Labial Labio-dental Central Alveolar Lateral Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Plosive p b β β̃ t d k g gʷ
Fricative x ɣ h hʷ
Approximant l j w
Trill r


Front Central Back
Close i y ɨ ʉ u
Close-mid e ø
Mid o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a


Most phonemes are written the same as their IPA symbol. If a phoneme is labialized, it is simply written as a digraph, with a "w" following the consonant. 

Phoneme Grapheme
/β/ v
/θ/ th
/ð/ dh
/ŋ/ ng
/ɣ/ gh
/ɨ/ y
/ø/ ö
/e̞/ ä
/y/ ü
/ʉ/ û
/ɔ/ å
/ä/ a
/ɛ/ e

Consonant mutationEdit

Radical Lenited Spirantized Nasalized
β (< bˑ) No change m
ð (< dˑ) n
ɣ (< gˑ) ŋ
b (< pˑ) f No change
d (< tˑ) θ
g (< kˑ) x
β̃ (< mˑ) No change
h (< sˑ)
st s(s)
gw w
gwo wa


  • ûn - 1
  • dåw - 2
  • tri - 3
  • pedwar - 4
  • pymp - 5
  • hwex - 6
  • seith - 7
  • üith - 8
  • naw - 9
  • deg - 10


  • mi - me
  • ti - you
  • hwi - you (pl)
  • hi - she
  • eṽ - he
  • ni - us



en = to drive, to go

SINGULAR First Second Third Impersonal
Absolute Conjuct Absolute Conjuct
Present äghyṽ äghydh ähgid agh aghidor aghir
Preterite aghiss aghissydh aghissyd aghiss aghidyd aghid
PLURAL First Second Third Impersonal
Present aghimm aghid aghint aghintor
Preterite aghissomm aghissed aghissont aghidänt


en = to laud, praise

SINGULAR First Second Third Impersonal
Absolute Conjuct Absolute Conjuct
Present mölåṽ mölådh mölåd mol molådor molår
Preterite möläss mölässydh mölässyd molass mölädyd molad
PLURAL First Second Third Impersonal
Present molåmm molåd molånt molåntor
Preterite molassomm molassed molassont mölödänt



The plural is usually formed based on the Proto-Celtic nominative plural.

o-stem Proto-Celtic Brythonic
Poet, bard singular *bardos bardh
plural *bardoi bärdh
Servant, worker singular *ambaxtos ammayth
plural *ambaxtoi ämmäyth
Raven singular *branos bran
plural *branoi brän
ā-stem Proto-Celtic Brythonic
Town, settlement singular *trebā trev
plural *trebās trev
Hand singular *ɸlāmā låṽ
plural *ɸlāmās låṽ

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