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Boghash

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Boghash
Type Agglutinative/Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Absolutive
Head direction Head-final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 4%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 17%
Words of 1500
Creator ToaTanma01


Thanks to the creators of Mestian, Enhe, Xwarṣa, Luluvo and Valyrian for supplying me with some inspiration!

Boghash is a language spoken by the people of Boghash, or Boghash-iri ('iri' means 'people, nation'), one of several peoples inhabiting the island of Munnaya. They're a strongly military nation, and their belief system is centered about the element of fire, and that maight be one of the reasons why they have built their main city in a crater of an extinct volcano.

The Boghash-'iri are descendants of a group of survivors from the fall of the Dhamarr Empire, that had been caused by the same climatic catastrophe that destroyed the Aqͣqarͤrhat Empire. Boghash means 'pilgrimage' or 'flight'. The Boghash were the last tribe to settle on the island.

Classification and DialectsEdit

There are two main dialects (or, rather, modes of speech), these being the Rraki-lana, lit. 'hard-speech', and Enqu-lana (lit. 'soft-speech'). The first one is spoken mainly in the northern parts of their lands, as well as rural areas and in and out of the City of Boghash. The other dialect is used everywhere else.

There are several differences between the two, phonological, but also syntactical and grammatical.

Distinctly from those, there are also so-called 'speech modes': Informal, Formal and Book. The Formal mode is used in presence of people with high social status or with strangers, and it uses a somewhat limited set of grammatical forms; The Book mode, as the name suggests, is used only in tales, writings and religious texts; it's the most ancient one, preserving many properties of the older stages of the language's development.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p, b t, d ʈ, ɖ k, g q, ɢ ʔ
Fricative f, v s, z ʃ, ʒ x, ɣ
Affricate tʃ, dʒ
Approximant w ɻ j
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l ɭ
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i, y ɯ, u
Near-close
Close-mid e, ø ɤ, o
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a ɒ

PhonotacticsEdit

VowelsEdit

There is no length distinction.

Stress patterns depend on several conditions.

Diphthongs are formed with a non-close vowel + a close vowel with the same roudness, that is, an a might be joined to an i, but not an ü.

ConsonantsEdit

Boghash consonants show a very interestnig distinction between so-called heavy and light consonants. Every word must be 'balanced', that is, the first and final syllable(s) must have exactly the same weight; that causes some sound changes.

Heavy vs Light ConsonantsEdit

Heavy Light
b v
p f
m n
th t
dh d
sh s
zh z
lh l
rr r
rh
ch
j
g gh
k kh
gq
q '
w y


Writing SystemEdit

Letter a ä e ë o ö i ï u ü
Sound a ɒ e ɤ o ø i ɯ u y
Letter p b f v m t d n r rr
Sound p b f v m t d n ɾ r
Letter l s z sh zh ch j th dh lh
Sound l s z ʃ ʒ ʈ ɖ ɭ
Letter rh w y g k gh kh gq q '
Sound ɻ w j g k ɣ x ɢ q ʔ

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns have 4 numbers (Singular, Dual, Paucal, Plural), 12 cases (Nominative, Absolutive, Genitive, Locative, Dative, Distributive, Instrumental, Comitative, Possessed, Privative, Adjectival/Equative, Adverbial/Essive), 5 classes (Fire/holy things, Masculine, Feminine, Neuter/mixed, Abstractions/uncountables), as well as three states of Formality. They are declined in a fusional/agglutinative way, with the stems varying and ending parts changing (although this usually affects only consonants). There are several declensions.


OverviewEdit

NumberEdit

In Boghash, there are 4 numbers:

  • Singular (for single things)
  • Dual (for pairs or couples only)
  • Paucal (for small groups or parts of a greater whole; corresponding to 'some')
  • Plural) (large numbers)
CaseEdit

There are 12 cases:

  • Absolutive (Boghash is descended from an Erg.-Abs. language; the Absolutive is still the simplest case, even though in most instances it will be used like Accusative; only in Formal, Book and - sometimes - Hard speech it takes place of the Nominative in intransitive sentences)
  • Nominative (old Ergative; now it's used almost like the usual Nominative we know from Indo-Eur. langs)
  • Distributive (unlike what is commonly termed as Dist., in Boghash it's the direct object of a sentence that describes an action associated with giving; the recipient(s_ is/are marked with the Dative)
  • Genitive (the source or origin; also a maker or previous owner of a thing)
  • Dative (the destination or recipient; also a present/future owner of a thing)
  • Instrumental (the instrument of an action; the means by which sth is done)
  • Comitative (the person/thing that somehow participates in an action or event, although not directly, or simply accompanies sb/sth)
  • Possessed (the thing which is possessed; it's an adjectival form, so it usually precedes the possessor; think of English -ful adjectives)
  • Privative (the opposite of the above; indicates the lack of sth)
  • Locative (the place where sth occures; also (Book/Formal only) a present possessor of sth)
  • Adjectival/Equative (or simply Adjectival; indicates similarity between two things)
  • Adverbial/Essive (or simply Adverbial; marks something as identical to sth else)
ClassEdit

There are 5 classes:

  • Fire/Holy (encompasses modtly things associated with cult or fire)
  • Masculine (males and male things)
  • Feminine (females and female things)
  • Neuter/Mixed (things that cannot be fully qualified to any of the two 'sex' classes)
  • Liquid (uncountables, liquid or loose things/substances, also abstractions)
FormalityEdit

There are 3 levels of formality in Boghash:

  • Formal (the most formal of the three; used mostly in the Formal Speech)
  • Informal (think of diminutives)
  • Neutral (neither formal or informal)

Pronouns and verbs usually have only 2 levels of formality, distinguishing between Formal and Informal/Neutral levels.


First declensionEdit

Only Fire and Masculine classes inflect according to this declension.

