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Boyani

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Boyani (in Boyani: je bojaniska [je jaˈʂɛka boˈjani]) is a language spoken throughout Dokuan (my conplanet) by ethnic Boyans. It is related to the Lemaro-Kuyistic family of languages, with which it shares many root words and — at times — even similar expressions and other various elements. The Boyan language had evolved through this group of people travelling through the various countries, picking up new vocabulary and so forth. There are numerous dialects, but this page will explain the aspects of the largest dialect called Kenry Boyani (je bojaniska khenreltri). Other dialects will also be mentioned, but only to give an idea of the varying words and pronunciations.

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions Yes No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


AlphabetEdit

A B C D E F G H X I J K L M N O P R Ř S Š T U V Z Ž ’

Other characters, which are expressed in the dictionary, but not used in formal writing are: Ã, Ê, Î, and Ô.

These are differing sounds from the main vowels, but are simply taunt and remembered by native speakers. For learning and understanding purposes by foreign language speakers, these are included alongside the prefered writing and in the dictionary provided.

And the character ’ attaches to certain consonants to create Ć, Ď, Ň, Ľ, Ś, Ť, Ŕ and Ź as opposed to writing CJ, DJ, LJ, SJ, TJ, RJ and ZJ respectfully.


Vowels
Letter A Ã E Ê I Î O Ô U
IPA a ɑ e ɛ i ɨ o ɔ u
Consonants
Letter B C Č F G H X J K L M N P R Ř S Š T V Z Ž
IPA b ts f g h x j k l m n p r ʀ s ʂ t v z ʐ ʲ

PronunciationEdit

Some rules to the language for dipthongs and consonant clusters.

  • Dipthongs consist of JA, JE, JI, JO, and JU. Understand the letters affected by ’ to have a J after it: ďa [dʲa], ťo [tʲo], ľe [lʲe] and so forth.
  • NG is always pronounced as one sound [ŋ]
  • H, following consonants, creates a puff of air. For instance TH is aspirated and sounds like English "tar" with the TH becoming [tʰ].
  • ČH, ŠH and ŽH sound closer to ČJ, ŠJ and ŽJ. In some dialects this spelling has even been adopted.
  • E after Č, Š, and Ž sounds like [ɛ].

StressEdit

  • In nouns the stress falls on the first syllable, but the second if there are more than two syllables in the noun. For example: jašéka, míja, phijéšo, and geklésta. But when cases are involved stress falls onto them, like in jašekíl.
  • In verbs the stress falls on the last syllable before the infinitive ending (before "če"). Once the verb is conjugated the stress falls on the last syllable.

NounsEdit

All nouns, except those ending in the -men stem are considered to be thematic. There are two genders: masculine and feminine, each of which has eight cases and plural forms.

In the table below every noun is precede by an article. This article is both definite and indefinite. Traditionally, this article is used before every noun; however, it does not need to be. It does, however, always appear before proper nouns, as in the names of people and places. It does not appear between adjectives and possesives, because the ending vowel already expresses the article.

  • Je Alisa ne jero jekimo → My name is Alisa
  • Dejo Londonelge gavar → I'm going to London
  • Prenačuj tul deji Rebekate → Give this to Rebecca
  • Ta teri kvilta, li jeri? → Is this your cat, or mine?
Thematic Nouns
Masc. Sng
(o, e, -)
Fem. Sng.
(a, i, u)
Masc. Pl. Fem. Pl.
Nominative jo phoro (man) je šeka (sister) le phore le šeki
Vocative le phora le šeko le phoraja le šekijo
Accusative le phorul le šekil le phorun le šekin
Dative le phorelte le šekate le phorelde le šekalde
Locative le phorelge le šekage le phorelke le šekalke
Ablative le phoreva le šekava le phorevda le šekavda
Instrumental le phorele le šekale le phorelen le šekalen
Gentitive le phoreltro le šekaltro le phoreldro le šekaldro


Athematic Nouns (Gerunds)
Athematic nouns ending in -men Singular Plural
Nominative kažamen (speech) kažama
Vocative
Accusative kažamel kažamej
Dative kažamelte kažamelde
Locative kažamelge kažamelke
Ablative kažameva kažamevda
Instrumental kažamele kažamelen
Gentitive kažameltro kažameldro


Athematice nouns are nouns adapted from verbs and adjectives.

