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Byage

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Byage
/bjaɣe/
Type isolating(nouns) fusional(adjectives) fusional(verbs)
Alignment nom-acc
Word Order OSV
Head direction final
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations Yes
Topic-Prominence Yes
Classes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classification and DialectsEdit

Byage is a proto language for the /r/conlangs skypegroup conworld terne.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive [b] t [d] k [g]
Sibilant s ɕ
Sonorant β j ɣ
Trill r
Lateral approximant l

VowelsEdit

front back
short long short long
high i
mid e o
low ɑ ɑː

diphthongsEdit

ending on i ending on o
starting with e ei eo
starting with ɑ ɑi ɑo

PhonotacticsEdit

AllophonesEdit

[b] [d] and [g] are allophones of /β/, /j/ and /ɣ/ respectively before a medial consonant.
   (βja > bja)
/j/ and /ɣ/ are deleted before /t/ and /k/ to form geminated forms of those stops.
   (najta > natta)
   (najka > nakka)
!this sometimes is ignored in compounds, an aphostrophe is written in between the two parts.

SyllablesEdit

A syllable can be (C(M))V(F) where :

C is any consonant
M is any medial ( /β/, /l/, /j/ or /ɣ/ )
V is any vowel or diphthong
F is any final (  /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /β/, /l/, /j/ or /ɣ/ )

TimingEdit

Timing is done in mora timing, meaning each mora is pronounced about equally as long as any other mora. An single vowel is worth 1 mora, a long vowel is worth 2 moras. A consonant vowel combination is worth one mora. A medial adds one mora, so does a final. here's a scheme with syllable structures and moras :

syllable structure length (mora) individual 'moras'
a V 1 a
oo VV 2 o-o
ei VV 2 e-i
an VF 2 a-n
se CV 1 se
kja CMV 2 kj~ja*
mjeq CMVF 3 mj~je-ŋ*
tjaob CMVVF 4 tj~ja-o-β*
nakkan CVXCVF 4 na-k-ka-n

* medials tend to evenly spread on the consonant and vowel moras.

Pitch Accent StressEdit

There is a pitch accent stress that is lexically. Every word (with its meaning) has a slightly random pitch accent stress, these are used to separate allophones. The pitches follow some ragular (common) patterns but there are exceptions to this.

common patternsEdit

for words with 3 or more moras.

location (mora) strength high pitch low pitch
- weak generally neutral and slightly rising at the end.
secondary strong rising on the second mora and remaining high. falling on the second mora and remaining low.
penultimate strong generally low, rising at the second last mora. (final mora for 3 mora word) generally high, falling at the second last mora. (final mora for 3 mora word)

for words with 1 or 2 moras.

strength high pitch low pitch
weak generally neutral, slightly rising at the end. (neutral for single mora words)
strong rising in the beginning or only mora. falling in the beginning or only mora.

example word qatingame used for all 5 common patterns for a word longer than 3 moras.

location (mora) strength high pitch low pitch
- weak ŋɑ˧.ti˧.n˧.ɣɑ˧.me˧˦
secondary strong ŋɑ˨.ti˨˦.n˦.ɣɑ˦.me˦ ŋɑ˦.ti˦˨.n˨.ɣɑ˨.me˨
penultimate strong ŋɑ˨.ti˨.n˨.ɣɑ˨˦.me˦ ŋɑ˦.ti˦.n˦.ɣɑ˦˨.me˨

Writing SystemEdit

RomanisationEdit

Letter i m b l a n t s
Sound i m β~b l a n t s
Letter y e q k g o r c
Sound j~d e ŋ k ɣ~g o r ɕ

To write long vowel variants write the vowel twice in a row. If there occur two same vowels in a row they will be separated using an aphostrophe.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns themselves are isolating, though compounds can be formed by combining words. most of the grammar is applied by particles that are located after the words.

syntax particlesEdit

plain inclusive exclusive
topic i ime iyan
object e ene egan
subject on yom oqan

The inclusives imply that the word before is part of a bigger common, and the exclusive shows it's anything but.

topic : the topic of the sentence, often also is the subject.

object : the direct object of the sentence, the one who receives the verb.

subject : the subject of the sentence, the one who executes the verb.