Inflection of a Class 1 heavy noun zho'arr (fire):


1st Declension (1fh) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) zhu'ärrä zhë'ek zho'arr zhuqäü zhëqei zhoqai zhu'ärhrhä zhë'erre zho'arha zhuqä'ä zhëqai zhoqä
Nominative (nom) zhu'älhlhä zë'el zho'alh zhu'äülelh zë'eil zho'ailelh zhu'ädhdhä zë'ede zho'adha zhu'äththä zë'ait zho'äth
Distributive (dist) zhu'äppä zhë'ep zho'ap zhu'äüb zhë'eib zho'aib zhu'äjjä zë'eye zho'aja zhu'ächchä zë'ai' zho'äch
Genitive (gen) zhu'äshshä zë'es zho'ash zhu'äüzäzh zë'eiz zho'aizezh zhu'ädhdhä zë'ede zho'adha zhu'äththä zë'ait zho'äth
Dative (dat) zhu'äkkä zhë'ek zho'ak zhu'äüg zhë'eig zho'aig zhu'ämmä zhë'emme zho'amma zhu'ämmä zhë'aim zho'äm
Instrumental (ins) zhu'ämmä zhë'em zho'am zhu'äüm zhë'eim zho'aim zhu'älhdhä zë'elde zho'alhdha zhu'älhlhä zë'ail zho'älh
Comitative (com) zhu'ämmä zhë'em zho'am zhu'äüm zhë'eim zho'aim zhu'ämbä zhë'embe zho'amba zhu'ämmä zhë'aim zho'äm
Possessed (posd) zhu'ämmä zhë'em zho'am zhu'äüm zhë'eim zho'aim zhu'änäth zë'enet zho'anath zhu'änudhu zë'ainïdï zho'änudhu
Privative (prv) zhu'äshshä zë'es zho'ash zhu'äüzäzh zë'eiz zho'aizezh zhu'äzhzhä zë'ezze zho'azhzha zhu'äshshä zë'ais zho'äsh
Locative (loc) zhu'äththä zë'et zho'ath zhu'äüditeth zë'eidit zho'aiditeth zhu'ädäch zë'ede zho'adach zhu'ädhdhu zë'aidï zho'ädhu
Adjectival (adj) zhu'äqqä zhë'eq zho'aq zhu'äügq zhë'eigq zho'aigq zhu'ärrä zhë'erre zho'arra zhu'ärru zhë'airrï zho'ärru
Adverbial (adv) zhu'ärh zhë'erre zho'arh zhu'äü zë'eirir zho'airirh zhu'äläq zhë'eleq zho'alaq zhu'älhqä zhë'ailq zho'älhq


Inflection of a Class 1 light noun tana (sanctuary, temple):

1st Declension (1fs) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) tänä taine tana tänäü tainei tanai tänärä tainere tanara tänän tainai tanä
Nominative (nom) tänällä tainel tanal tänäül taineil tanail tänädä tainede tanada tänättä tainait tanät
Distributive (dist) tänäffä tainef tanaf tänäüv taineiv tanaiv tänä'ä taine'e tana'a tänänä tainai tanä
Genitive (gen) tänässä taines tanas tänäüz taineiz tanaiz tänädä tainede tanada tänättä tainait tanät
Dative (dat) tänäkhkhä tainekh tanakh tänäügh taineigh tanaigh tänännä tainenne tananna tänän tainain tanän
Instrumental (ins) tänän tainen tanan tänäün tainein tanain tänäldä tainelde tanalda tänällä tainail tanäl
Comitative (com) tänännä tainen tanan tänäün tainein tanain tänändä tainende tananda tänännä tainain tanän
Possessed (pos) tänännä tainen tanan tänäün tainein tanain tänänättä tainenet tananat tänändu tainaindï tanändu
Privative (prv) tänässä taines tanas tänäüz taineiz tanaiz tänässä tainesse tanassa tänässä tainais tanäs
Locative (loc) tänättä tainet tanat tänäüd taineid tanaid tänädä' tainede' tanada' tänädu tainaidï tanädu
Adjectival (adj) tänä' taine' tana' tänäü' tainei' tanai' tänärä tainere tanara tänär tainair tanär
Adverbial (adv) tänär tainer tanar tänäür taineir tanair tänälä tainele tanala tänälu' tainailï' tanälu'

In the Class 2 there are some changes, as seen in this inflection of a heavy noun qärhä (village, small town):


1st Declension (1dmh) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) qärhäu qarhai qärhä qärhäügq qarhei' qärhäü' qärhärhäu qararhai qärhärhä qärhrhäu qarrai qärhrhä
Nominative (nom) qärhäththä qaraiteth qärhäth qärhäüdödhdhö qarei'edh qärhäüdödh qärhärhäththä qararaiteth qärhärhäth qärhrhäththä qarraiteth qärhrhäth
Distributive (dist) qärhäppä qaraip qärhäp qärhäübbä qareib qärhäüb qärhäjjä qarajai qärhäjä qärhrhächchä qarai'ech qärhrhäch
Genitive (gen) qärhäshshä qaraisesh qärhäsh qärhäüzözhzhö qareizezh qäräüzözh qärhädhdhä qaradhai qärhädhä qärhrhäththä qaraiteth qärhrhäth
Dative (dat) qärhäkkä qaraik qärhäk qärhäüggä qareig qärhäüg qärhämmä qarammai qärhämmä qärhrhämmä qarraim qärhrhäm
Instrumental (ins) qärhälhlhä qarailelh qärhälh qärhäülölhlhö qareilelh qärhäülölh qärhälhdhä qarhalhdhai qärhälhdhä qärhrhälhlhä qarailelh qärhrhälh
Comitative (com) qärhämmä qaraim qärhäm qärhäümmä qareim qärhäüm qärhämbä qaraimba qärhämbä qärhrhämmä qarraim qärhrhäm
Possessed (pos) qärhächchä qarai'ech qärhäch qärhäü'öjjö qarai'ej qärhäü'öj qärhämäththä qaramaiteth qärhämäth qärhrhämudhu qaranudhü qärhrhämudhu
Privative (prv) qärhärrä qarairr qärhärr qärhäürrä qareirr qärhäürr qärhärrä qararrai qärhärrä qärhrhärrä qarairr qärhrhärr
Locative (loc) qärhäththä qaraiteth qärhäth qärhäüdödhdhö qareidedh qärhäüdödh qärhädhächchä qaradhai' qärhädhäch qärhrhäththä qaraiteth qärhrhäth
Adjectival (adj) qärhälhlhä qarailelh qärhälh qärhäülölhlhö qareilelh qärhäülölh qärhälhdhä qarhalhdhai qärhälhdhä qärhrhälhlhä qarailelh qärhrhälh
Adverbial (adv) qärh qairerh qärh qäürörh qeirerh qäürörh qärhärhrhä qarairerh qärhärh qä'ärärh qa'airr qä'ärh


