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Boselenan

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OrthographyEdit

AlphabetEdit

The Boselenan alphabet consists of 39 letters. This includes all the basic Latin letters except q, w, x and y, as well as 6 letters with diacritics, 9 digraphs and 2 trigraphs.

Letter IPA Notes
A /æ/
B /b/
C /ts/
CH /tʃ/
D /d/
DY /ɟ/
E /ɛ/
É /e/
F /f/
G /g/
/gʷ/
H /h/
HŬ' [xʷ] [ɸ] [ʍ] hŭs three values are in free variation.
Ĥ /x/
I /i/
Ĭ /j/ ĭ represents the /j/ element of the diphthongs , , and .
J /j/ j represents the sound /j/ at the beginning of syllables.
K /k/
/kʷ/
L /l/
M /m/
N /n/
O /ɒ/
Ó /ɔ/
Ŏ /ɥ/ ŏ represents the /ɥ/ part of the diphthongs and .
P /p/
R /r/
S /s/
SH /ʃ/
SHŬ /ʃʷ/
T /t/
TY /c/
U /u/
Ŭ /u/ represents the /u/ part of the diphthongs , , , and . When coupled with a consonant, it labialises that consonant - although these labiablised consonant combinations are treated as their own letters.
V /v/
Z /z/
ZH /ʒ/
ZHŬ /ʒʷ/

A B C CH D DY E É F G GŬ H HŬ Ĥ I Ĭ J K KŬ L M N NY O Ó Ŏ P R S SH SHŬ T TY U Ŭ V Z ZH ZHŬ

All the digraphs, trigraphs and letters with diacritics are treated as letters in their own right, and are placed separately in alphabetical order. The letters ĭ, ŏ and ŭ are never seen at the beginning of words, and ĭ & ŏ are only ever seen after vowels, as they only represent the second element in diphthongs.

Often, the letters q, w, x, y which are not used in native words, are used in foreign placenames. For example, Qazaĥstan ("Kazakhstan") where "Q" represents /k/.


Ĭ ĭ Ŏ ŏ Ŭ ŭ Ĥ ĥ

Basic GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

Personal & Demonstrative PronounsEdit

The demonstrative pronouns (i.e. this and that when used as a pronoun in their own right) are treated just like personal pronouns in Boselenan.

Case I You
(Singular)
He/She/It We You
(Plural)
They This That
Nominative la dyé sheŭ lér dyér shér chie shaŏ
Accusative ladye dyédye sheŭdye lérdye dyérdye shérdye chiedye shaŏdye
Dative lata dyéta sheŭta lérta dyérta shérta chieta shaŏta
Genitive lachie dyéchie sheŭchie lérchie dyérchie shérchie chiechie shaŏchie
Illative labot dyébot sheŭbot lérbot dyérbot shérbot chiebot shaŏbot
Inessive latyek dyétyek sheŭtyek lértyek dyértyek shértyek chietyek shaŏtyek
Elative lakŭot dyékŭot sheŭkŭot lérkŭot dyérkŭot shérkŭot chiekŭok shaŏkŭok
Allative lashpie dyéshpie sheŭshioe lérshpie dyérshpie shérshpie chieshpie shaŏshpie
Instrumental laveŏ dyéveŏ sheŭveŏ lérveŏ dyérveŏ shérveŏ chieveŏ shaŏveŏ
Comitative lakie dyékie sheŭkie lérkie dyérkie shérkie chiekie shaŏkie

Examples

  • leneĭ la chiedye - "I like this"
  • shaŏ aŭ shtienie - "That is fine"

Interrogative & Relative PronounsEdit

The interrogative pronouns of Boselenan are those which begin a question.

Pronoun Meaning Example
ha what? ha hŭelody? "what is your name?"
heŭ who? heŭ dyédye? "who are you?"
hognya where? hognya omintocie? "where is everyone?"
hutyik why? hutyik segŭek dyé ie? "why did you leave?"
hórs how? hórs gund dyé ie? "how are you?
héd how? héd konek dyé chiedye? "how did you do this?"

Relative pronouns are formed by adding the word hugt before the interrogative.

Pronoun Meaning Example
hugt ha what gund chie hugt ha hŭelody "this is what your name is"
hugt heŭ who gund chie hugt heŭ e-gund la ie "this is who I am"
hugt hognya where kurvan la hugt hognya logadun sheŭ "I know where he is"
hugt hutyik why nédy kurvan la hugt hutyik sheŭ aŭ kŭórviek "I don't know why he's happy"
hugt hórs how kurvan la ie hugt hórs emietyek dyé ie "I know how you're feeling"
hugt héd how gund chie hugt héd konek la chiedye "This is how I did this"

NounsEdit

Boselenan is an agglutinating language, in which nouns are declined for number and case.

ArticlesEdit

There are two sets of articles used with Boselenan nouns. Which one is used depends on the definiteness of the noun, as well as the number.

- Definite Indefinite
Singular ak on
Plural akér onér

Examples:

  • ak okŭont - "the man"
  • akér okŭontér - "the men"
  • on okŭont - "a man"
  • onér okŭontér - "some/any men"

NumberEdit

There are three grammatical numbers: the singular, plural and absent. In order to show the plural, the suffix -ér is added to the end of the noun. In order to show the "absent", the suffix -megt is added.

So take the following noun taŏk "book" becomes taŏkér "books" or taŏkmegt "no books". For example Oshŭet la taŏkmegt "I have no books/I don't have any books".

CaseEdit

Boselenan employs the use of 11 noun cases. In most nouns, the nominative and accusative case are not differentiated. The nominative-accusative distinction is maintained only in personal and reflective pronouns.