Locational particlesEdit

stative le
origin len'e
goal gye

The stative location is also used to describe things and to show instrumentals, things used.

Origin is a place where something comes from, but also the sender of a letter.

Goal is the goal of something, both in location or state. It is also used for receivers.

Other particlesEdit

genitive bi
commitative yiq

The genitive is to show ownership, alike to the English " of ... " or " ...'s ".

The commitative is used to show with whom together you perform something, they are neither actually have to perform the verb nor have to be used to perform the verb.

Particle suffixesEdit

To give information otherwise not able to be found out using context can be given used some suffixes to the particles, these are omitted as often as possible.

plural -yem
singular + indefinite -in
plural + indefinite -ylin

adjectivesEdit

Adjectives have aglutenating suffixes. Of each level of suffixes only one can occur at a time.

first level suffixesEdit

The first level suffixes mostly have effect on the meaning of the adjective.

simple / positive -
inclusive -mi
exclusive / negative -ye

second level suffixesEdit

positive -
comparative -gil
superlative -yen

UsageEdit

To form a nounpart in a sentence that compares a noun in an adjective propity the thing that is compared to has a stative location particle after it.

(X) le (Z)-gil (Y).
>> Y is more Z than X
(x) le (z)-yen (Y).
>> Y is the most Z of X

VerbsEdit

Verbs have an agglutenative tail. A number of suffixes is able to follow the verb in a perticular order so they effect the action of the verb, each level of suffix in its own way.

first level suffixes / tenseEdit

The tense effects the time of when a verb is executed.

standard -
archaic -aq
future -il

The archaic tense is rarely used, but indicates something happened long ago, often used for documents about wars over five decades ago or to write fantasy stories and fairytales. The future tense is not needed, but does imply something is somewhat far in the future, for the near future the standard tense is most often used.

second level suffixes / relationEdit

The second affix shows your relation with the speaker, this can be omitted, but in some occasions would be very rude.

neutral -o
formal -ene
familiar -oq
intimate -an

The neutral affix is used mostly for people you know and you have a mostly business relations (equals and colleagues, schoolmates etc.). The familiar relation is mostly used for people you know well and you are slightly friendly with. Pritty much the same as the neutral relation, but for people you know better (colleagues of the same department, classmates etc.). The formal relation is used to speak to strangers and to people you have a purely business relation with (strangers, bosses, people from other companies, clients etc.). The intimate suffix is used mostly for people you really like, good friends and family mostly.

third level suffixes / aspectEdit

The third level suffixes are used to show the relation with time the verb has.

plain -
perfect -loq
initiative -nim
attemptive -nen

The perfect shows that the action already has been executed and finished. The initiative shows that the action has to be started or just started and the attemptive shows that the executer of the action is trying (but not succeeding) the action.

fourth level suffixes / moodEdit

The mood shows what relation the action has to other sentences, or what is done with the action.

plain -
cause -len
lead -ban
wish -tyegen
command -ten
possibility -in

The cause is what causes something and leads into the lead. The wish form means that the person saying this "i wish that ....". The command means that you tell someone to do the action. And possibility means that the action can be performed, but does not have to be.

fith level suffixes / politenessEdit

Politeness is something alike to the relation, but is rarely used.

plain -
polite -ig
impolite -em
affectionate -ao

The polite form is mostly used when speaking to (far) superiors and elder people. The impolite form shows rudeness in what you are saying, so does the affectionate show affection when used.

sixth level suffixes / morphologyEdit

The morphology suffixes can turn the verb into a different word in use.

verb -
noun form -yen
adjective form -nim

Both forms are comparable to the English verb+ing, but the adjective form is solely used as an adjective and the noun form is solely used as an noun. (note that a noun can be formed from the adjective form making it a different kind of noun, close to "the one who is verb+ing".)

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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