...or this light noun siva (dagger, short sword):

1st Declension (1ms) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) süvä sivai siva süväü'ä sivei' sivai' süvävä sivavai sivava süvvä sivvai sivva
Nominative (nom) süvättä sivait sivat süväüddä siveid sivaid süvävättä sivavait sivavat süvvättä sivvait sivvat
Distributive (dist) süväffä sivaif sivaf süväüvvä siveiv sivaiv süvävä'ä sivavai' sivava' süvvä'ä sivvai' sivva'
Genitive (gen) süvässä sivais sivas süväüzzä siveiz sivaiz süvävdä sivavdai sivavda süvvättä sivvait sivvat
Dative (dat) süväkhkhä sivaikh sivakh süväüghghä siveigh sivaigh süvävnä sivavnai sivavna süvvännä sivvain sivvan
Instrumental (ins) süvällä sivail sival süväüllä siveil sivail süvävällä sivavail sivaval süvvällä sivvail sivval
Comitative (com) süvännä sivain sivan süväünnä sivein sivain süvävännä sivavain sivavan süvvännä sivvain sivvan
Possessed (pos) süvä'ä sivai' siva' süväü'ä sivei' sivai' süvävättä sivavait sivavat süvvändu sivvandü sivvandu
Privative (prv) süvärä sivair sivar süväürä siveir sivair süvävärä sivavair sivavar süvvärä sivvair sivvar
Locative (loc) süvättä sivait sivat süväüddä siveid sivaid süvävättä sivavait sivavat süvvättä sivvait sivvat
Adjectival (adj) süvällä sivail sival süväüllä siveil sivail süvävällä sivavail sivaval süvvällä sivvail sivval
Adverbial (adv) süv sivi siv sü'üv si'ivi si'iv süväv sivaiv sivav süvüv sivivi siviv

As you can see, there are some important rules that govern inflection and affixion processes; most importantly, Consonant Balance and Retroflex Doubling. The first one is described above; the Retroflex Doubling principle states that a retroflex consonant cannot directly follow a close front vowel ([i] or [y]); that causes it to become alveolar, and it's suffixed back after a linking vowel (usually an [e] or [ø]); this often causes some changes in the given words balance.

You can also notice some declension patterns typical for the 1st and 2nd clases of nouns (genders); for example, INS=COM=POSD and GEN=PRI for the Fire class, or the NOM=LOC and INS=ADJ, as well as last vowel dropping in ADV for Masculine. These patterns will continue to appear also in the other declensions where those classes occur.


Second declensionEdit

The Second decl. encompasses mostly Feminine class.

This is perhaps the simplest declension in Boghash, yet it also has some own peculiarities. It contains words that end in i, e, ei and ai.

Below is depicted inflection pattern of a heavy noun maib ('mother'):

2nd Declension (2h) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) mäübbä meib maib möübbö mi'ib meib mäümö maimei maime mäümmä maimmai maimma
Nominative (nom) mäürrä meirr mairr möürrö mi'irr meirr mäümöshshö maineisesh maimesh mäümmäshshä mainnaisesh maimmash
Distributive (dist) mäüppä meip maip möübbö mi'ib meib mäümöjä maimejai maimeja mäümmäjä maimmajai maimmaja
Genitive (gen) mäümmä meim maim möümmö mi'im meim mäümödhä maimedhai maimedha mäümmädhä maimmadhai maimmadha
Dative (dat) mäükkä meik maik möüggö mi'ig meig mäümömmä maimemmai maimemma mäümmä maimmai maimma
Instrumental (ins) mäülölh meilelh mailelh möülölh mi'ilelh meilelh mäümölhdhä maimelhdhai maimelhdha mäümmälhdhä maimmalhdhai maimmalhdha
Comitative (com) mäümmä meim maim möümmö mi'im meim mäümömbä maimembai maimemba mäümbä maimbai maimba
Possessed (pos) mäülölh meilelh mailelh möülölh mi'ilelh meilelh mäümözhzhä maimezhzhai maimezhzha mäümmäzhzhä mainnaizezh maimmazh
Privative (prv) mäürrä meirr mairr möürrö mi'irr meirr mäümömöththö meinemeiteth maimemeth mäümmäththä mainnaiteth maimmath
Locative (loc) mäütöth meiteth maiteth möüdödh mi'idedh meidedh mäümödhdhö maineidedh maimedh mäümmädhdhä mainnaidedh maimmadh
Adjectival (adj) mäüqqä meiq maiq möügqgqö mi'igq meigq mäümörrä maimerrai maimerra mäümmärrä maimmarrai maimmarra
Adverbial (adv) mäü mei mai möü mi'i mei mäümmä meim maim mäümb meimb maimb


And here is a light noun zir ('arrow'):

2nd Declension (2l) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) zür zi'ir zir zü'ür zi'iri zi'ir zürö zirei zire zürä zirai zira
Nominative (nom) zür zi'ir zir zü'ür zi'iri zi'ir zürör zireir zirer zürär zirair zirar
Distributive (dist) zürf zi'irf zirf zü'ürv zi'iriv zi'irv zürö'ä zire'ai zire'a zürä'ä zira'ai zira'a
Genitive (gen) zürn zi'irn zirn zü'ürn zi'irin zi'irn züröddö zireid zired züräddä ziraid zirad
Dative (dat) zürkh zi'irkh zirkh zü'ürgh zi'irigh zi'irgh zürönnä zirennai zirenna zürännä zirannai ziranna
Instrumental (ins) zürl zi'irl zirl zü'ürl zi'iril zi'irl züröldä zireldai zirelda züräldä ziraldai ziralda
Comitative (com) zürn zi'irn zirn zü'ürn zi'irin zi'irn züröndä zirendai zirenda zürändä zirandai ziranda
Possessed (pos) zürl zi'irl zirl zü'ürl zi'iril zi'irl zürözzä zirezzai zirezza züräzzä ziraiz ziraz
Privative (prv) zür zi'ir zir zü'ür zi'iri zi'ir züröttö zireit ziret zürättä zirait zirat
Locative (loc) zürt zi'irt zirt zü'ürd zi'irid zi'ird züröddö zireid zired züräddä ziraid zirad
Adjectival (adj) zür' zi'ir' zir' zü'ür' zi'iri' zi'ir' zürörä zirerai zirera zürärä zirarai zirara
Adverbial (adv) zi'i zi zü'ü zi'i'i zi'i zü'ö zi'ei zi'e zü'ä zi'ai zi'a


Third declensionEdit

This declension covers some Masculine and Neuter class nouns.

