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Bujem
Bujemlaus
Type Analytic/Agglutinative
Alignment Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words 0 of 1500
Creator Bryanstein
This project is under construction.
By all means, please contribute to the language's lexicon.

General InformationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p, b t, d k, g ʔ
Fricative f, v (θ, ð) s, z ç, ʝ (x, ɣ) h
Trill (r)
Flap or tap (ɾ)
Approx. w ɹ, l j

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High ʉ
High-Mid ɪ ʊ
Mid ə
Mid-Low ɛ ɔ
Low a

Allophony Edit

Phonemes in parenthesis are non-standard, but tend to occur as allophones. Allphones occur as such:

Standard Alternative
ɪ j
ʊ w
ç x
ʝ ɣ
ɹ r, ɾ

PhonotacticsEdit

  • Basic syllable structure is (C)(C)V(C).
  • Onset clusters follow this hierarchy: plosives -> fricatives -> nasals -> approximates; consonants can be followed by lower-order consonants but not higher-order consonants.
  • Plosives are only allowed in the onset.
  • In a plosive-nasal cluster, the nasal must match the plosive's place of articulation.

Stress Edit

???

Writing SystemEdit

Bujem uses two writing systems: a Latin-based alphabet and a traditional alphabet.

Latin Alphabet (Standard Phonology) Edit

Letter Ii Ee Aa Oo Uu Yy
Sound ɪ/j ɛ a ɔ ʊ/w ʉ
Letter Hh Bb Pp Dd Tt Gg Kk Mm Nn
Sound h b p d t g k m n
Letter Ŋŋ Ff Vv Ss Zz Cc Jj Ll Rr
Sound ŋ f v s z ç ʝ l ɾ

Standard Bujem Alphabet Edit

BujemScriptModernist

Capitalization Edit

???

Grammar and SyntaxEdit

Bujem is an analytic language with semantic agglutination...

Parts of Speech Edit

Bujem parts of speech are very different from typical linguistic elements. They can be divided into two umbrella categories: grammatical and semantic. Grammatical particles are highly-defined and define relationships between semantic words. Semantic words, by contrast, consist of abstract roots with categorical suffixes to provide more concrete meaning. Semantic class endings are as follows:

Class Ending
Abstractions Ø
Enumerators and Specifiers
Statives
Times
Locations
Civilization
Substances
Etc.

Nouns Edit

Nouns are preceded by a preposition for case which can be suffixed for defininteness.

Bujem has eight core cases:

Case Description Word
Nominative Subject ja
Accusative Direct Object ŋu
Dative Indirect Object ŋa
Vocative Addressee je
Possessive Alienable Possession za
Genitive Inalienable Possession va
Instrumental Indicates a Means mi
Comparative Simile fe

Case postpositions are made definite using the suffix -s, so ha becomes has, nu becomes nus, etc.

VerbsEdit

Verbs are arranged in separate clusters where each verb is set between a mandatory preposition for tense and an optional postposition for aspect.

Verbs take one of seven tenses: Three regular tenses, one potential tense and three hypothetical tenses.

Tense Word
Present be
Past ba
Future bi
Potential Future gi
Infinitive go

Verbs can also take one of four special aspects, with imperfect being the default, unmarked aspect.

Aspect Word
Perfective en
Progressive un
Perfect-Progressive enun

SyntaxEdit

Syntax is used to indicate the mood of the sentence, including transitivity.

Declarative Sentence
Subject Block Verb Block D-Object Block Conjunctive Phrase I-Object Block

Interrogative Sentence
Verb Block Subject Block D-Object Block Conjunctive Phrase I-Object Block

Imperative Sentence
Verb Block D-Object Block Conjunctive Phrase I-Object Block

NOTE: Imperative sentences are often started with the addressee in the vocative case.

Intransitive Sentence
Subject Block Verb Block

LexiconEdit


No. English Bujem
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

Example textEdit

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