangyan orderEdit

In the Rangyan order, double jimu are placed immediately after their single counterparts. No distinction is made between silent and nasal ㅇ:

ㄱ ㄲ ㅋ ㅇ ㄷ ㄸ ㅌ ㄴ ㅂ ㅃ ㅍ ㅁ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅅ ㅆ ㅎ ㄹ
ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ

The modern monophthongal vowels come first, with the derived forms interspersed according to their form: first added i, then iotized, then iotized with added i. Diphthongs and triphthongs beginning with w are ordered according to their spelling, as ㅏ or ㅓ plus a second vowel, not as separate digraphs.

The order of the final jimu is,

(null) ㄱ ㅇ ㄷ ㄴ ㅂ ㅁ ㅅ ㄹ

"Null" stands for no final jimu.

Direction of writingEdit

Written language reformsEdit

RomanisationEdit

There are a number of methods of rendering Rangyan in Roman letters. The Mackenzie method of romanisation makkhenzhi-sik romaji (막컨씨式로마字; /mak̚.kʰɛn.ʑi.sɪk̚ ɾɔ.ma.dʑi/), designed for English speakers, is a de facto standard widely used inside and outside Rangya.

Onset
Mackenzie k g kh (null) t d th n p b ph m ts j ch s, sh z, zh h, f r
IPA k g (null) t d n p b m ts~tɕ dz~dʑ tsʰ~tɕʰ s~ɕ z~ʑ h~ç~ɸ ɾ
Nucleus
Mackenzie a ai ya yai e ei ye yei o wa wai oi yo u we wei ui, wi yu ü i
IPA a ja jaɪ ɛ jeɪ ɔ wa waɪ ɔɪ u~ʊ weɪ uɪ~wi ju~jʊ ʉ i~ɪ
Coda
Mackenzie k ng t n p m s l
IPA ŋ n m s l

CyrillisationEdit

The Sokolov method of cyrillisation sokorop-sik kirilji (소고롭式기릴字; /sɔ.kɔ.ɾɔp̚.sɪk̚ ki.ɾil.dʑi/), designed for Russian speakers, is the official standard of rendering Rangyan in Cyrillic letters.

Onset
Sokolov к г кх (null) т д тх н п б пх м ц дз цх с з x, ф р
IPA k g (null) t d n p b m ts~tɕ dz~dʑ tsʰ~tɕʰ s~ɕ z~ʑ h~ç~ɸ ɾ
Nucleus
Sokolov а ай я яй э эй е ей о уа уай ой ё у уэ уэй уй, уи ю ы и
IPA a ja jaɪ ɛ jeɪ ɔ wa waɪ ɔɪ u~ʊ weɪ uɪ~wi ju~jʊ ʉ i~ɪ
Coda
Sokolov к нъ т н п м с л
IPA ŋ n m s l

SüngkwetkatsyaEdit

Süngkwetkatsya (僧訣假借; /sʉŋ.kwɛt̚.ka.tɕja/), also known as Kagakatsya (迦伽假借; /ka.ga.ka.tɕja/) after the first two syllables, is an archaic writing system that represents the Rangyan language in hanji. It was mainly used by Rangyan monks to render Buddhist sutras written in Sanskrit into understandable Rangyan, and occasionally used by government officials as a tool to comprehend texts written in Classical Chinese.

The süngkwetkatsya script employs hanji for their phonetic value rather than their meaning to indicate Rangyan verb endings and other grammatical markers that are different in Rangyan from Chinese. Several hanji can represent the same sound, the choice of which to use often being decided for stylistic reasons. And this made both the meaning and pronunciation difficult to parse, and was one reason why the system was gradually abandoned, to be replaced with yenmun originated from Korea, in the late 15th century. In this respect, it faced problems analogous to those that confronted early efforts to represent the Japanese and Korean language with hanji, due to grammatical differences between these languages and Chinese.