Words in this declension have o, u, ou, or äu in their final syllables.

Consider, for example, a heavy noun of the Neuter class, magqou ('mountain'):

3rd Declension (3nh) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) mägqou magqoü magqou mägqoü magqöü magqoü mögqgqö megqgqei megqgqe mögqgqä megqgqai megqgqa
Nominative (nom) mägqu magqü magqu mägquü magqü magquü mögqgqo megqgqoü megqgqo mögqgqä megqgqäü megqgqä
Distributive (dist) mägqoup magqoüp magqoup mägqoüb magqöüb magqoüb mögqgqöjö megqgqejei megqgqeje mögqgqäjä megqgqäjäü megqgqäjä
Genitive (gen) mägqoush magoüsesh magqoush mägoüzözh magöüzezh magoüzezh mögqgqödhö megqgqedhei megqgqedhe mögqgqödhä megqgqödhäü megqgqödhä
Dative (dat) mägqouk magqoük magqouk mägqoüg magqöüg magqoüg mögqgqömmö megqgqemmei megqgqemme mögqgqämmä megqgqämmäü megqgqämmä
Instrumental (ins) mägqoulh magoülelh magqoulh mägoülölh magöülelh magoülelh mögqgqölhdhö megqgqelhdhei megqgqelhdhe mögqgqälhdhä megqgqälhdhäü megqgqälhdhä
Comitative (com) mägqoum magqoüm magqoum mägqoüm magqöüm magqoüm mögqgqömbö megqgqembei megqgqembe mögqgqämbä megqgqämbäü megqgqämbä
Possessed (pos) mägqoum magqoüm magqoum mägqoüm magqöüm magqoüm mögqgqömbö megqgqembei megqgqembe mögqgqämbä megqgqämbäü megqgqämbä
Privative (prv) mägqourr magqoürr magqourr mägqoürr magqöürr magqoürr mögqgqörrö megqgqerrei megqgqerre mögqgqärrä megqgqärräü megqgqärrä
Locative (loc) mägqouth magoüteth magqouth mägoütöth magöüteth magoüteth mögqgqödhöch meggqedhei' megqgqedhech mögqgqädhäch meggqädhäü' megqgqädhäch
Adjectival (adj) mägqoüq magqoüq magqouq mägqoügq magqöügq magqoügq mögqgqörhö megqgqerhe megqgqerhe mögqgqärhä megqgqärhäü megqgqärhä
Adverbial (adv) mägqouch nagqoü' magqouch mägoü'öch magqöü'ech magoü'ech mögqgqöch meggqei' megqgqech mögqgqäch meggqäü' megqgqäch


...Or this light noun of the same class, gharu ('wisp of smoke'):

3rd Declension (3nl) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) ghäru gharü gharu ghärü gharü'ü gharü ghärdö ghardei gharde ghärdä ghardai gharda
Nominative (nom) ghäru gharü gharu ghärü gharü'ü gharü ghärdu ghardü ghardu ghärdä ghardäü ghardä
Distributive (dist) ghäruf gharüf gharuf ghärüv gharü'üv gharüv ghärdu'ö ghardu'ei ghardu'e ghärdä'ä ghardä'äü ghardä'ä
Genitive (gen) ghärus gharüs gharus ghärüz gharü'üz gharüz ghärdudö ghardudei ghardude ghärdädä ghardädäü ghardädä
Dative (dat) ghärukh gharükh gharukh ghärügh gharü'ügh gharügh ghärdummö ghardummei ghardumme ghärdämmä ghardämmäü ghardämmä
Instrumental (ins) ghärul gharül gharul ghärül gharü'ül gharül ghärduldö gharduldei ghardulde ghärdäldä ghardäldäü ghardäldä
Comitative (com) ghärun gharün gharun ghärün gharü'ün gharün ghärdöndö ghardendei ghardende ghärdändä ghardändäü ghardändä
Possessed (pos) ghärun gharün gharun ghärün gharü'ün gharün ghärdöndö ghardendei ghardende ghärdändä ghardändäü ghardändä
Privative (prv) ghärur gharür gharur ghärür gharü'ür gharür ghärdörö gharderei ghardere ghärdärä ghardäräü ghardärä
Locative (loc) ghärut gharüt gharut ghärüt gharü'üt gharüt ghärdödö ghardendei ghardede ghärdädä ghardädäü ghardädä
Adjectival (adj) ghäru' gharü' gharu' ghärü' gharü'ü' gharü' ghärdö'ö gharde'ei gharde'e ghärdä'ä ghardä'äü ghardä'ä
Adverbial (adv) ghäru' gharü' gharu' ghärü' gharü'ü' gharü' ghärdö'ö gharde'ei gharde'e ghärdä'ä ghardä'äü ghardä'ä


The Masculine is inflected according to the same principles, but with the same patterns as you could see in the 1st declension. Of course, there are still differences between hard and soft nouns:

Inflection of a heavy noun thäug ('shield'):

3rd Declension (3mh) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) thäuggä thäüg thäug thäüggä thaig thäüg thäugäggä thäugägäü thäugägä thäuggä thäuggäü thäuggä
Nominative (nom) thäuththä thäütöth thäuth thäüdödhdhö thaidödh thäüdödh thäugägäththä thäugägäütöth thäugägäth thäuggäththä thäuggäütöth thäuggäth
Distributive (dist) thäuppä thäüp thäup thäübbä thaib thäüb thäugäjjä thäugäjäü thäugäjä thäuggächchä thäuggäü'öch thäuggäch
Genitive (gen) thäushshä thäüsösh thäush thäüzözhzhö thaizözh thäüzözh thäugädhdhä thäugädhäü thäugädhä thäuggäththä thäuggäütöth thäuggäth
Dative (dat) thäukkä thäük thäuk thäüggä thaig thäüg thäugämmä thäugämmäü thäugämmä thäuggämmä thäuggäüm thäuggäm
Instrumental (ins) thäulhlhä thäülölh thäulh thäülölhlhö thailölh thäülölh thäugälhdhä thäugälhdhäü thäugälhdhä thäuggälhlhä thäuggäülölh thäuggälh
Comitative (com) thäummä thäüm thäum thäümmä thaim thäüm thäugämbä thäugämbäü thäugämbä thäuggämmä thäuggäüm thäuggäm
Possessed (pos) thäuchchä thäü'öch thäuch thäü'öjjö thai'öj thäü'öj thäugämäththä thäugämäütöth thäugämäth thäuggämudhdhu thäugämudhü thäuggämudhu
Privative (prv) thäurrä thäürr thäurr thäürrä thairr thäürr thäugärrä thäugärräü thäugärrä thäuggärrä thäuggäürr thäuggärr
Locative (loc) thäuththä thäütöth thäuth thäüdödhdhö thaidödh thäüdödh thäugädhächchä thäugädhäü'öch thäugädhäch thäuggäththä thäuggäütöth thäuggäth
Adjectival (adj) thäulhlhä thäülölh thäulh thäülölhlhö thailölh thäülölh thäugälhdhä thäugälhdhäü thäugälhdhä thäuggälhlhä thäuggäülölh thäuggälh
Adverbial (adv) thäu thäü thäu thäü thai thäü thäugäggä thäugäüg thäugäg thä'äuggä thä'äüg thä'äug