  • Vona jamli ne → She is happy
  • Vne vere azelke doš jamlamen → There is happiness in her eyes
  • Ješarmo vonul če kaža → We listen to him speak
  • Ca le kažamel → He is giving a speech

Showing PossesionEdit

In English we have "I have" to show ownership. In Boyani it's the same, but there is also another way of expressing this.

  • Esta vurďa → She has a (female) dog
  • Vurďa vonale → A (female) dog is with her / She has a (female) dog

There is also the genitive case:

  • Ta kišeka Kristinaltri → This horse is Christina's
  • Le kvilti Davideltre jole → David's cats are with me / I have David's cats

The genetive case is also another way to make an adjective:

  • Jo phoro moneltro → The milk-man
  • Le aze svešaltreStarry eyes

VerbsEdit

Present Indicative
Present indicative of kažače (to speak) Singular Plural
Firs person (jo) kažar (nevo) kažarmo
Second person familiar (tu) kažas (tus) kažasa
Second person formal (Tu) kaža (Tus) kažan
Third person (vono/vona) kažal (vone) kažan


Simple Past Tense
Preterite of kažače Singular Plural
Firs person (jo) kažla (nevo) kažle
Second person familiar (tu) kažlas (tus) kažle
Second person formal (Tu) kažle (Tus) kažle
Third person (vono/vona) kažle (vone) kažle


Imperfect Past Tense
Imperfect of kažače Singular Plural
Firs person (jo) kažaras (nevo) kažramosa
Second person familiar (tu) kažasas (tus) kažasasa
Second person formal (Tu) kažajas (Tus) kažanasa
Third person (vono/vona) kažalas (vone) kažanasa

In addition to the past tenses, we can also say po before the conjugated verb, which further stress the action done.

  • Gavar dejo phejamegle → I'm going to the party
  • Gavla le phejamelge → I went to the party
  • Gavaras le phejamelge → I have been to the party
  • Po gavla/gavaras le phejamegle → I have been at the party

For future tense there is no change to the verb itself, we simply add bu before the verb.

  • Bu gavar dejo phejamelge → I will go to the party
  • Bu gavaras le phejamelge, po ni jodža jole → I would have been at the party, but I have no money

Example TextsEdit

Ďava 1 le Arotaltro Aleke le Bravameldro JukedželdreEdit

So jukedže rutirlave duxe je thoje kujitele je bravamele. Velte prenve dujimamel je ajitramel je budan ijaśeče ije-ijelte ojokjale penkašetameltre.
English
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Jo Isel BabeletroEdit

  1. Ša gavlave so khuśele ana jašeka je le svare hake.
  2. Je ato jukedže mikle le mušikeva, le etragul vni jamarelge Šinareltre je koř čikle.
  3. Je kažle ije-ijelte, «Juv če carmo akecun je atesarmo vonun džonka». Je gavlave vonele akece le skanalte, je jamaska le porvalte.
  4. Do kažle, «Juv če cevavermo le baštil je ilesul — jo gejo Pasele. Če jekimavermo, si ojoćarmo ther le stijalge so le khuśeltre».
  5. Je jo Řan gavle niv če lošivače le baštil je ilasul koxe le čhenege phoreldte cevanasa.
  6. Je jo Řan kažle, «Doš ato nen ana jukedže, ana jašeka sojelen, je ta kapačo le čeltro bu can. Je niček če tajormo ša bu nijeduk vonelde.
  7. Juv če niv koř je srujejarmo vonre jašekil če bu ni rušan ije-ijeltre kažamel».
  8. Do jo Řan gavlevdo je vone gavle ther so le stijelge le khuśeltre, je dřerkan cevače le baštil.
  9. Do jekimlave Babel ato jo Řan srujele le jašekil so le khuśeltre. Je kořeva jo Řan gavlevdo je vone gavle ther so le stijelge le khuśeltre.

English

  1. Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.
  2. And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.
  3. And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.
  4. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth."
  5. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built.
  6. And the Lord said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them.
  7. Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech."
  8. So the Lord dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.
  9. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth. And from there the Lord dispersed them over the face of all the earth.
(The Tower of Babel)

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