Below is the table of süngkwetkatsya where one character represents one syllable.

k g kh (null) t d th n p b ph m c j ch s z h r y w
a 他佗 娜拏 吒左咤 叉詫 娑沙 訶賀 也惹野 哇洼 a
e e
o 忉朷 芼皃氂 号毫 舁妤 o
u 覩都妬 布補 暮慕 庾喩愈 u
ü ü
i 伊爾 哩里利 i
ai 崴嵬 ai
ei 閉篦 吠陛 隸禮 曀曵 ei
oi 栽哉 oi
ui 巋虧 尾味 ui
ya 舍捨 ya
ye ye
yo yo
yu 戍輸 yu
wa wa
we 圭邽 we
k g kh (null) t d th n p b ph m c j ch s z h r y w

OtherEdit

Example textsEdit

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1)Edit

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."
全끼人위生믄유自由이르대尊厳다権利디平等이르。
mogi oro wi bomün yu jiyu'i rü tai tsonyem ta gwenri ti bengtüng'i rü.

mogi oro-wi bomü-n-yu jiyu'i tai tsonyem-ta gwenri-ti bengtüng'i
all mankind-SBJ birth-NMLZ-from free COP CNJ dignity-and right-in equal COP

"They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
人위理性다良心여天賦임授뻐모드대同胞두精神요互삠行動누스。
oro wi riseng ta rangshim ye thenpyuim kibemotü tai dungpo tu tsengjin yo mobim hangdungnusü.

oro-wi riseng-ta rangshim-ye thenpyu-im kib-em-ot-ü tai dungpo-tu tsengjin-yo mobim hangdung-n-us-ü
mankind-SBJ rationality-and conscience-OBJ innately confer-PASS-PFV-PRS CNJ compatriot-GEN spirit-INS mutually act-do-NECESSITATIVE-PRS

Featured bannerEdit

"This language was once featured."
이語言위굼紹介너무웨야。
i yoyen wi kum zhyokainemuweiya

i yoyen-wi kum zhyokai-n-em-uwei-ya
this language-SBJ once introduction-do-PASS-PST-HON

"Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured."
品質다可信性다可用性두水平퀴、이고위特色죄選저모드야。
phimtsit ta khashinseng ta khayongseng tu suibeng khui, iko wi düksik tsoi ritsemotüya.

phimtsit ta khashinseng ta khayongseng tu suibeng khui
quality and plausibility
(lit. creditability)
and usage capabilities
(lit. usability)
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The Tower of Babel (Genesis 11: 1-9)Edit

  1. Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.
    고時、全끼人위同미語言여言라누웨야。
    kokotsan, mogi oro wi bomi yoyen ye yeranuweiya.
    "At that time, all mankind was speaking the same language."
  2. And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.
    人々위東方유移누웨돈、시날두地디平野여覓뿌出두웨대고수디居루定무웨야
    orooro wi tungpang yu thinnuwei ton, shinal tu gada ti bengya ye kabuuttuwei tai kosu ti jorujimuweiya.
    "When people moved from the east, (they) found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there."
  3. And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.
  4. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth."
  5. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built.
  6. And the Lord said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them.
  7. Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech."
  8. So the Lord dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.
  9. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth. And from there the Lord dispersed them over the face of all the earth.

The Analects of ConfuciusEdit

  • Confucius said: "To learn and then practise it time and again is a pleasure, is it not? To have friends come from afar to share each other learning is a pleasure, is it not? To be unperturbed when not appreciated by others is gentlemanly, is it not?"
    子위言르「学부이고여심習므、둠悦이로므모。友위遠민処유来드、둠喜디로므모。識로머므던怒보므、둠君子로므모。」
    「學布伊皋曳罧伊窂瞢芼。友氐窂瞢芼。識窂麛瞢典保瞢君子窂瞢芼。」(written in Süngkwetkatsya)
    Tsi wi yerü, "Bopu iko ye shim samü, tum patsui romü mo? Eke wi hüminhen yu dotü, tum hatti romü mo? Naromemü ten nepomü, tum kuntsi romü mo?"
  • Confucius said:"To learn without thinking, one will be lost in his learning. To think without learning, one will be imperilled."
    子위言르「学브던思보므、惑모븐디陥르。思브던学보므、危디陥르。」
    Tsi wi yerü, "Bopü ten upomü, immopün ti nalrü. Upü ten bopomü, numsu ti nalrü."
  • Confucius said: "While your parents are alive, do not journey afar. If a journey has to be made, your direction must be told."
    子위言르「父母위在世느、遠밈旅노므。遠밈旅느깓즈、旅두処여話닫즈。」
    Tsi wi yerü, "Tsokoüwi wi jaiseinü, hümim yusonomü. Hümim yusonügattsü, yuso tu hen ye yottattsü."

See alsoEdit

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