A light noun vado ('father'):

3rd Declension (3ml) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) väddo vadoü vado vädoü'o vadü'ü' vadoü' vädoddo vadodoü vadodo väddo vaddoü vaddo
Nominative (nom) vädotto vadoüt vadot vädoüddu vadü'üd vadoüd vädodotto vadodoüt vadodot väddotto vaddoüt vaddot
Distributive (dist) vädoffo vadoüf vadof vädoüvvo vadü'üv vadoüv vädodo'o vadodoü' vadodo' väddo'o vaddoü' vaddo'
Genitive (gen) vädosso vadoüs vados vädoüzzo vadü'üz vadoüz vädoddä vadoddai vadodda väddotto vaddoüt vaddot
Dative (dat) vädokhkho vadoükh vadokh vädoüghgho vadü'ügh vadoügh vädodnä vadodnai vadodna väddonno vaddoün vaddon
Instrumental (ins) vädollo vadoül vadol vädoüllo vadü'ül vadoül vädodollo vadodoül vadodol väddollo vaddoül vaddol
Comitative (com) vädonno vadoün vadon vädoünno vadü'ün vadoün vädodonno vadodoün vadodon väddonno vaddoün vaddon
Possessed (pos) vädo'o vadoü' vado' vädoü'o vadü'ü' vadoü' vädodotto vadodoüt vadodot väddondu vaddondü vaddondu
Privative (prv) vädoro vadoür vador vädoüro vadü'ür vadoür vädodoro vadodoür vadodor väddoro vaddoür vaddor
Locative (loc) vädotto vadoüt vadot vädoüddo vadü'üd vadoüd vädodotto vadodoüt vadodot väddotto vaddoüt vaddot
Adjectival (adj) vädollo vadoül vadol vädoüllo vadü'ül vadoül vädodollo vadodoül vadodol väddollo vaddoül vaddol
Adverbial (adv) väddä vaid vad väüddä veid vaid vädoddo vadoüd vadod vädüddü vaidid vadid

Fourth declensionEdit

There are words from all classes that fit into this declension, so this is the most 'strechable' of all Boghash declensions; as such, it's usually used for loanwords. This declension also shows a system of endings differing from those we've seen in the previous ones.


See the inflection pattern of 4th decl., Neuter class heavy noun bulh ('head'):

4th Declension (4h) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) bulhdhöq bulhdheqi bulh bulhdhöqöü bulhdheiqi bulhdheqei bulhdhöqqösh vulhdheqqeisesh bulhdheqqesh bulhdhöqqäsh vulhdheqqaisesh bulhdheqqash
Nominative (nom) bulhdhöqöm bulhdheqim bulhdheqem bulhdhöqöüm bulhdheiqim bulhdheqeim bulhdhöqqöp bulhdheqqeip bulhdheqqep bulhdhöqqäp bulhdheqqaip bulhdheqqap
Distributive (dist) bulhdhöqök bulhdheqik bulhdheqek bulhdhöqöüg bulhdheiqig bulhdheqeig bulhdhöqqöth vulhdheqqeiteth bulhdheqqeth bulhdhöqqäth vulhdheqqaiteth bulhdheqqath
Genitive (gen) bulhdhöqölh vulhdheqilelh bulhdheqelh bulhdhöqöülölh vulhdheiqilelh vulhdheqeilelh bulhdhöqqöp bulhdheqqeip bulhdheqqep bulhdhöqqäp bulhdheqqaip bulhdheqqap
Dative (dat) bulhdhöqöch vulhdheqi'ech bulhdheqech bulhdhöqöü'öj vulhdheiqi'ej vulhdheqei'ej bulhdhöqqösh vulhdheqqeisesh bulhdheqqesh bulhdhöqqäsh vulhdheqqaisesh bulhdheqqash
Instrumental (ins) bulhdhöqörh vulhdheqirerh bulhdheqerh bulhdhöqöürörh vulhdheiqirerh vulhdheqeirerh bulhdhöqqöth vulhdheqqeiteth bulhdheqqeth bulhdhöqqäth vulhdheqqaiteth bulhdheqqath
Comitative (com) bulhdhöqörh vulhdheqirerh bulhdheqerh bulhdhöqöürörh vulhdheiqirerh vulhdheqeirerh bulhdhöqqöw bulhdheqqeiw bulhdheqqew bulhdhöqqäw bulhdheqqaiw bulhdheqqaw
Possessed (pos) bulhdhöqwö bulhdheqyi bulhdheqye bulhdhöqwöü bulhdheiqyi bulhdheqyei bulhdhöqqök bulhdheqqeik bulhdheqqek bulhdhöqqäk bulhdheqqaik bulhdheqqak
Privative (prv) bulhdhöqösh vulhdheqisesh bulhdheqesh bulhdhöqöüzözh vulhdheiqizezh vulhdheqeizezh bulhdhöqqögä bulhdheqqegai bulhdheqqega bulhdhöqqägä bulhdheqqagai bulhdheqqaga
Locative (loc) bulhdhöqmö bulhdheqmi bulhdheqme bulhdhöqmöü bulhdheiqmi bulhdheqmei bulhdhöqqörh vulhdheqqeirerh bulhdheqqerh bulhdhöqqärh vulhdheqqairerh bulhdheqqarh
Adjectival (adj) bulhdhöqörr bulhdheqirr bulhdheqerr bulhdhöqöürr bulhdheiqirr bulhdheqeirr bulhdhöqqöm bulhdheqqeim bulhdheqqem bulhdhöqqäm bulhdheqqaim bulhdheqqam
Adverbial (adv) bulhdhöqöch vulhdheqi'ech bulhdheqech bulhdhöqöü'öj vulhdheiqi'ej vulhdheqei'ej bulhdhöqqwö bulhdheqqyei bulhdheqqye bulhdhöqqwä bulhdheqqyai bulhdheqqya