Case Suffix Example Meaning
Nominative
Accusative
- ak nyient the house
Dative -ta ak nyientta to the nouse
Genitive -chie ak nyientchie of the house
Ablative -uk ak nyientuk from the house
Illative -bot ak nyientbot into the house
Inessive -tyek ak nyienttyek in the house
Elative -kŭot ak nyientkŭot out of the house
Allative -shpie ak nyientshpie onto the house
Instrumental -veŏ ak nyientveŏ using the house
Comitative -kie ak nyientkie with the house

VerbsEdit

Word OrderEdit

Boselenan employs the Verb-Subject-Object word order. For example, "I know what you want" is written "Kurvan la hugt ha dezeĭ dyé ie" (literally meaning "know-I-what-want-you-(/)".

TransitivityEdit

Most verbs in Boselenan can take on a transitive and an intransive form, without any morphological change. Transitive verbs take on the usual VSO form, for example Tyeshŭet la ak talló menyshiet "I read the book all the time". However, intransitive verbs (ones which only take a subject, with no object) require the insertion of the auxiliary object ie. For example, Tyeshŭet la ie menyshiet "I read all the time" requires the insertion of ie to indicate the nonexistent object.

Tense & AspectEdit

- Past Present Future
Simple sundiesh
went
sund
(to) go
sundaĭch
will go
Progressive sundieshaŏk
was going
sundaŏk
am going
sundaĭchaŏk
will be going
Perfect tiegsundieshaŏk
had gone
tiegsundaŏk
have gone
tiegsundaĭchaŏk
will have gone
Perfect Progressive datiegsundieshaŏk
had been going
datiegsundaŏk
have been going
datiegsundaĭchaŏk
will have been going
  • Datiegvezadaĭchaŏk la sheŭ umnaség - "I will have been done talking to him by tomorrow"

Adjectives & AdverbsEdit

Adjectives and adverbs are positioned after the nouns and verbs they describe. For example akér cechér teĥen "the white cats" is literally "the (plural) cats white".

Adverbs take the same form as their corresponding adjectives, with the addition of the adverbial suffix -(k)aĭ. For example slitiesh tyaĥadaĭ ak cechie tyaĥad ie. "the unpleasant cat smiled unpleasantly" (literally "smiled unpleasantly the cat unpleasant").

There are five degrees of intensity of adjectives, corresponding roughly to the english use of more & less etc.

tyaĥadnyie
least unpleasant
tyaĥadpvie
less unpleaseant
tyaĥad
unpleasant
tyaĥadef
more unpleasant
tyaĥadefedy
most unpleasant

The suffixes used to indicate intensity are the same for every adjective.

ComparisonsEdit

To make a comparison - such as in the sentence "She is not as nice as the man", you follow the following:

  • Take the regular "she is nice" clause hŭetyiek aŭ sheŭ ("she is nice")
  • Change the adjective to the correct degree of comparison (in this case "less nice") hŭetyiekpvie aŭ sheŭ ("she is less/not as nice").
  • Add the preposition ment, followed by the object being compared to (in this case "the man") - hŭetyiekpvie aŭ sheŭ ment ak agró, resulting in "she is not as nice as him".

InterrogativesEdit

NumbersEdit

English Cardinal Ordinal
Zero oshot oshotoĭ
One grot grotoĭ
Two kiel kieloĭ
Three ruĭte ruĭteĭ
Four fenn fennoĭ
Five garat garatoĭ
Six deped depedoĭ
Seven heleben helebenoĭ
Eight kiegen kiegenoĭ
Nine guny gunyoĭ
Ten stiech stiechoĭ
Eleven malam malamoĭ
Twelve saŏreiĥ saŏreiĥoĭ
Thirteen tyegeŭstog tyegeŭstogoĭ
Fourteen tyó tyoĭ
Fifteen nyull nyulloĭ
Sixteen kŭess kŭessoĭ
Seventeen kŭont kŭontoĭ
Eighteen édy édyoĭ
Nineteen chukotórk chukotórkoĭ
Twenty ból bóloĭ
Twenty-One bólgrot bólgrotoĭ
Twenty-Two bólkiel bólkieloĭ
Thirty bólstiech bólstiechoĭ
Forty kielbólér kielbóleroĭ
Fifty kielbólérstiech kielbólérstiechoĭ
Sixty ruĭtebólér ruĭtebóléroĭ
Seventy ruĭtebólérstiech ruĭtebólérstiechoĭ
Eighty fennbólér fennbóléroĭ
  • Oshŭet sheŭ cechér ruĭtebólérédy - "She has eighteen cats" ("has she cats eighteen")

DictionaryEdit

Boselenan Dictionary

Example TextEdit

The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.

Amaroviesh ak Fenta Fólt kŭek ak Hŭar hugt ha sheŭchie aŭ gŭazhekef, hugt echieniesh on randaŏ ie hugt e-kŭurtiesh leĭ on dyottyek zhegnya. Epeshemiesh shér ie hugt ak gon hugt heŭ pariesh grotoĭ ol lan-mértem randaŏ dyot sheŭ prog-e-depretiesh gŭazhekef ment ak shedye. Unshŭa fogamiesh ak Fenta Fólt serie, ké mul-fogamiesh sheŭ ie, kŭurtiesh kiegnief ak randaŏ dyot sheŭchie; Lafariesh shŭottkaĭ ak Fenta Fólt lema sheŭchie. Unshŭa éretiesh zhegnyakaĭ ak Hŭar ie, mértemiesh tatyarkaĭ ak randaŏ dyot sheŭchie. Oĥan e-dyuzha-talot ak Fenta Fólt hugt gŭazhekef aŭ ak Hŭar ment sheŭdyé.

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