|Type||isolating(nouns) fusional(adjectives) fusional(verbs)|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and DialectsEdit
Byage is a proto language for the /r/conlangs skypegroup conworld terne.
|Plosive||[b]||t [d]||k [g]|
|ending on i||ending on o|
|starting with e||ei||eo|
|starting with ɑ||ɑi||ɑo|
[b] [d] and [g] are allophones of /β/, /j/ and /ɣ/ respectively before a medial consonant. (βja > bja) /j/ and /ɣ/ are deleted before /t/ and /k/ to form geminated forms of those stops. (najta > natta) (najka > nakka) !this sometimes is ignored in compounds, an aphostrophe is written in between the two parts.
A syllable can be (C(M))V(F) where :
C is any consonant M is any medial ( /β/, /l/, /j/ or /ɣ/ ) V is any vowel or diphthong F is any final ( /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /β/, /l/, /j/ or /ɣ/ )
Timing is done in mora timing, meaning each mora is pronounced about equally as long as any other mora. An single vowel is worth 1 mora, a long vowel is worth 2 moras. A consonant vowel combination is worth one mora. A medial adds one mora, so does a final. here's a scheme with syllable structures and moras :
|syllable||structure||length (mora)||individual 'moras'|
* medials tend to evenly spread on the consonant and vowel moras.
Pitch Accent StressEdit
There is a pitch accent stress that is lexically. Every word (with its meaning) has a slightly random pitch accent stress, these are used to separate allophones. The pitches follow some ragular (common) patterns but there are exceptions to this.
for words with 3 or more moras.
|location (mora)||strength||high pitch||low pitch|
|-||weak||generally neutral and slightly rising at the end.|
|secondary||strong||rising on the second mora and remaining high.||falling on the second mora and remaining low.|
|penultimate||strong||generally low, rising at the second last mora. (final mora for 3 mora word)||generally high, falling at the second last mora. (final mora for 3 mora word)|
for words with 1 or 2 moras.
|strength||high pitch||low pitch|
|weak||generally neutral, slightly rising at the end. (neutral for single mora words)|
|strong||rising in the beginning or only mora.||falling in the beginning or only mora.|
example word qatingame used for all 5 common patterns for a word longer than 3 moras.
|location (mora)||strength||high pitch||low pitch|
To write long vowel variants write the vowel twice in a row. If there occur two same vowels in a row they will be separated using an aphostrophe.
Nouns themselves are isolating, though compounds can be formed by combining words. most of the grammar is applied by particles that are located after the words.
The inclusives imply that the word before is part of a bigger common, and the exclusive shows it's anything but.
topic : the topic of the sentence, often also is the subject.
object : the direct object of the sentence, the one who receives the verb.
subject : the subject of the sentence, the one who executes the verb.
The stative location is also used to describe things and to show instrumentals, things used.
Origin is a place where something comes from, but also the sender of a letter.
Goal is the goal of something, both in location or state. It is also used for receivers.
The genitive is to show ownership, alike to the English " of ... " or " ...'s ".
The commitative is used to show with whom together you perform something, they are neither actually have to perform the verb nor have to be used to perform the verb.
To give information otherwise not able to be found out using context can be given used some suffixes to the particles, these are omitted as often as possible.
|singular + indefinite||-in|
|plural + indefinite||-ylin|
Adjectives have aglutenating suffixes. Of each level of suffixes only one can occur at a time.
first level suffixesEdit
The first level suffixes mostly have effect on the meaning of the adjective.
|simple / positive||-|
|exclusive / negative||-ye|
second level suffixesEdit
To form a nounpart in a sentence that compares a noun in an adjective propity the thing that is compared to has a stative location particle after it.
(X) le (Z)-gil (Y). >> Y is more Z than X (x) le (z)-yen (Y). >> Y is the most Z of X
Verbs have an agglutenative tail. A number of suffixes is able to follow the verb in a perticular order so they effect the action of the verb, each level of suffix in its own way.
first level suffixes / tenseEdit
The tense effects the time of when a verb is executed.
The archaic tense is rarely used, but indicates something happened long ago, often used for documents about wars over five decades ago or to write fantasy stories and fairytales. The future tense is not needed, but does imply something is somewhat far in the future, for the near future the standard tense is most often used.
second level suffixes / relationEdit
The second affix shows your relation with the speaker, this can be omitted, but in some occasions would be very rude.
The neutral affix is used mostly for people you know and you have a mostly business relations (equals and colleagues, schoolmates etc.). The familiar relation is mostly used for people you know well and you are slightly friendly with. Pritty much the same as the neutral relation, but for people you know better (colleagues of the same department, classmates etc.). The formal relation is used to speak to strangers and to people you have a purely business relation with (strangers, bosses, people from other companies, clients etc.). The intimate suffix is used mostly for people you really like, good friends and family mostly.
third level suffixes / aspectEdit
The third level suffixes are used to show the relation with time the verb has.
The perfect shows that the action already has been executed and finished. The initiative shows that the action has to be started or just started and the attemptive shows that the executer of the action is trying (but not succeeding) the action.
fourth level suffixes / moodEdit
The mood shows what relation the action has to other sentences, or what is done with the action.
The cause is what causes something and leads into the lead. The wish form means that the person saying this "i wish that ....". The command means that you tell someone to do the action. And possibility means that the action can be performed, but does not have to be.
fith level suffixes / politenessEdit
Politeness is something alike to the relation, but is rarely used.
The polite form is mostly used when speaking to (far) superiors and elder people. The impolite form shows rudeness in what you are saying, so does the affectionate show affection when used.
sixth level suffixes / morphologyEdit
The morphology suffixes can turn the verb into a different word in use.
Both forms are comparable to the English verb+ing, but the adjective form is solely used as an adjective and the noun form is solely used as an noun. (note that a noun can be formed from the adjective form making it a different kind of noun, close to "the one who is verb+ing".)