The inflection pattern of a light noun nokh ('robe' (of special kind)):


4th Declension (4l) Singular (sg) Dual (du) Paucal (pa) Plural (pl)
Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu) Formal (for) Informal (ifor) Neutral (neu)
Absolutive (abs) nokhkhö'ö nokhkhe'i nokh nokhkhö'öü nokhkhei'i nokhkhe'ei nokhkhö'ös nokhkhe'eis nokhkhe'es nokhkhö'äs nokhkhe'ais nokhkhe'as
Nominative (nom) nokhkhö'ön nokhkhe'in nokhkhe'en nokhkhö'öün nokhkhei'in nokhkhe'ein nokhkhö'öf nokhkhe'eif nokhkhe'ef nokhkhö'äf nokhhe'aif nokhkhe'af
Distributive (dist) nokhkhö'ökh nokhkhe'ikh nokhkhe'ekh nokhkhö'öügh nokhkhei'igh nokhkhe'eigh nokhkhö'öt nokhkhe'eit nokhkhe'et nokhkhö'ät nokhkhe'ait nokhkhe'at
Genitive (gen) nokhkhö'öl nokhkhe'il nokhkhe'el nokhkhö'öül nokhkhei'il nokhkhe'eil nokhkhö'öf nokhkhe'eif nokhkhe'ef nokhkhö'äf nokhkhe'aif nokhkhe'af
Dative (dat) nokhkhö'ö' nokhkhe'i' nokhkhe'e' nokhkhö'öü' nokhkhei'i' nokhkhe'ei' nokhkhö'ös nokhkhe'eis nokhkhe'es nokhkhö'äs nokhkhe'ais nokhkhe'as
Instrumental (ins) nokhkhö'ör nokhkhe'ir nokhkhe'er nokhkhö'öür nokhkhei'ir nokhkhe'eir nokhkhö'öt nokhkhe'eit nokhkhe'et nokhkhö'ät nokhkhe'ait nokhkhe'at
Comitative (com) nokhkhö'ör nokhkhe'ir nokhkhe'er nokhkhö'öür nokhkhei'ir nokhkhe'eir nokhkhö'öw nokhkhe'eiw nokhkhe'ew nokhkhö'äw nokhkhe'aiw nokhkhe'aw
Possessed (pos) nokhkhö'wö nokhkhe'yi nokkhe'ye nokhkhö'wöü nokhkhei'yi nokhkhe'yei nokhkhö'ökh nokhkhe'eikh nokhkhe'ekh nokhkhö'äkh nokhkhe'aikh nokhkhe'akh
Privative (prv) nokhkhö'ös nokhkhe'is nokhkhe'es nokhkhö'öwö nokhkhei'eye nokhkhe'eye nokhkhö'ögh nokhkhe'eghai nokhkhe'egha nokhkhö'äghä nokhkhe'aghai nokhkhe'agha
Locative (loc) nokhkhö'nö nokhkhe'ni nokhkhe'ne nokhkhö'nöü nokhkhei'ni nokhkhe'nei nokhkhö'ör nokhkhe'eir nokhkhe'er nokhkhö'är nokhkhe'air nokhkhe'ar
Adjectival (adj) nokhkhö'ör nokhkhe'ir nokhkhe'er nokhkhö'öür nokhkhei'ir nokhkhe'eir nokhkhö'ön nokhkhe'ein nokhkhe'en nokhkhö'än nokhkhe'ain nokhkhe'an
Adverbial (adv) nokhkhö'ö' nokhkhe'i' nokhkhe'e' nokhkhö'ä' nokhkhi'ai' nokhkhe'a' nokhkhö'wö nokhkhe'yei nokhkhe'ye nokhkhö'wä nokhkhe'yai nokhkhe'ya


Fifth declensionEdit

This one has some Neuter and Abstract class words.

Sixth declensionEdit

This declension actually consists of several sub-declensions for some more rare inflection patterns.


PostpositionsEdit

All postpositions are enclitic, which means stress changes in the preceding word. Most postpositions agree with nouns they modify in number, and some also in formality; they generally don't agree in class or case.


Adjectives and adverbsEdit

Boghash has several ways of describing words. There are relatively few 'pure adjectives'; mostly, nouns in the Adjectival/Equative case or participles are used in this position. All adjectives and adverbs are uninflectable.

In the function of predicative adjectives there are usually so-called 'stative verbs'; the existential pro-verbs are also used in such constructions, playing a role which is similar to that of copulas.

The adverbs follow the same pattern.

VerbsEdit

The verbs are much more complicated than nouns, and they are inflected in a rather agglutinative manner. They have 5 tenses (Present, Near Past, Remote Past, Near Future, Remote Future), 3 semi-tenses (Perfect, Imperfect, Prospective), 4 aspects (Indefinite, Durative, Momentane, Repetitive) and 14 moods. They also agree with the object (the subject in intransitive clauses) in Person, Number, and, sometimes, also Class and Formality. There are also 3 voices: Active, Passive and Antipassive.

Every (nearly) Boghash verb has 4 stem forms: Affirmative and Negative, both in Main and Subordinate variants.


Tense/aspectEdit

Boghash verbs conjugate for 5 tenses, each having one of 12 aspects; there are also so-called relative tenses, as well. There are two major conjugations, as well as many irregular verbs.

