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This is an isolating language.

Phonology/SyllabaryEdit

Labial Alveolar Velar Uvular
Stop /p/ /t/ /q/
/d/ /g/
Fricative /s/ [s:]
/v/ /z/
Approximant /r/ [ɹ]
/l/
Nasal /m/
Front Back
Close-mid /o/ [ʷo]
Open-Mid /e/ [ɛ]
Near-Open /æ/ [æ̃]
Open /a/

Syllabary

/a/ /æ/ /e/ /o/
Ø 3: 0= 9/ {?
/p/ 8? 3/ [= 5/
/t/ 2/ 0/ 7: 8/
/q/ [/ 5? 2? 6/
/d/ 1/ 2: 5: 8:
/g/ 4/ {: 9= 8=
/v/ 3? {= 9: {/
/s/ 1? 6= 7/ 4=
/z/ 6: 3= 7? 1:
/r/ 9? 1= [? 0:
/l/ 0? 2= 6? 4:
/m/ 5= [: 7= 4?

Syllable-final /z/ is represented by +.

5/[=+ or /popez/ or [bo.p͡ɸel]

Bopfel is a syllable-timed language.

There is also a Romanized system of writing, but it isn't standardized, so it's really more like there are multiple ways of writing. Most of them do not take advantage of the regular sound changes, sacrificing ease of writing for ease of understanding.

Phonotactics

All of the sound changes detailed below are non-phonemic and can occur between words.

/p/ becomes [p͡ɸ] in front of /e/, [pʲ] in front of /æ/, and [b] in front of /o/. After /z/, it becomes /b/ in front of /o/ and [bʲ] in front of /æ/ and /e/.
/t/ becomes [t͡ʃ] before /æ/ and /e/ and [k͡s] before /o/. When after /z/, it becomes [k͡t] before any vowel.
/q/ becomes [hʲ] before /æ/ and /e/ and [ʷp] before /o/, but not after /z/. After /z/, it becomes [ɸ͡x] before /o/.
/d/ becomes [d͡ʒ] before /æ/ and /e/, but not after /z/.
/s/ is always pronounced longer than /z/.
/z/ becomes [ʲz] after vowels other than /o/.
/m/ becomes [n] before /o/.
/e/ becomes [e] before /z/, which shifts to [l] and doesn't cause any sound changes.
/o/ becomes [ɔ] in front of /z/ and after /b/ and /d/, and also [wo] when word-initial.

GrammarEdit

Pronouns

1st is (I/we) 5=6?+ [malel]
2nd is (you) 0:6?+ [ɹʷolel]
3rd (he/she/it/they)is 5:6?+ [dɛlel]
4th (one/most) is 5:6?+ [t͡ʃæ̃lel]

Everything Else

Bopfel is heavily isolating. As a result, there are no changes to any word no matter where it's put in the sentence. Most of the words are 3 syllables long or more.

The only acceptable sentence order is APOV, or Agent-Patient-Oblique-Verb (otherwise known as Subject-Object-Oblique-Verb).

Postpositions

It has postpositions, most of which are shorter than normal words. The order goes AFFECTOR AFFECTED PREPOSITION.

Postposition List
inside - {?7= [womɛ]
outside - 2?{? [hʲɛwo]
above - 7=3? [mava]
upon - 2?3? [hʲɛva]
towards - 7:8: [t͡ʃɛdɔ]
away from - 9?7/ [ɹas:ɛ]

Sentences

Compound sentences are the ones which are more likely to occur.

Complex sentences never use conjunctions.

List of WordsEdit

amount - {?6=9?5= [wos:æ̃ɹama]
ancient - {/1=+7: [vʷoɹelt͡ʃɛ]
boat - 7/4?8= [s:æ̃nʷogʷo]
bread - 7/+5/+1/ [s:elbɔzda]
carry (v) - 4?6/2/ [nʷoqʷota]
courage - 8:6=+7? [dɔs:æ̃ʷp.zɛ]
energetic - 4?9?3? [nʷoɹava]
exist - 6=6=+ [s:æ̃s:æ̃ʲz]
fright - 8:+4/8/ [dɔzgak͡sʷo]
gain (v) - 8:8/6? [dɔk͡sʷolɛ]
groan (v) - [?1?8/ [ɹɛs:ak͡sʷo]
happiness - 4:{?+5/ [wolɔzbɔ]
have - 9?+4? [ɹaʲznʷo]
island - 5=[=[: [map͡ɸɛmɛ]
mean (v) - 0/0?6: [t͡ʃæ̃laza]
meat - 0=7=4: [æ̃mɛlʷo]
mountain - [/8/5/ [qak͡sʷobɔ]
nest (n) - 7/{=2/ [s:ɛvæ̃ta]
obey - {/0/[: [vʷot͡ʃæ̃mɛ]
ox - 8/7/6= [k͡sʷos:ɛs:æ̃]
pass (v) - {/2?3/ [vʷohʲɛpʲæ̃]
person - 2/{?6? [tawolɛ]
present (v) - 3/0/+[: [pʲæ̃t͡ʃæ̃ʲzmɛ]
shoe - 2?+9?1? [hʲelɹas:a]
size - {?6?{: [wolɛgæ̃]
sting (n) - 4?8/3/ [nʷok͡sʷopʲæ̃]
swarm (n) - 5:3?1? [gɛvas:a]
thanks - 4=0:2: [s:ʷoɹɔdæ̃]
therapeutic - 0:9?5/ [ɹʷoɹabɔ]
voice - 5=+5/[? [maʲzbɔɹɛ]
waver - {:2:5? [gæ̃d͡ʒæ̃qæ̃]
word - 1?{/[/ [s:avʷoqa]
imagine - 3/2?6/ [pʲæ̃hʲɛqʷo]

Sample Sentences 5=+5/[? 2:{:5?. - The voice wavers.
2/{?5=6? 4=0:+2: 2/{?0:6? 2?7=3? 3/0/+[:. - I present thanks to you. (I thanks you upon present.)
2/{?6? 7/+5/+1/ 4?6/2/. - The person carries bread.
5:3?1? 7/{=2/ 2?{? 6=6=+. - The swarm is outside the nest.

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