The 1st Conjugation encompases mostly verbs with stems that end in a consonant:

1st Conjugation (1c) Momentane (mo) Repetitive (rp) Durative (dr) Indefinite (idf)
Perfect (prf) Imperfect (iprf) Prospective (pro) Perfect (prf) Imperfect (iprf) Prospective (pro) Perfect (prf) Imperfect (iprf) Prospective (pro) Perfect (prf) Imperfect (iprf) Prospective (pro)
Present (prs) -i -ire -ö'ö -e'e -errere -öü -ei -eirre -e -erre
Near Past (np) -wo -o -orre -oro -o'o -onene -wone -oune -ounne -une -one -onne
Remote Past (rp) -wäu -u -urre -uru -u'u -umume -äumu -ummu -umure -äu -ume -umme
Near Future (nf) -ürü -i -irru -iri -i'i -irire -yere -irri -irrere -üre -ire -irre
Remote Future (rf) -uru -ïrru -ïrï -ï'ï -ïrïri -weiri -ïrhrhï -ïrrerhe -urhe -ïrhe -ïrhrhe


The 2nd Conjugation has mostly verbs with vowel-ending stems:

2nd Conjugation (2c) Momentane (mo) Repetitive (rp) Durative (dr) Indefinite (idf)
Perfect (prf) Imperfect (iprf) Prospective (pro) Perfect (prf) Imperfect (iprf) Prospective (pro) Perfect (prf) Imperfect (iprf) Prospective (pro) Perfect (prf) Imperfect (iprf) Prospective (pro)
Present (prs) -lä -la -lai -lälä -lala -lalai -lhäu -lhaï -lhai -llä -lla -llai
Near Past (np) -so -sä -se -soso -säsä -sese -shou -shäu -sheï -sso -ssä -sse
Remote Past (rp) -qü -qö -gu -qüqü -qöqö -gugu -qü'ü -qöü -gou -kü -kö -go
Near Future (nf) -ma -wa -zë -mamma -wawwa -zëzë -maya -waya -zëya -mai -wai -zëi
Remote Future (rf) -dhe -we -te -dhedhdhe -wewwe -tetta -dheyo -weyo -teya -dhei -weï -tei

In reported speech, there are also special prefixes that mark the relative tense (that is, the time a reported sentence has been said). These are:

  • Present: li'-
  • Near Past: zo-
  • Remote Past: mu-
  • Near Future: re-
  • Remote Future: gqe-

Mood/AgreementEdit

The mood/agreement suffix is added just after the tense morpheme. It agrees with direct object in transitive clauses, but with subject in intransitive ones.

This occurs because the parent language used to be Ergative-Absolutive rather than Nominative-Accusative; the switch happened not too long ago, and some Erg.-Abs. features still remain (for example, clauses with stative verbs/copulas are permitted to use Absolutive as their subject case rather than Nominative).

There are 14 moods: Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, Evidential, Referential, Putative, Dubitative, Volitive, Optative, Attemptive, Potential, Permissive, Necessitative, Obligative.


IndicativeEdit

The most primary mood, used for actions that are known to be real. It agrees in person, number, formality (Informal and Neutral formality levels are fused) and (in the 3rd person only) gender/class.

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
1st person -na -nai -nen -nan
2nd person -ge -ze -gei -zei -gek -zesh -gak -zash
3rd person -va -dou -ma -ru -li -ghe -bo -ni -gqa -zö -vai -dëï -mai -rïi -li' -ghei -bëi -ni' -gqai -zei -lä -rro -nda -ghü -buü -r -gqo -lma -s -p -ra -'i -ler -da -l -dedh -wa -ye -'ech -'öu
SubjunctiveEdit

Used for hypothetical or conditional situations, among others. It agrees in person, number (Dual, Paucal and Plural are fused) and formality (Informal and Neutral are fused).


Singular Non-Singular
Formal Informal Formal Informal
1st person -mä -ma -möm -mem
2nd person -gqö -zhe -gqäq -zhash
3rd person -jö -yö -jou -you


ImperativeEdit

Used to issue orders. Agrees in person (2nd only) and number. Its complement is Volitive.

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
2nd person -\varnothing -'i -'a -'äu


EvidentialEdit

Used to speak of something that is proved, or the speaker thinks so; the stronger form of Indicative. Agrees in person, number, formality and class (3rd person only).

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
1st person -mmä -mmäü -mbe -mba
2nd person -jo (-'öjo) -ggo -joü (-'öjoü) -ggei -je (-'öje) -gge -ja (-'öja) -gga
3rd person -bba -ddou -mma -rruü -lliï -gqgqe -bbo -nni -gqgqa -zhzhö (-zözhö) -bbai -ddëï -mmai -rrïi -lli' -gqgqei -bbei -nni' -gqgqai -zhei (-zezhei) -lhä (-lölhä) -rrou -ndäu -gqgqü -bbuü -rh (-rerh) -gqgqou -lhma (-lelhm) -sh (-sesh) -ppo -rra -'ü -llör -ddä -llo -dhdhö (-dödh) -wai -yei -'öuch -'öü
ReferentialEdit

Used when repeating what someone else said (analogue of 'they say...' or 'it is said that...' constructions). Agrees in person, number (Dual, Paucal and Plural fused) and class.

Singular Non-Singular
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
1st person -nväü -nvoü
2nd person -nzäü -nzoü
3rd person -nbe -nde -nre -nle -nme -mbo -nze -zla -thu (-tethu) -lgha


PutativeEdit

Used to express one's subjective opinion (I think that...'). Agrees in person, number and class.

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
1st person -mo -moü -mon -moum
2nd person -zho -zhoü -zhos -zhoush
3rd person -zëi -wo -zi -du -le -ya -wëi -zey -duü -llei -zhä -vä -lzö -dru -wel -zhäth -boum -lvi -gun -loun


DubitativeEdit

An archaic mood, now, in most cases, Putative is used in its place; used to express doubt (like 'I don't think that...' statements). Agrees in person, number (Dual, Paucal and Plural fused) and formality.

Singular Non-Singular
Formal Informal Formal Informal
1st person -mäl -mal -nbö -nbi
2nd person -gqäül -gqail -zgu -zek
3rd person -ja' (-'ach) -ya' -jëi (-'ëi') -yëi
VolitiveEdit

Used to make statements like 'I want that...', and is a complement to the Imperative, as it agrees in person, number (Dual, Paucal and Plural fused), formality and class.

Singular Non-Singular
Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
1st person -yyä -yye -jjä -jje
2nd person -gqgqä -qqe -dhdä -dhde
3rd person -zoü -wou -zü -döü -lö -zhi -wi -zei -dei -lei -yä' -wö -zöüt -dhou -lhou -yai' -wek -zeit -dho' -lho'
OptativeEdit

Used for expressing wishes, as well as for giving advice. It agrees in person, number and formality.

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal
1st person -mul -mïl -muül -mïil -nbor -nbër -nbär -nbar
2nd person -gqoül -gqëil -gqöül -gqïil -zgöur -zgeïr -zär -zar
3rd person -jäul -jaïl -jäül -jail -ydö -yde -yär -yar


AttemptiveEdit

Used to express that someone attempts to do something, not specifying whether he/she/it succeeds or not (though usually implying the latter). Agrees in person, number and class.

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
1st person -nde -ndei -nöd -näd
2nd person -zgqo -zgqi -zogq -zegq
3rd person -zë -wë -zhï (zezhï) -dhe (dedhe) -lhe (lelhe) -zëi -wëi -zhïi -dhei (dedhei) -lhei (lelhei) -lge -wda -bna -mnu -rma -lheg (lelheg) -wdha -bam -mun -rram


PotentialEdit

Used to express that some event is possible to occur; agrees in person, number (Dual, Paucal and Plural fused) and class.

Singular Non-Singular
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
1st person -nme -nmu
2nd person -zze -zzu
3rd person -zhekh (zezhekh) -ghak -yus -mak -vos -zuü -gat -yol -noy -wef
PermissiveEdit

Used to say that something can happen, because it has been permitted; agrees in person and number.

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
1st person -nna' -nnai' -mmu' -mmü'
2nd person -gga' -ggai' -ggu' -ggü'
3rd person -bbe' -bbei' -bbë' -bbö'


NecesitativeEdit

Used to express that something must, or is necessary to, occur, either because of an internal impulse, or because such is the natural way of things (for example, when you see a cloud, and you konw that it must rain). Agrees in person, number (Dual, Paucal and Plural fused) and formality.

Singular Non-Singular
Formal Informal Formal Informal
1st person -gnö -gne -gqmu -gqmï
2nd person -zot -zët -zuth -zïth
3rd person -wäq -waq -vnou' -vnëï'
ObligativeEdit

Used to express obligation, or that something has to happen, because it has been obliged to do so, either because it has been forced by someone, or because marks that are left suggest it (for example, when you see a burnt spot and you know there has been a fire); it agrees in person, number and class.

Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
1st person -mäb -mab -mub -mïb
2nd person -shshou -ssï -zhzhä -zzi
3rd person -zhäch (zözhäch) -büu' -zhoü (zözhoü) -dhourh (dödhourh) -lhök (lölhök) -zhäüch (zözhäüch) -büw -zhöü' (zözhöü') -dhoürh (dödhoürh) -lhöük (lölhöük) -zmash -bda -zru -durh -lelh -kkei -duth -lgai -nouth -lwi

VoiceEdit

In Boghash, voice can be Active, Passive or Antipassive and is marked with an enclitic that acts in a way similar to a postposition.

  • Active: maq (used only for emphasis)
  • Passive: thulh
  • Antipassive: kairr


Pro-wordsEdit

PronounsEdit

Boghash pronouns usually have two forms: 'stronger', or 'detached', and 'weaker' or determiner (in the latter form, they always follow their object(s)).

Personal pronounsEdit

Personal pronouns agree with nouns they stand for in person, number, case, formality (only distinguishing between Formal and Informal/Neutral states) and class (3rd person only).


  • 1st person:
Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • 2nd person:
Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • 3rd person:


Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Reflexive pronoun
Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Reciprocal pronoun
Dual Paucal Plural
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Personal determiners:

Personal determiners don't inflect, but they exist in 4 forms each: Basic, Emphatic, Vocative and Possessive.

Basic Emphatic Vocative Possessive
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
Reflexive
Reciprocal


Demonstrative pronounsEdit

There are 6 types of demonstrative pronouns in Boghash: Proximal, Medial (near to the party addressed, but far from the speaker), Distal (far from both), Precedential ('that one behind you; the previous one'), Consequential ('that one before you; the next one') and Referential ('the one mentioned earlier'), each with its own agreement system.


  • Proximal demonstrative:
Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Medial:
Singular Non-Singular
Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Distal:


Singular Non-Singular
Formal Informal Formal Informal
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Precedential:


Singular Non-Singular
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Consequential:


Singular Non-Singular
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Referential:


Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal Formal Informal
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Demonstrative determiners:

Demonstratives, like personal pronouns, do not inflect in this form, but they still come in two variants: Basic and Possessive.

Basic Possessive
Proximal
Medial
Distal
Precedential
Consequential
Referential


Other pronounsEdit
  • Relative
Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid Fire Masculine Feminine Neuter Liquid
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Interrogative
Singular Non-Singular
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Generic
Singular Non-Singular
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Universal/Distributive
Singular Non-Singular
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Collective
Singular Non-Singular
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Negative
Singular Non-Singular
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Assertive existential/Indefinite
Singular Non-Singular
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Elective exist.
Singular Non-Singular
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Alternative
Singular Non-Singular
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Consistent
Singular Dual Paucal Plural
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


  • Dual genitive pronouns

Dual genitive pronouns (like either, neither, both etc.) form a separate group within Boghash pronomial system. each also has the two usual determiner forms (basic and possessive).

Demonstrative Other
Proximal Medial Distal Precedential Consequential Referential Interrogative Universal Collective Assertive Elective Alternative Consistent
Absolutive
Nominative
Distributive
Genitive
Dative
Instrumental
Comitative
Possessed
Privative
Locative
Adjectival
Adverbial


Basic Possessive
Proximal
Medial
Distal
Precedential
Consequential
Referential
Interrogative
Universal
Collective
Assertive
Elective
Alternative
Consistent
  • Other pronomial determiners
Basic Possessive
Interrogative
Universal
Collective
Assertive
Elective
Alternative
Consistent

Pro-adjectives and pro-adverbsEdit

Pro-adjectives and pro-adverbs are indeclinable.


Pro-verbsEdit

Are like pronouns to the nouns; similarly to pronouns, there is a limited number of these, and they often are found in the determiner form, modifying verbs, which in such a position are always changed into Subordinate.

SyntaxEdit

Boghash is rather head-final, so it prefers OSV (at least in the Hard Speech) word order, as well as postpositions to prepositions. Adjectives stand before nouns they modify rather than after them (the same applies to adverbs). Soft Speech prefers SVO word order, and some of the adpositions placed before their objects rather than after them; also determiners are put in front of words they modify.


LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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